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Simple Software for Better Interview Skills. Learn how to land the job with Big Interview’s powerful video tutorials and virtual interview practice software. Cover Letter Examples That Will Get You Noticed. A strong resume cover letter can mean the difference between landing a job interview and items, getting passed over. Read and thesis builder essay, live by this comprehensive cover letter guide from our resume expert and professional resume writer Kimberly Sarmiento and check out her cover letter examples for inspiration. You Really Do Need a Strong Cover Letter. You never get a second chance to make a good first impression in the job search. Sythesis Items! And in most cases, your first impression on a hiring manager begins with your resume and cover letter. On Favorite Tv Shows! If you don’t get the cover letter right, you may never get the items opportunity to wow them with your new suit, confident eye contact, and compelling interview stories.
Even if you network your way into that job interview (and even if you got a great referral from one of your advocates), the hiring manager will look at your resume and/or cover letter and use them to form or influence an opinion prior to meeting you . That is why in my 2009 book, “The Complete Guide to writing jobs from home Writing Effective Resume Cover Letters: Step by Step Instructions,” I refer to your cover letter as your handshake and your sales pitch all rolled into one. I can hear the scoffing now and the protesting that there is no way a cover letter can be that important. “Resumes are selected by key word scans or passed off from one contact to another. Sythesis Items! No one really reads cover letters anymore, right?” Wrong. The simple truth is that at some point in time your resume – and convergence of the, your cover letter – will be reviewed by a real live person (if you’re lucky). That person will be deciding whether or not you are worth their time to interview and items, your cover letter can help confirm that your resume goes into the “yes” pile rather than the “file for general essay prompts future opening” pile (or the real or digital garbage can). Sure, there are times when a recruiter or hiring manager will skip right over the cover letter and focus on the resume. But other screeners won’t even look at your resume if the cover letter doesn’t get their attention.
Why take a chance? Write a strong cover letter and you’ll know that you’re doing everything possible to get past the gatekeepers and sythesis items, score an interview. If you are wondering how to write a compelling cover letter, read on for Kimberly’s advice and examples. Three Situations When a Great Cover Letter is Even More Critical. 1) When you need to include information that should NOT go into the resume. A resume is a formal business document with strict rules that must be followed. These rules include not writing in first person or including personal information like your desire to relocate. However, there are times when you need to communicate this type of information in order to make the case for your fit for the position: Example: Your cover letter can be used to communicate your intention to make a transition in your career or move to another city/state. Recruiters receive thousands of unqualified resumes for every position.
They will look at statement builder for persuasive essay, your resume and cover letter and sythesis, immediately trash them if they don’t see a fit — assuming that you are another one of writing jobs from home, those annoying applicants who applies for items every job posted. This is essay on favorite, always a challenge for sythesis items career changers and individuals looking to writing jobs from home relocate and a good cover letter can make a big difference. Example: Your cover letter can also explain away other aspects of items, your particular career situation that might not be appropriate to include on your resume. General! For example, if you took some time away from the work force, but have kept your skills and knowledge up-to-date. Additionally, in some job ads, the items company will ask for specific information to be included in your cover letter. This technique is used to writing jobs make screening easier — if someone can’t follow simple application directions, why waste time on an interview?
Pay careful attention to the information they request and be sure to address it. One problematic area is if they ask for salary requirements to be included in items, your cover letter. Companies make this request to help them rule out individuals with higher salary requirements than they have budgeted for the position, but it can also lock you into life photo essayist, a lower pay range than they might offer you otherwise. However, ignoring the request could disqualify you as well. Ergo, I suggest you research the average salary for the position you are applying to items in the of the state of the opening and items, include a range slightly above and below that number.
There are several sites that have compiled census and other data information to give you a decent estimate of salaries by position in specific cities and states (Payscale is a great place to start). From! So if the average salary of your job is $60K for the location where you live (or want to live), list your salary requirements as $55K to $65K. Items! Again, no salary information should be included in a resume. Essayist! I typically don’t even include information about bonuses or commissions for items sales representatives (just awards like President’s Club or Top 5%) . 2) When you want to reference a network connection. There is no right way to include in your resume, “Our mutual associate John Smith referred me to convergence twain this role and says he thinks I will make a great fit for the job opening.” That is a reference line reserved solely for the opening paragraph of a cover letter.
There are multiple ways you can mention a network connection or mutual friend in a cover letter, but such a statement has no place in a resume whatsoever. Note: In professional resume writing, it has become passe to include a list of sythesis items, references on your resume or even the line “references available upon request.” Such information takes up valuable real estate on your resume (which should be 1-2 pages max) and it is best to focus on your achievements and qualifications instead. Besides, the hiring managers know you will give them references when they request them. Rather than waste space on thesis your resume, prepare a reference sheet with the items same header as your resume and give it to the interviewer at thesis statement builder essay, the end of your meeting. This sheet should include the first and last name of your references, their titles and company names, city and state, phone numbers, and e-mail addresses if possible. You can even be proactive and have letters of recommendation ready to hand the hiring manager at sythesis items, the end of your meeting, but don’t send them prior to that initial interview. 3) When you want to emphasize why you’re interested in the company. One way to distinguish yourself as a job candidate is to research the company you are interviewing with and talk about things you like or ask questions about the work they have coming up. This demonstrates your interest in their particular organization as opposed to them being just another job ad you responded to volunteer paper in your desperate attempt to find employment. You can use your cover letter to show that you’ve done your homework and items, see a strong fit with the of the essay organization. Within the second or closing paragraphs of your cover letter, you can mention being interested in the specific work the company does, recent grants they have been awarded, a product they recently released, etc.
Again, this is not appropriate for inclusion on your resume, but adding it to your cover letter can help you stand out from the stack of applications the items hiring manager is sorting through on the day your resume passes by him/her. How to Write a Great Cover Letter. Hopefully I have convinced you of the importance of volunteer, cover letter writing or at least how the letter can prove useful to you in certain circumstances. But how do you write a cover letter that will open doors for items you? And how do you avoid mistakes that can lead to freelance writing home rejection?
Please review these five simple rules for ensuring your cover letter leaves the hiring manager excited about meeting you. 1. First and foremost, the letter must be grammatically correct and error free! If you are not a particularly good writer, have someone read and sythesis, edit the volunteer tourism research document for you. 2. Sythesis Items! If printed, the letter should be one page max. The letter should also be printed on general scholarship essay prompts high-quality paper just like your resume. Items! In some instances, you might elect to cut and of the, paste a cover letter into an e-mail and attach your resume. If so, you want the cover letter to be easily read with minimal scrolling. So get to the point and be succinct. 3. The letter should include examples of your qualifications. You can write a cover letter in paragraph or bulleted formats, but either way, you should include examples of your achievements and items, credentials. Volunteer Tourism Paper! While you want to sythesis be brief, you also want to encourage the reader to review your resume for tourism paper greater detail.
The best way to do that is to call out two or three things that you have done professionally to catch their attention and make them want to know more about you. Make sure you customize the sythesis letter to highlight the achievements most relevant for each position. 4. Your letter should address a specific person. Whenever possible, do some research and find out the person’s name who will be reading your cover letter. This is writing jobs home, a minor detail and some hiring managers won’t care, but it can distinguish you from your competition all the same.
More importantly, don’t send an obviously-generic letter that has not been customized for the company/position. 5. Your letter should end with a call to action. When you close your letter, be sure to sythesis items ask for volunteer paper a meeting. It is obvious that you want an interview when you submit a cover letter and resume, but job hunting is usually helped along with a proactive approach. Therefore, at sythesis items, every point in the application process you should seek to move yourself along to prompts the next stage of consideration. The cover letter is the first instance of this, so don’t miss an opportunity to items encourage a meeting with the hiring manager at life photo, the close of your letter. Also be sure to thank them for their time and consideration. Check out Kimberly’s cover letter examples to see and sythesis items, learn from the methods that have worked for her resume writing clients. Cover Letter Example 1: Returning to essay on favorite Work after a Job Gap/Relocation. Dear Principal Townson: With five years of experience in teaching high school and sythesis items, a master’s degree in Chemistry, I believe I am an statement for persuasive essay ideal candidate to sythesis fill the science teaching position you have open with the retirement of Stacy Jones.
My teaching experience was at John Smith High School in Smallville, NJ before my husband and I moved here seven years ago. While there, I taught all levels of Chemistry and helped host the essay science fair each year. When we moved here, I was pregnant with my oldest. Now that my youngest has started kindergarten, I am eager to return to the workforce. Although I focused on my family these last seven years and have not worked for pay, I kept up with developments in teaching and chemistry by reading literature and attending conferences hosted by the American Association of sythesis, High School Science Instructors. I have also volunteered my time at builder essay, the community center, tutoring all level of students in general sciences. I look forward to raising my children in this community and someday teaching them at Rosewood High School. Please review my attached resume. I will be contacting you next week to items schedule an interview. Thank you for your consideration.
Pam’s Take: I love how this cover letter emphasizes the applicant’s relevant qualifications in the first line. This puts the essay on favorite tv shows emphasis on her ability to do the job and not the fact that she’s returning to work after several years as a stay-at-home parent. Later, she briefly explains her break and how she has kept current. Her resume will clearly show a gap, so it makes sense to proactively address it. Cover Letter Example 2: Transitioning Careers. Blending a formal background in marketing with proven success in retail sales and sythesis, customer service roles, I am looking to transition into public relations and believe I would make a great fit for the advertised position of Public Relations Specialist at your company. Having both used and sold your products, I am already well versed in your brand and statement essay, both present and sythesis items, past years’ offerings.
I have followed with excitement as you launched in twain, European and Asian markets and sythesis items, incorporated an international feel into your product line. I would bring both passion and thesis for persuasive, expertise to championing your company with the press and items, public. I am already trained in creating buzz and awareness through social media channels including Twitter and Facebook. When my sales team decided to research participate in sythesis items, Walk for a Cure three years ago, we used social media to heighten our sponsorship support and raised more than $20K for the event. Confident my transferable skills make me a solid candidate for this opening, I respectfully submit my resume for your review and request a meeting to discuss the opportunity further. I will make myself available at your convenience and look forward to your call to arrange a time. Thank you for your time and volunteer tourism research paper, consideration. Pam’s Take: This candidate leads off with a strong statement about her career change goal and her fit for the specific position at hand. She uses the rest of the letter to discuss her interest in sythesis, the company and freelance writing jobs, some of her key transferable skills/experience.
Cover Letter Example 3: Entry Level. I am writing in response to sythesis your listing in the Memphis Gazette for a nurse’s aide. Please accept my enclosed resume for consideration. As a CPR-certified lifeguard and a LPN student at life photo essayist, Memphis Community College, I have the formal training necessary for this position. Additionally, with two years of sythesis items, experience in retail sales, I have excellent customer service skills that can translate well to patient relations. After you have reviewed my resume, I hope to meet with you to discuss how I can be beneficial to your team. I look forward to hearing from you to general essay prompts schedule an interview at your earliest convenience. Pam’s Take: Nice concise approach for an entry-level candidate. She doesn’t have years of nursing experience to items point to, so she highlights her training and how her non-nursing work experience has also helped to convergence essay prepare her. Cover Letter Example 4: Professional.
As an Accounts Payable Receivable Specialist , I offer a proven ability to accurately process invoices, payments, reimbursements, and tax reports. Sythesis Items! I quickly learn and adapt to software changes and updates and help team members resolve issues and problems they are having with data input and processing. Examples of volunteer, my accomplishments include: • Handled biweekly accounts payable processing of checks and sythesis, ACH payments; reconciled payments made to accounts payable software and addressed any discrepancies that arose. • Created a spreadsheet that listed bank and routing numbers to expedite processing of expense reports. • Uploaded and reconciled monthly phone bills for approximately 200 branches and 4 operational centers; total billing amounts were coded for various departments and branches as required. Confident I will prove valuable to your company, I respectfully submit my resume for your review.
I would also like to request a personal meeting to discuss your upcoming goals and essay tv shows, how I can help you achieve them. I will make myself available at your convenience and look forward to sythesis your call. Thank you for scholarship your consideration. Pam’s Take: For an experienced candidate, a bit more detail is expected. This candidate customized the bullet points to specifically communicate his experience with the position responsibilities listed in the job description. As a Human Resources Manager with a strong customer service background, I offer expertise in employee relations, benefits administration, and generalist duties. Sythesis Items! I have made significant contributions in succession planning and essay tv shows, workforce engagement as well as ensuring compliance with employment and labor requirements. I am also known for items my ability to help identify and implement key technology and for persuasive, process improvements. I am well-versed in Six Sigma methods and have lead projects which produced significant and sustainable savings.
Other examples of my work include: • Creates positive employee engagement for 2,000+ personnel at Company XYZ via proactive communications, prompt issue resolution, and fair/equitable treatment. • Led Six Sigma project related to FMLA administration and online orientation programs for Lean Belt training. • Proved instrumental in the deployment of an E-recruitment system that serviced a Fortune 200 company; defined policies, procedures, and communication planning for the project. Confident I will make a positive impact on your organization, I respectfully submit my resume for your review. Sythesis Items! I would also like to request a personal meeting to discuss your goals for this position and my potential contributions. I will be available at your convenience and look forward to research your call to items arrange a time. Thank you for your consideration. Pam’s Take: This cover letter highlights the applicant’s relevant accomplishments as a leader and manager. It goes beyond stating familiarity with the required job duties and general scholarship prompts, emphasizes results in key projects. Remember that you don’t want to copy and sythesis, paste your whole resume into the cover letter.
Think about the key selling points that you want to feature prominently. The goal is to thesis statement make them excited to sythesis learn more about you. Cover Letter Example 6: Senior-Level Executive. As a Senior-Level Finance Operations Executive , I offer proven success in maximizing productivity and improving profit margins. My work spans companies and business units at various stages of growth, including start-up, established, and general prompts, turnaround settings. Believing profitability requires strong revenue generation and cost controls, I monitor budgets and sales performance closely to identify areas for sythesis improvement. Of The! I am known for sythesis items enhancing overall performance through technology upgrades, advanced employee training, and implementation of best practices. Examples of my work include: • Drove successful launch of start-up company by tv shows hiring a talent team, defining product development plans, and leading go-to-market strategies to achieve $35M+ revenue and 50% margins within two years. • Managed daily operations of a $150M subsidiary that provided a complete suite of manufacturing solutions in the US and items, Canada; improved profit margins on thesis for persuasive essay overall product line 10%. • Proved vital to sythesis reorganization leadership that cumulated in a 10% productivity improvement in the sales and service organization and a 20% improvement in support organizations.
As CPA and MBA, I am confident I will prove valuable to your company and respectfully submit my resume for freelance writing jobs from your review. I would also like to request a personal meeting to discuss your upcoming goals and how I can help you achieve them. Sythesis Items! I will make myself available at your convenience and look forward to your call. Thank you for your consideration. Pam’s Take: This cover letter nicely distills years of experience into a concise overview that really “sells” achievements most relevant to the specific advertised role. Each bullet presents a compelling high-level overview of a specific position, complete with impressive data points. It’s hard to be this concise when talking about a long career! However, a concise letter is always more effective — make the most exciting information jump out of the letter and grab the recruiter’s attention. Many thanks to Kimberly for her expert advice and cover letter examples! Have other thoughts on prompts what would make a great cover letter? Leave a comment below.
Humor: Mac and Charlie from “It’s Always Sunny” teach us an important lesson about what NOT to include on your resume. Enjoy! Pamela Skillings is co-founder of sythesis, Big Interview. As an interview coach, she has helped her clients land dream jobs at companies including Google, Microsoft, Goldman Sachs, and JP Morgan Chase. She also has more than 15 years of experience training and advising managers at organizations from American Express to the City of freelance writing from home, New York. She is an adjunct professor at New York University and an instructor at the American Management Association. 14 Comment to Cover Letter Examples That Will Get You Noticed.
Good article, Pam. I agree totally with points 2 and 3. Sythesis Items! I recently was coaching someone on how to use step 2. If you were submitting just a resume, like I know a lot of applicants do, it would seem very awkward to include that reference somewhere in the text of the resume. It is good to include that in the first couple sentences to make the person’s name stand out. Who you know goes a long way in the career field! Thanks for the comment! Yes, it’s amazing the difference that a referral can make. very helpful, I have been applying but never landed even a single interview. I have applied so many jobs online but i have never got even one call for convergence twain essay interview. Thank you very much for this information, I really liked the sythesis points 1 and 3, I consider this information very clearly exemplifies the elements that must be considered to make a cover letter. This is an excellent phrase: You never get a second chance to general scholarship essay make a good first impression in the job search.
Thanks. Your suggestions are concise and helpful for items the many of us out here sending in essay, application after application. What is your opinion on how to items show that you are attentive to detail (one of thesis statement essay, job responsibilities for a current job opening) . I was thinking that I could point out some typos on the companies website. Do you think this would be taken as a criticism rather than a helpful suggestion? Great website! Thank you! These are all very helpful examples!
I do have one question: It seems unconventional — and a bit overly assertive – to jump right in on items the the first sentence of the letter without introducing yourself by name. The standard: My name is essayist, —- and sythesis items, I am applying for the —- position. Volunteer Tourism Paper! Is it really ok to do this these days? Excellent written and sythesis items, well explained. As a recruiter I honestly don’t spend much time reading cover letters. Hiring managers have to sort through hundreds of resumes and realistically don’t have time to give most resumes and cover letters more than 30 seconds to scan for the information they are looking for. The cover letter should be short, sweet and highlight the key points you want us to know. Regarding the general comments above about applying for sythesis jobs but not getting interviews.
The resume is the most important part of the application and must be well written with clean formatting. Recruiters and HR Managers want to get to the point of freelance jobs, where have you been working, for how long and what have you accomplished? Also, you may want to items tailor your resume and cover letter to volunteer research paper each job you are applying to so that it shows to sythesis items be a good match for convergence twain the job. Furthermore, you should do more than just apply for a job online you need to network with recruiters, attend industry trade shows, join group discussions on Linkedin and more to get you name out there. Love your site. In Example 5 above, you have a misused word. Sythesis! It says, “…and have lead projects which produced” when it should use “led”, not “lead” as lead is current tense and led is general scholarship prompts, past tense. your comment is so helpful… thank you. Why do you put a comma after dear but also a colon? What is the correct punctuation for a formal cover letter? Do you think it’s appropriate to arrange a time on the cover letter to items call the on favorite tv shows employer so that you can schedule an interview with them?
Those letters are really engaging and items, a lot creative. A project engineer or project manager will list projects successfully handled as achievements. Pamela Skillings is co-founder of Big Interview. As one of the photo country's top interview coaches, she has helped her clients land dream jobs at companies including Google, Microsoft, Goldman Sachs, and JP Morgan Chase. She also has more than 15 years of experience training and advising managers at organizations from American Express to sythesis items the City of essayist, New York.
She is an items adjunct professor at scholarship essay prompts, New York University and an instructor at the American Management Association. Continue reading. Copyright © 2017 Big Interview – Job Interview Training - All Rights Reserved. Skillful Communications, LLC | 244 Fifth Avenue, 2nd Floor | New York, NY 10001 XML SItemap.
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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for sythesis the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place. Thesis Statement Builder For Persuasive! Read on sythesis for tips and tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on it. Convergence Of The Essay! Think of items your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for the job. For each resume you send out, you’ll want to highlight only the general essay, accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of your experience).
Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. Sythesis! But Keep a Master List of All Jobs. Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in and out general essay prompts depending on sythesis items the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for photo essayist different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to include. Sythesis! Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together. Think of this as your brag file . 3. Put the Best Stuff “Above the essay, Fold” In marketing speak, “above the fold” refers to what you see on the front half of sythesis a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on thesis essay the top third of sythesis items your resume. Of The! This top section is what the hiring manager is sythesis going to see first—and what will serve as a hook for someone to keep on reading. So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out these five other marketing tricks to research get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the only occasion when an objective section makes sense is when you’re making a huge career change and sythesis items need to photo explain from the get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the position you’re applying to. Items! In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you —or just nix it altogether to save space and focus on making the rest of your resume stellar.
There are lots of writing jobs home different ways to organize the information on your resume, but the sythesis, good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet. Essay Prompts! Unless it’s absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is items a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is this—you want the information here to be concise, and convergence of the essay making yourself keep it to one page is sythesis items a good way to force yourself to do this. Thesis Builder For Persuasive! If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on items more than one page of your resume, then go for it. But if you can tell the same story in less space? Do. If you’re struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to life essayist fit more in less space. Can’t figure out how to tell your whole story on one page, or want to be able to include some visual examples of your work? Instead of sythesis trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on freelance from home that document, and then include a link to sythesis items your personal website , where you can dive more into of the twain, what makes you the ideal candidate. We’ll talk about getting creative in order to stand out in a minute. Items! But the most basic principle of good resume formatting and design?
Keep it simple. Essayist! Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on hiring managers’ eyes by using a font size between 10 and 12 and leaving a healthy amount of white space on the page. Sythesis! You can use a different font or typeface for general essay prompts your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and items keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on readability for the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the sea of Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If you’re applying through an thesis builder for persuasive ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the computer can read it effectively. Sythesis Items! If you’re applying to photo essayist a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to sythesis items make it pop.
No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in the time, creativity, and design work to make it awesome. 10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You don’t need to include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to volunteer research paper include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. (Implicit in sythesis, this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of time on each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning?
There’s no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. This is arguably the most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13. Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10-15 years of your career history and only include the experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying. And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to importance. Freelance Writing Jobs! If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to).
14. No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and sythesis then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the essay, narrative of why you’re ideal for the job. Items! No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the prompts, recruiter just isn’t going to get through them. Check out sythesis these tips for photo essayist writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in items, tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to the average person. Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of them. Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in your bullet points.
How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to essayist picture the level of sythesis work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to prompts adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and sythesis add in what the essay tv shows, benefit was to your boss or your company. Items! By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by of the hiring you.
If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out these tips for turning your duties into accomplishments . Describing soft skills on sythesis items a resume often starts to sound like a list of essay on favorite meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. Think about sythesis how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the result you’re going for! 20.
Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. General Essay! There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. Sythesis Items! If every bullet in your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Not only is this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Stuck on which words to tourism research paper include? Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . Sythesis Items! We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are.
24. Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the job than where you went to college. 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is more specific to the job, list that first to grab the reviewer’s attention. Don’t list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it.
While you don’t need to list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in freelance writing jobs from, the honors college at items your university. 28. Research Paper! Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in sythesis items, your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to get the skills you need for your career.” Be sure to add a section that lists out all the relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and life essayist any industry-related certifications.
Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Items! Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out one of those sections and listing it on its own. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and photo detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for sythesis skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an “Interests” section on your resume, but only add those that are relevant to photo the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it. Sythesis! But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at freelance writing jobs from home a healthcare company? Don’t even think about it. 32.
Beware of sythesis Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for your church on volunteer tourism research the reg. Sythesis Items! Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. For Persuasive Essay! Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by sythesis items someone who disagrees with the cause. Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of freelance writing from whether to items include them or not. Do include awards and essayist accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker?
Zhang shares the sythesis items, proper ways to include them. Gaps and convergence of the twain essay Other Sticky Resume Situations. Sythesis Items! If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume. According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in an interview. If you have gaps of freelance writing from home a few months in your work history, don’t list the usual start and sythesis end dates for each position. Use years only essay prompts (2010-2012), or just the number of years or months you worked at your earlier positions. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to sythesis items downsizing,” or “relocated to new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus?
This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at of the twain essay the top, outlining your best skills and sythesis accomplishments. Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to volunteer tourism include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for sythesis killing it on your comeback resume. Don’t try to creatively fill in gaps on life photo your resume. For example, if you took time out of the workforce to sythesis items raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the thesis builder, growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it). Sythesis Items! While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of your resume seriously. 39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for on favorite references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is items free and clear of typos.
And don’t rely on spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to jobs from take a look at it for you (or get some tips from an editor on how to perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to items always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and life photo send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the sythesis items, hiring manager has to take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and make some updates. General Essay! Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. When your resume is updated on items a regular basis, you’re ready to paper pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about sythesis items elevating the standard of volunteer tourism paper writing on the web.
Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the company’s branded content team. Sythesis Items! If you’re an individual or company looking for help making your content better—or you just want to go out to tea—get in touch at eringreenawald.com. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for essay tv shows this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.
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film essay questions Common Sense + Film Theory = Common-Sense Film Theory? Start with this question, which I think is sythesis one of the most fascinating we can ask: What enables us to understand films? All films? Well, set aside some hard cases, like Brakhage abstractions and transmissions of the Crab Nebula from the Hubble telescope (above). Scholarship. Let’s start with a prototype: a film whose moving images present more or less recognizable persons, places, and sythesis items things caught up in what we intuitively call stories. In other words, an twain, ordinary movie shown in theatres and on video.
At one time, film theorists were considerably interested in the issue of sythesis, comprehension. The heyday of film semiology, roughly from the mid-1960s to the end of the paper, 1970s, brought forth vigorous conjectures about how we grasp images and comprehend stories. One of the sythesis, boldest proposals was the idea that understanding rests upon convergence of the twain essay, codesrule-governed relations between the signifier (a material thing, like an image) and a signified (a concept). In other words, a shot of a cat not only picked out a particular cat but signified the concept cat. Items. Likewise, we understand a chase scene because we know the cinematic code for this concept. In Naked City , we see alternating shots of two men running, and we decode the freelance, whole scene as showing a man pursued and his pursuer. Semiology was a promising attempt to items study comprehension in a systematic way. This school of thought called our attention to the ways in which mainstream films are highly structured for audience pickup.
Everything we understand in life essayist a movie could be taken as the result of our deciphering codes, governed by sythesis items rules and presenting a coherent menu of alternatives. Tourism Research. 1. For some thinkers, the concept of sythesis items, codes promised to give substance to the age-old “film grammar” metaphor. Despite some crucial differences, maybe film was really a sort of life photo, audiovisual language, with its own syntax. Items. And since verbal languages vary dramatically across societies, so might the codes of picturing or of storytelling. Thesis For Persuasive Essay. Just as language must be learned, so too perhaps the sythesis, codes of cinema require learning. Semiological research reminded us that what seems natural is often very artificial, and relative to one society rather than another. In another culture, the code of traffic signals might employ not red, yellow, and green lights, but any other colors. Convergence Of The Twain Essay. The notion of items, codes also suited an emerging view of what one influential book of the time called the “social construction of reality.” 2 Would people from cultures without cinema or television be able to recognize the blobs on the screen as people and settings? Do codes go all the way down to the very core of our perception? At some point someone was sure to thesis statement essay bring up the sythesis items, idea that Eskimos had six or ten or thirty different words for what Americans just called “snow.” 3.
Today, classic semiologists are rare in film studies. You will seldom find a researcher talking of codes, or raising questions of comprehension. Nevertheless the idea that filmic expression is quite arbitrary, socially constructed, and learned remains in the ether. Film academics assume, along with most humanists, that once you set aside some uninteresting aspects of the human creature, usually summed up as “physiology,” culture goes all the way down. Beyond cell division and essay digestion, let’s say, everything is items cultural, and to invoke any other explanations risks rejection. In Narration in freelance home the Fiction Film (1985), I asked how we could best explain our grasp of one aspect of sythesis, cinema, the flow of story information I called narration. Writing From. I argued that since most narrative films were made in order to be experienced by viewers, we ought to study the strategies filmmakers used to elicit understanding. Most of those strategies, it seemed to items me, exploited rather general human perceptual and cognitive capacities. Perceptual research of the 1970s was dominated by a school of thought derived ultimately from the tourism research, great psychophysicist Helmholtz. “New Look” perceptual psychologists like Jerome Bruner and Richard Gregory held that the stimuli hitting our sense organs were noisy, incomplete, and ambiguous; we needed higher-level faculties to sort them out. Illusions like the famous duck/ rabbit showed that when we could not decide between one visual configuration and sythesis items another, endless ambiguity was the result. The eye, as was commonly said, was part of the mind.
Seeing in of the twain the full sense was a kind of inference to the best explanation: What could be out items, there that would produce this pattern on the retina? At first, this research tradition meshed neatly with the research paper, emerging discipline of cognitive science. In the early 1980s, cognitive scientists were largely focused on sythesis matters of language, reasoning, applying categories, and making decisions about action. 4 As with New Look thinking, cognitive science saw mental activity as a quasi-Kantian interplay of essay, input stimuli and conceptual structures, sometimes called schemas, that made sense of the data. Sythesis. Those structures might be all-purpose or specialized, diffuse (like, say, the thesis builder for persuasive essay, ability to solve problems) or single-purpose (the ability to recognize faces). Items. Again, inference was the model, although some mental inferences, like those involved in vision, were held to be fast, automatic, and “informationally encapsulated” (i.e., ignorant of on favorite tv shows, anything outside their dedicated domain).
5 Eventually, the inferential approach would become the basis of a computational approach to both perception and cognition, and sythesis it probably remains the dominant view in thesis builder for persuasive essay psychological research. How adequate were New Look perceptual theory and sythesis Cog Sci mental mechanics to explaining everyday thinking? NiFF tried to be somewhat agnostic on certain points, but it did argue that these psychological frames of reference were helpful in studying films. Perceptually, films are illusions, not reality; cognitively, they are not the blooming, buzzing confusion of life but rather simplified ensembles of elements, designed to from home be understood. They are made to sythesis engage thought, particularly thought that goes “beyond the information given.” 6 Film narratives, like narratives in general scholarship essay prompts all media, abstract and streamline their real-world components for sythesis smooth pickup and invite us to fill in what is left unshown and builder for persuasive unsaid. What outline drawings are to the eye, narratives are to the mind. So NiFF claimed that we could study films as ensembles of cues that prompt inferential extrapolation at many levelsof perception, of comprehension, and of interpretation. In other words, films prompt us to apply schemas, or knowledge structures, to what we see moment by moment on the screen.
Those schemas can be based in sythesis real-world knowledge or filmic conventions. Each type posed problems for the concept of life, codes. Real-world knowledge may not be as strictly structured as the items, concept of code suggests. A schema is less rigid than the traditional concept of code; it may not exist as binary alternatives or rule-governed choices. Some schemas are fuzzy, with their members conceived as prototypes or core/periphery structures. So for us a robin is a prototypical bird, a penguin or ostrich is not. The latter might be prototypes for people in general prompts other cultures, but that doesn’t invalidate the point that some categories are organized by sythesis “best-instance” criteria rather than hard and fast boundaries. Some cinematic conventions more crisply structured: You can end a scene with a cut or a fade or a dissolve or a wipe or a swish-pan.and that’s about it. So sometimes we encounter, particularly within certain cinematic traditions, a sort of menu of options we might call a code.
But a lot of conventions, like those indicating the overall space of a scene’s action, are looser. There is no rule that requires a long-shot to of the be followed by sythesis a close-up, the tourism research, way a preposition in language requires an object. There is no code that dictates that a sexy scene must be red-tinted or accompanied by hazy saxophone music, but when such cues emerge, we make a probabilistic inference that seduction isn’t far off. Sythesis. Not all conventions, it seems, are coded. NiFF studied several of these conventions under the rubrics of causality, time, and space. Those three categories, NiFF claimed, are basic to volunteer tourism research narrative and to human cognition, and so they ought to play roles in the process by sythesis items which we understand stories. Further, NiFF argued that the jobs home, conventions that guide our inferential extrapolation don’t simply float free in space.
There were recurring clusters of favored choices for presenting causality, time, and space. Sythesis. These modes included “classical” narration, “art-cinema” narration, and others. General. The historical layout still seems valid to me, and they seem to have proven useful to other researchers. Theoretically, however, NiFF ran into problems in items the role it assigned to inference. Statement Builder. At the time of writing NiFF , I was aware of the writings of J. J. Gibson and his insistence that perception evolved in environments very different from the impoverished information that New Look theorists assumed triggered perception.
In the three-dimensional world in which creatures like us live, the stimuli are not typically partial or degraded; they are in fact quite rich, even redundant. Moving through space, we register an optic flow that specifies the sythesis, layout of volunteer paper, surfaces quite precisely. 7. NiFF finessed this problem by sythesis items saying that even if Gibson’s account of ordinary perception were right, films don’t present the informational array afforded by the real world. Film imagesflat, often in black-and-whiteare in principle as ambiguous as the duck/rabbit. Prompts. I invoked the splendid Ames Room as evidence that, being monocular, cinema images were inherently ambiguous. 8. This now seems to me misguided.
Films, as Gibson himself pointed out, disambiguate their images to a huge extent by the sheer fact of movement. It would take a mental effort no one could summon up to sythesis items see alternative ways to construe a normal shot of three men in a room. My mistake was the same as the New Look theorists: I picked the wrong prototype. Just as illusions aren’t fair samples of perception in the wild, so the freelance jobs, Ames Room is an extraordinary piece of filmmaking artifice, not a typical one. My old friends Barb and Joe Anderson were right: Gibson has the best of this argument. 9 (That still won’t settle whether the inferential/computational approach or the ecological approach is the better explanation of natural vision. On that I retreat to the amateur’s agnosticism.) I was on surer ground, I think, in sythesis treating narrative comprehension as a version of inference-making. But NiFF pushed it in a problematic direction. Considering narrative comprehension as inferential led me to bring in the Russian Formalist distinction between fabula and scholarship essay prompts syuzhet . Sythesis. These two terms have been used in general essay several ways, but the most plausible way, it seemed to sythesis me then and seems still, is to see fabula as the chronological-causal string of events that may be presented by statement builder essay the syuzhet , the configuration of events in the narrative text as we have it. Clearly the sythesis, distinction is useful as an analytical tool, to study how a narrative can “deform” its underlying story for aesthetic purposes.
But NiFF went beyond treating the distinction as purely a tool for analysis. It argued that it was psychologically real; that as we encountered events in essay the syuzhet , we were tacitly building up the fabula too. The process is a bit like double-entry bookkeeping, with the viewer keeping track not only of what is items happening each moment on the screen but also slotting that into general scholarship prompts, the chronological pattern of fabula events. Sythesis. This seemed to photo be a clear case that melded bottom-up input with top-down cognition. Unfortunately, some people argued, it’s psychologically implausible. Eventually I had to agree.
For one thing, we aren’t aware of building up a fabula in our heads, the way we can be at sythesis items least partially aware of, say, solving a crossword puzzle. For another, we can’t access it easily; try stopping a film on video and reciting the entire chain of events leading up to the moment of pause. Worse, try at convergence twain the end of the movie to grasp mentally the entire fabula you’ve purportedly worked out. Chances are you can’t do it. Sythesis. Given that our memories are reconstructive rather than photographic, creating an accurate fabula is extremely difficult. More theoretically, Julian Hochberg and Virginia Brooks proposed some reasons that the viewer’s mental representation for tourism the most part cannot reflect the underlying structure of the film. 10. I think that NiFF made the valid point that our understanding of narrative is often inferential, and we do flesh out what we’re given. But I now think that the inference-making takes place in a very narrow window of time, and it leaves few tangible traces. What is built up in our memory as we move through a film is something more approximate, more idiosyncratic, more distorted by strong moments, and more subject to error than the fabula that the analyst can draw up. Indeed, the real constraints on what we can recall make deceptive narration like that in Mildred Pierce and other films possible.
11. Still, I think the error was a productive one. In assigning to sythesis items the spectator the task of ongoing fabula construction, NiFF harmonized with one premise I consider central: a holistic sense of form. Even if we scan the entire narrative through a narrow slit, it’s important for essay on favorite tv shows the analyst and theorist to consider the overall design of the work, the more or less coherent principles that govern the unfolding tale. I’m thinking of sythesis, such matters as smoothly cascading character goals, psychological motives and of the twain personality change, gradual development of knowledge, shifts in viewpoint, repeated and varied motifs, and finer-grained patterns of visual and sythesis items sonic presentation. Essay On Favorite Tv Shows. In an items, analysis of Jerry Maguire , for instance, I tried to show how such features were operating at freelance jobs from many scales, creating a considerable formal richness. Sythesis. 12. Such design features need to be accounted for, especially when they crop up in an otherwise innocuous popular movie. Why are many movies more tightly organized than they need to prompts be, given the drastic limits on viewer attention and memory? Clearly, goals, motifs, and sythesis the rest aim to shape the spectator’s experience in life photo essayist some respect, and sythesis we may well register many of them at some level of awareness. NiFF posited a too-sapient viewer, but methodologically at least, it’s better to point up many things that a spectator could respond to, even if no real spectator grasps or recalls all of freelance writing, them.
Indeed, some narrative traditions seem to try to pack things tightly, so that readers or viewers can return to the book or film and notice things that escaped them on a first pass. Here, as elsewhere, NiFF ’s desire to mix formal analysis with an account of spectator response created some gaps in the theory, but in some respects it’s better to have more to explain (about the architecture and detail of the items, film) than less. Life Essayist. It’s a dynamic I’m still trying to refine many years later. For the sythesis items, most part, NiFF explicitly left aside the emotional dimensions of narration. Life Essayist. That was done on the assumption that comprehension as such was relatively insulated from affective response. You can follow a story, I claimed, without being moved by it. This emphasis was again consistent with mainstream 1970s and 1980s cognitive science; the index of Martin Gardner’s 1985 survey, The Mind’s New Science , contains no entry for “emotion.” And I did consider what we might call some “cognitive emotions”: curiosity, suspense, and surprise, all called up by the process of narration. In the decades since the sythesis, book was written, however, the relation of emotion to statement builder for persuasive cognition has become central to cognitive science, and it has been explored by several film scholars working in the cognitivist paradigm. 13 It’s still not something I focus on, but it’s obviously of items, great importance. Finally, someone might ask: Why contrast NiFF ’s cognitive approach with semiology, which was passing out of essay on favorite, favor when the book was written? Surely the dominant approaches emerging in the 80’s were neo-Marxism, psychoanalysis, cultural studies, and the study of modernity and items postmodernity.
Here’s my answer. These perspectives don’t play a role in NiFF , or in this essay, because their proponents weren’t asking about on favorite, how films are understood. These writers focused on questions of how social, cultural, and items psychodynamic processes were represented in films. Typically those questions were answered by interpreting individual films, reading them for traces of the essay prompts, larger processes made salient by the given theory. 14 My concern was explaining, not explicating; I wanted functional and causal-historical accounts of why films in various traditions displayed certain regularities in items their narrational strategies. That was, I thought, most pertinent to the semiological line of convergence of the essay, inquiry.
In the items, period since NiFF was published, cognitive film studies has moved in parallel with cognitive science generally. We have had neurological studies of film viewing; we have seen appeals to essayist evolutionary psychology; we have seen studies of suprapersonal patterns of emergence. 15 These all seem to me fruitful. Sythesis Items. In what follows, I want to sketch out some ideas that I’d develop in convergence of the twain a new and sythesis items improved version of NiFF . Life. These bear on items our perception of images, on folk psychology, and on social intelligence. All of these have been developed, at least a little, in work I’ve done in freelance writing jobs more recent years.
We speak of “reading” an items, image, but do certain kinds of imagesthose that common sense declares “realistic”demand anything like the convergence essay, deciphering that printed language does? How much does grasping an image depend on learned conventions of representation? In NiFF I waffled on the question too much. Although I accepting that some aspects of sythesis items, image perception rode on volunteer skills acquired in commerce with the world, I granted some role to learning and familiarity with a “carpentered world.” More subtle is Paul Messaris’s admirable Visual Literacy: Image, Mind, and Reality (1994). Messaris reviews the sythesis, anthropological and psychological literature in a very clear fashion. He points out that some conventions for representing depth in thesis for persuasive still images may not be widely understandable; the classic example is the sythesis, drawing above, which was interpreted by viewers in some African cultures as a hunter pointing his spear at a very tiny elephant. 16 This suggested that some pictorial depth cues require repeated exposure or training. But when it comes to recognizing objects that viewers know from everyday experience, there is no problem. The African viewers recognized the tiny elephant as an elephant. When it comes to moving pictures, the issue is even clearer.
Messaris finds no evidence that people previously unacquainted with movies fail to grasp the persons, places, and things shown on the screen. Writing Jobs Home. This is congruent with more recent research by Stephan Schwan and Sermin Ildirar, who studied adult viewers’ first experience of watching films. 17 Indeed, all three researchers offer evidence that even some editing techniques are immediately understood by first-time viewers. On the “film as language” question Messaris’s conclusions are clear: What distinguishes images (including motion pictures) from language and from other modes of communication is the fact that images reproduce many of the sythesis, informational cues that people make us of in their perception of physical and social reality. Our ability to infer what is freelance jobs represented in sythesis an image is based largely on this property, rather than on familiarity with arbitrary conventions (whereas the latter play a primary role in the interpretation of language, mathematics, and convergence of the twain so on) . 18.
Messaris’s review suggests that grasping pictures rides on our abilities to sythesis items identify objects and spatial layouts in of the the real world. Some intriguing research on infants reinforces the sythesis, point. In a famous experiment, Julian Hochberg and thesis builder Virginia Brooks kept their son away from pictures during his first eighteen months. He did occasionally see billboards and sythesis items a few picture books and labels, but when a picture was encountered, the parents never pointed out photo, its contents or tried to name them. At nineteen months, when the boy was starting to sythesis items spontaneously call out names of things he spotted in accidental images, “It was evident that some form of parental response to such identification would soon become unavoidable.” In a series of tests the boy was shown line drawings and pictures of dolls, shoes, toy trucks, keys, and other familiar objects. He named them to thesis statement a high degree of accuracy. Sythesis. Hochberg and Brooks concluded: It seems clear from the results that at convergence of the twain least one human child is capable of recognizing pictorial representations of sythesis items, solid objects (including bare outline drawings) without specific training or instruction.
This ability necessarily includes a certain amount of what we normally expect to occur in the way of figure-ground separation and contour formation. Statement Builder For Persuasive Essay. At the items, very least, we must infer that there is an unlearned propensity to respond to certain formal features of life photo, lines-on-paper in sythesis items the same way as one has learned to respond to twain essay the same features when displayed by the edges of sythesis, surfaces. Hochberg and Brooks used only still pictures, although their son did once glimpse a horse on TV. (He cried, “Dog!”) What about moving images? For several years psychologists tested babies’ abilities to recognize facial expressions in still pictures and movies, with mixed results. 20 Babies’ attention can be captured by general scholarship prompts external stimuli at an early age, and items they start to control their focus and attention in the second month. By the general prompts, seventh month, they are responding accurately to pictures and moving-image displays. Yet it’s possible that recognition starts much earlier. Sythesis Items. In ingenious experiments, Lynne Murray and convergence of the twain Colwyn Trevarthen set up TV cameras so that nine-week-old babies and their mothers, stationed in items different rooms, could see each other on monitors.
The experimenters wanted to record the statement builder, interactions between them, as well as to vary the timing of responses through pauses and sythesis items replays. 21. Murray and paper Trevarthen’s conclusions about the babies’ ability to sythesis synchronize their responses with the mothers’ expressions has touched off considerable debate and scholarship essay further experimentation. 22 That’s not what matters for us as students of cinema. What’s relevant for us is that the sythesis, babies evidently did, in both real time and in tape delay, recognize the moving images of their mothers. What was methodology for Murray and Trevarthen is substantive evidence for us. Very young babies could grasp the video image, at general essay least to some extent, as a representation of the most familiar person in sythesis items their lives. If babies do need to learn to recognize images, that learning seems to take place very fast. In fact, we might better speak of elicitation rather than learning: Given normal circumstances of human development, all that’s needed is builder exposure to items real-world persons, places, and things. Recognizing such things in a moving-image display seems to come along for free.
This account makes sense in the light of evolution, as others and I have argued elsewhere. 23. Folk psychology: Success stories. There is a lot more to be said and studied about photo essayist, grasping moving images as representations of real-world items, most saliently people, but let me turn now to some matters of narrative that I’ve rethought since NiFF was published. Recognizing the contents of realistic images, I’ve suggested, depends heavily upon sythesis, our everyday perceptual abilities. Similarly, filmic storytelling relies upon cognitive dispositions and habits we’ve developed in a real-world context. That’s not to say that films capture reality straightforwardly; as we’ll see, there are plenty of dodges and feints.
It’s simply to say that ordinary perception and cognition ground what narrative filmmakers do. On that foundation quite various, even fantastic, edifices can be built. Central to life photo narrative psychology, I’ve come to suspect, is that elusive thing called folk psychology. Folk psychology calls on items “common sense”our everyday habits of attributing qualities, beliefs, desires, intentions, and the like to ourselves and to paper people around us. There is considerable evidence that many core procedures of common-sense reasoning are cross-cultural universals. Sythesis. 24. Consider “person perception.” We tend to arrive at quick impressions about those around us. Scholarship Prompts. At a glance we judge a person’s age, gender, race, and personal attributes (Birkenstocks tell us one thing, bling another). From their facial expressions, gestures, and voice, we judge their emotional states. Our habits obviously transfer to stories, which present persons, or at least person-like creatures like Daffy Duck. To follow the story we have to sythesis assign the characters certain qualities.
When introducing a character to us, a film narrative simply hijacks our everyday capacities to build up a quick impression, even (or especially) if that relies on stereotypes. That impression may be confirmed, tested, or repudiated as the story develops, but our quick and dirty habits of person perception provide a point of life photo essayist, departure. We also indulge in mind-reading. We attribute beliefs, desires, and intentions to ourselves and to others. You want a burger; you stop at sythesis a burger joint to get one. On Favorite Tv Shows. You act on your desire based on sythesis beliefs about the world, most notably the belief that you can get a burger at that joint. Maybe you did it all without explicit thinking, but in retrospect you create a little story of coherent causes. We interpret others’ actions the same way. If my friend says he wants a burger, and then I see him head for a burger joint, I infer that he’s acting on his beliefs and desires. Of course that inference can be overridden; later I might find that he went to get a milkshake or to flirt with a waitress.
But even revising the inference requires the same schema. ( Aha, he really wanted a shake, or a date for thesis essay tonight .) From first to last, stories ask us to apply what Daniel Dennett calls “the intentional stance,” or what many would just call common sense. Sythesis. 25 At the start of The Big Clock (1947), we see George Stroud slinking along a corridor and statement for persuasive essay avoiding a guard. He dodges behind a pillar and lets the guard pass before we hear his voice-over: “Whew! That was close.” George proceeds along a corridor, looking back nervously, as the voice-over continues: “What if I get inside the clock and the watchman’s there?”
From George’s disheveled appearance and furtive movements, as well as the stream-of-consciousness commentary, we have no trouble inferring his beliefs (he’s being hunted) and his desire (to take refuge). We’ll accordingly judge his future actions as advancing his intentions to escape detection, even as his plans and his backstory will get specified further. The centrality of characters’ goals in classical filmmaking, of which Kristin and I have made much on this site and in our research, fits our folk-psychological tendency to pick out sythesis items, actions that fulfill desires in the light of characters’ beliefs. The web of intentions can get very complicatedthink of all the beliefs and photo essayist desires at items play in The Godfather but we’re very good at tracking them because we expect that social situations exhibit what people are planning to achieve. To bring babies back in, it seems that they too can do mind-reading. One-year-olds attribute goals to robotic blobs that chirp and move as if they had intentions. Tourism Research. 26. There are enormous philosophical debates around the belief-desire component of folk psychology. Items. 27 Is it truly explanatory, or just vacuous? But we don’t have to worry about whether it’s true; what matters is tv shows that filmmakers invoke it and film viewers follow their lead.
Storytellers are practical psychologists, preying (usually in a good sense) on our habits of mind in order to produce experiences. Still, there are important ways in which folk psychology leads us astray. Film exploits those too. Folk psychology: The downside. In Everything Is Obvious* (*Once You Know the Answer) , Duncan J. Items. Watts points out that one problem with classic belief-desire psychology is that it is life photo essayist designed to explain individual behavior in concrete circumstances.
It doesn’t scale up well to explain large-scale trends. Sythesis Items. A big event like the recent recession/ depression or the quieting down of violence in Iraq is easy to attribute to decisions taken by Bush or Obama or Petraeus. In fact, the actual causes of such macro-events are likely to be multiple, complex, and not visible to us. We tend to apply person-perception habits to events that occur on a scale beyond that of individual action. Watts’ book is a contribution to general “Wrongology,” the items, study of our tendencies to overestimate our abilities, make simple logical errors, and act inconsistently. The research area has its roots in essayist the studies of heuristics and biases conducted by Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky. 28 Rationality, as postulated by philosophers and economists, seems to be a rare gift. To take a now-classic example: Linda is 31 years old, single, outspoken, and very bright. She majored in philosophy. As a student, she was deeply concerned with issues of sythesis, discrimination and social justice, and also participated in photo anti-nuclear demonstrations.
Now, which is more likely? Linda is sythesis a bank clerk and a feminist. Most people say the latter is more probable, although it can’t be. By adding a second condition to the first, we make the second statement less likely. Photo Essayist. If people reasoned according to formal logic, they would recognize this as a fallacy of conjunction. Clearly social beliefs about fairness are involved, along with some mind-reading on Veronica’s part ( If I offer her too little, she could get vindictive and I could lose it all ). Such factors have made the players’ behaviors depart from sythesis strict economic rationality. Economists and psychologists who recognize such “predictably irrational” pressures have created a discipline called behavioral economics. So folk psychology has its own biases. Linda is said to general be a bank teller and a feminist because her profile fits a stereotype of sythesis items, feminists. This is sometimes called the availability heuristic , the tendency to apply the handiest schema to jobs from home a situation. There is sythesis as well confirmation bias , the habit of convergence twain essay, looking only for evidence that supports the idea you’re leaning toward.
Once you’ve decided you’d really like an iPad, you’re likely to items overlook all the essay, critical comments on the gadget in reviews. If you believe in sythesis items astrology, you’ll tend to remember the times that your horoscope seemed to freelance writing jobs home predict what happened to you and forget the more numerous times when it failed to do so. Watts points out the reconstructive nature of memory as another biasing effect. We tend to sythesis recast our recollection of what happened in convergence twain essay light of items, present circumstances. One of my favorite biases is the builder essay, primacy effect , already discussed in a blog entry. Sythesis Items. Logically, the order in which items on a list are presented should not affect how we think of them, but it does. Take Hong Kong supermogul Leonard Ho’s three daughters. Which of their names doesn’t belong with the scholarship essay prompts, other two? Obviously, it’s Pansy that’s out of step, since she doesn’t rhyme with her sisters.
But present them in reverse order: and the outlier is Maisy, who isn’t named after a flower. The first item in a series tends to serve as a benchmark against which we measure the ones that follow. I’ve always felt sorry that a brilliant writer like Donald Westlake inevitably sits low and distant on paperback racks while hacks like Jeffrey Archer benefit from the sythesis, primacy effect. Again and again, narratives manipulate our psychological biases. For instance, once you’ve decided that George Stroud in The Big Clock is fleeing someone, everything he does tends to confirm that. The filmmakers exploit confirmation bias. Writing Jobs From. Likewise, the syuzhet layout relies on the primacy effect.
The film starts at a point of crisis, with George fleeing his boss’s goons. The narration then flashes back to the beginning of the action, when George tried to escape from Janoth’s overweening control by taking a long-promised vacation with his family. Sythesis Items. The prologue warns us to watch for anything that will push Stroud into danger, and we quickly expect that he will not go on the vacation. Had the film begun with the more prosaic events that come earliest in the fabula , we would not have been on the alert for Stroud’s plunge into a critical situation. The prologue also signals the for persuasive, importance of the clock as a sinister force and time as a motif through the film. Alternatively, narratives can upset our biases, as when we’re forced to reevaluate a character about whom we formed firm initial impressions. We’re obliged to do this with Danny Ciello in items the closing moments of Prince of the convergence twain, City . Here the film lures us with the primacy effect and the availability heuristic (Catholic cop plagued by guilt decides to go straight). Sythesis Items. Confirmation bias keeps our sympathy with him across the freelance writing home, film; everything supports him as righteous victim. But at items the end a question emerges: might Danny be more corrupt than we had thought? Meier Sternberg describes this as the “rise and fall of first impressions,” and it often depends on the power of the photo essayist, primacy effect.
29 At the limit, a narrative film can try to avoid setting up any clear-cut first impressions, as happens in “art films” like In the City of Sylvia . 30. Sometimes one aspect of folk psychology can rescue another. For instance, Watts points out that the Ultimatum Game doesn’t work the same way in all societies. Sythesis. In experiments with the Machiguenga tribe of Peru, the moneyed partner tended to offer only about a quarter of the total, and nearly all offers were accepted. Both parties were being more “rational” by the economists’ standards. But now belief-desire psychology kicks in. In Machiguenga society, the primary bonds are with the life photo, immediate family, and strangers are of sythesis, lower status. So the moneyed partner felt little obligation to make a fair split, and life essayist the recipient was happy with whatever was offered. Sythesis. Once we know this, the essay tv shows, Machiguenga strategy makes sense. 31 A similar sort of thing happens in fantasy and science-fiction films.
Once we learn the unique laws and etiquette of Hogwarts or the Matrix, then familiar belief-desire-intention patterns can lock in. Folk psychology takes us beyond the purely perceptual level I started with; it carries us into the realm of items, social intelligence. Mind-reading requires us to detect, sometimes on very faint cues, what people are expressing or signaling through their behavior. Thesis Statement For Persuasive. Elsewhere I’ve talked about this in cases involving eye behaviorblinking and eyebrows, in items particular. But there’s much more to essay tv shows be done with the ways in which cinema mobilizes our social intelligence in items order to track a narrative. Jobs From. Sometimes the narrative eases our task by making things redundant and clear; sometimes the film throws up problems, making it hard to understand characters’ intentions or reactions, as in sythesis items the enigmatic veteran played by Henry Fonda in Daisy Kenyon . I found the concept of freelance from, social intelligence especially useful in explaining a form of cinematic storytelling that has become prominent since the 1990s, what I called the sythesis items, network narrative. These “degrees of separation” tales rely on our socially cultivated ability to track how people are connected to others by proximity, kinship, or acquaintance, and essay tv shows how their different states of knowledge create dramatic tension. 32 We might as well call it the soap-opera effect.
Again, however, such films are likely to streamline the vast complexity of real-world social networks: the networks in movies like Love, Actually and Sunshine State tend to be simple and items redundantly stated. More elliptically narrated films like Edward Yang Dechan’s Terrorizers and Benedek Fliegauf’s Forest may require more careful sorting and later rethinking of character connections. Another aspect of folk psychology, crucial to photo narrative but neglected in sythesis NiFF , merits more study: emotional response. Freelance Writing Jobs From. In particular, some psychologists point to the infectiousness of emotion. Sythesis. Babies share smiles with us, perhaps partly as an evolutionary strategy to thesis statement builder essay make us want to nurture them. (Even blind newborns smile, so it can’t be something learned from watching others.) Some researchers argue that our capacities for items empathy depend on “mirror” cells tuned to respond to others’ movements and emotion and allow us to register some degree of mimicry. 33 Macaque monkeys’ mirror neurons fire not only when they watch a mate grasping a cup but also when they watch a film of a mate doing it. (More evidence that film images require no special code-learning.) V. S. Ramachandran suggests that mirror neurons could explain the fact that a mother sticking out on favorite tv shows, her tongue provokes her newborn baby to do the same, a presumably innate response. 34 If assumptions about mirror neurons in items humans turn out to be well-founded, we may find that cinema, with its ability to capture gesture and the flickers of life, facial expressions, is an sythesis items, ideal medium for triggering involuntary reactions (kinesthetic, emotional), which can in turn can be recruited for narrative purposes. Uncommon sources of common sense. Someone might suggest that this general line of thinking leads to observations that are quite superficial.
What viewer doesn’t see that George Stroud in The Big Clock is trying to avoid the guards? I’d reply that once we move beyond the writing from, moment to look at strategies of items, patterning at different scales, we find things aren’t so obvious; that was the primary task of NiFF . But I grant that our point of departure will seem very commonsensical. Tourism Paper. In fact, NiFF and sythesis other things I’ve written have been charged with committing “common-sense film theory.” In one way that’s true. The humanities have in general suffered from straining for the most far-fetched accounts of how art, literature, and music work. In the literary humanities in particular, ingenious interpretations often relying on free-association, wordplay, and talking points lifted from favored penseurs get more notice than plausible explanations do. In various places I’ve argued for of the naturalistic and empirical explanations as the best option we have in items answering middle-range questions, and even bigger ones like “How do we comprehend movies?” Sometimes our answers will not be counterintuitive. To say that looking at images recruits our skills of looking at writing jobs home the world will not surprise many people; but it is likely to be true.
What’s likely to be counterintuitive are the sythesis, discoveries of mechanisms that undergird perception. Would common sense predict that an object’s form, color, movement, and spatial location are analyzed along distinct pathways in the visual system? Personally I find this idea more exciting than postmodernist puns and life essayist term-juggling. 35. More important, we can embrace common sense at a meta-level. Sythesis Items. Recognizing that it is in play in narrative comprehension makes it something we need to freelance from analyze. We can understand filmic understanding better if we recognize what’s intuitively obvious, and then go on to ask what in the film, and in our psychological and social make-up, makes something obvious. And those factors may not be obvious in themselves. Items. In other words, we may need a better understanding of how common sense works, and how films play off it and play with it. That understanding may in turn oblige us to accept empirical experiment, evolutionary thinking, and neurological researchall of which most literary humanists find worrisome. So worrisome, in fact, that many don’t recognize naturalistic explanations as being theoretical at all.
For them, the only theories that exist are Big Theories, and so efforts like the one I just mentioned are condemned as expressing a disdain for or suspicion of theorizing tout court . But that objection, feeble to start with, was blocked back in 1996 by the opening sentences Noël Carroll and I wrote in our Post-Theory: Reconstructing Film Studies : Our title risks misleading you. Is this book about the essay on favorite tv shows, end of film theory? No. It’s about the end of Theory, and what can and should come after. 36. That introduction and many of the pieces included in the volume float arguments for items theorizing as an activity that asks researchable questions and comes up with more or less plausible answerssome commonsensical, some not, and some probing what counts as common sense. Ironically, just as filmic interpretation is amenable to task analysis from a cognitive standpoint, a surprising amount of Grand Theory seems to builder me to rely on the sort of folk-psychological schemas and shortcuts that we find in ordinary life. But that’s a whole other essay. 1 : The most influential, and still informative, account of one such code was Christian Metz’s Grand Syntagmatique of narrative cinema. See Metz, “Problems of Denotation in the Fiction Film,” in Film Language: A Semiotics of the Cinema , trans.
Michael Taylor (New York: Oxford University Press, 1974), 108146. Metz’s more general consideration of cinematic codes is to sythesis be found in his Language and Cinema , trans. Donna Jean Umiker-Sebeok (The Hague: Mouton, 1974). 2 : Peter L. Berger and Thomas Luckmann, The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge (New York: Anchor, 1967). 3 : On this Golden Oldie of humanities lore, see Geoffrey Pullum, The Great Eskimo Vocabulary Hoax and twain essay Other Irreverent Essays on the Study of Language (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991), 159175. 4 : See Howard Gardner, The Mind’s New Science: A History of the Cognitive Revolution (New York: Basic Books, 1985). 5 : The phrase appears in Jerry Fodor’s milestone 1983 book The Modularity of Mind (Cambridge: MIT Press), 6486.
6 : The phrase became something of a slogan for the New Look school. See Jerome S. Bruner, Beyond the Information Given: Studies in the Psychology of Knowing , ed. Jeremy M. Anglin (New York: Norton, 1973). 7 : J. J. Gibson, Perception of the Visual World (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1974 [orig. 1950]; J. Items. J. Gibson, The Senses Considered as Perceptual Systems (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1966). 8 : On the Ames Room, see William H. Essay. Ittelson, The Ames Demonstrations in Perception, together with An Interpretive Manual by Adelbert Ames, Jr. (NewYork: Hafner, 1968). Go here for many videos employing the principles of the Ames Room. Interestingly, many of the voice-over commentators on these videos assume that prior knowledge, expectations, and other cognitive factors influence perception, indicating that New Look psychology remains a dominant paradigm for perceptual researchers. 9 : Gibson made his arguments about movies in The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1979), 292302. See Joseph D. Anderson, The Reality of Illusion: An Ecological Approach to Cognitive Film Theory (Carbondale: University of Southern Illinois Press, 1996) and the articles collected in Moving Image Theory: Ecological Coniderations , ed.
Joseph D. Anderson and Barbara Fisher Anderson (Carbondale: University of Southern Illinois Press, 2005). Items. Had I been more alert, I would also have had to consider arguments in John M. Kennedy’s A Psychology of Picture Perception (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1974). 10 : Julian Hochberg and Virginia Brooks, “Movies in the Mind’s Eye,” in volunteer tourism research paper In the Mind’s Eye: Julian Hochberg on the Perception of Pictures, Films, and the World , ed. Mary A. Peterson, Barbara Gillam, and H. A. Sedgwick, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007), 387395. 11 : See my “Cognition and Comprehension: Viewing and Forgetting in items Mildred Pierce ,” Poetics of general scholarship, Cinema (New York: Routledge, 2008), 135150. The chart in the essay was printed inaccurately; an accurate one is at http://www.davidbordwell.net/books/poetics.php. 12 : See The Way Hollywood Tells It: Story and Style in Modern Movies (Berkeley: University of items, California Press, 2006), 6371. 13 : Major examples include Ed Tan, Emotion and the Structure of Narrative Film: Film as an tv shows, Emotion Machine (Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 1996); Torben Grodal, Moving Pictures: A New Theory of Genres, Feelings, and Cognition (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997), Carl Plantinga and Greg M. Smith, eds., Passionate Views: Film, Cognition, and Emotion (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999), Greg M. Smith, Film Structure and items the Emotion System (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), and volunteer Carl Plantinga, Moving Viewers: American Film and the Spectator’s Experience (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009). 14 : In another book, I tried to sythesis items show how theory-driven interpretations, like interpretations that weren’t theory-driven, were amenable to cognitive and rhetorical analysis. See Making Meaning: Inference and Rhetoric in the Interpretation of thesis, Cinema (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1989). 15 : See my blog entry, “Now you see it, now you can’t” for more discussion of sythesis items, these trends.
16 : See William Hudson, “Pictorial Depth perception in Subcultural Groups in Africa,” Journal of Social Psychology 52 (1960), 183208, and essay “The Study of the Problem of Pictorial Perception among Unacculturated Groups,” International Journal of Psychology 2 (1967), 89107. 17 : See Stephan Schwan and Sermin Ildirar, “Watching Film for the First Time: How Adult Viewers Interpret Perceptual Discontinuities,” Psychological Science 21 (2010): 970976. Online access is at http://pss.sagepub.com/content/21/7/970.abstract. 18 : Paul Messaris, Visual Literacy: Image, Mind, and Reality (Boulder: Westview, 1994), 165. 19 : Julian Hochberg and Virginia Brooks, “Pictorial Recognition as an Unlearned Activity: A Study of One Child’s Performance,” in In the Mind’s Eye , 64. 20 : For a review of early experiments, see Charles A. Nelson, “The Perception and Recognition of Facial Expressions in Infancy,” in Social Perception in Infants , ed. Tiffany M. Field and Nathan A. Fox (Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1985), 101125.
Later experiments in infant cognition are considered in the light of sythesis items, “folk” theories of mind, physics, and the like, in Steven Pinker, How the Mind Works (New York: Norton, 1997), Chapter 5. 21 : Lynne Murray and Colwyn Trevarthen, “Emotional Regulation of Interactions between Two-month-olds and essay Their Mothers,” in Social Perception in Infants , ed. Field and Fox, 177197. Ellen Dissayanake has proposed a fascinating theory of the origins of art based in mother-child interactions; see Art and Intimacy: How the Arts Began (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2000). 22 : See, for example, Phillipe Rochat, Ulric Neisser, and Viorica Marlan, “Are Young Infants Sensitive to sythesis items Interpersonal Contingency?” Infant Behavior and Development 21, 2 (1998): 355366. 23 : See Anderson, Reality of Illusion , Chapters 35; see my “Convention, Construction, and Cinematic Vision,” in thesis builder for persuasive essay Poetics of Cinema , 5782. 24 : See for a summary Donald E. Sythesis. Brown, Human Universals (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1991), 130140.
25 : Daniel C. Dennett, The Intentional Stance (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1987). 26 : Alison Gopnik, The Philosophical Baby: What Children’s Minds Tell Us about Truth, Love, and the Meaning of Life (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2009), 98. 27 : To get the flavor of some of the debates, see Barry Loewer and Georges Rey, ed., Meaning in volunteer tourism research paper Mind: Fodor and His Critics (Cambridge: Blackwell, 1991), especially Daniel C. Sythesis Items. Dennett, “Granny’s Campaign for Safe Science,” 8794 and thesis statement for persuasive Fodor’s reply: “The enormous practical success of belief/desire psychology makes a prima facie case for its approximate truth” (277). By the way, I should make it clear that I use “intentions” in this paper in a nontechnical sense, not in the philosophical sense, as in Fodor’s references to “intentional states.” 28 : See Daniel Kahneman, Paul Slovic, and Amos Tversky, eds., Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982). 29 Meir Sternberg, Expositional Modes and Temporal Ordering in Fiction (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1978), 99102. More generally, a great deal of Narration in the Fiction Film , including its focus on curiosity, suspense, and surprise, is sythesis indebted to Sternberg’s book, a trailblazing work of modern narratology. 30 : I discuss Prince of the City ’s narrational tactics a little bit here and a crucial sequence of In the City of Sylvia , at greater length, here. 31 : Duncan J. Watts, Everything Is Obvious* (*Once You Know the Answer): How Common Sense Fails Us (New York: Crown, 2011), 1213.
32 : “Mutual Friends and Chronologies of Chance,” in Poetics of Cinema , 189250. 33 : See Giacomo Rizzolatti and Corrado Sinigaglia, Mirrors in the BrainHow Our Minds Share Actions and Emotions , trans. Frances Anderson (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008) and Marco Iacoboni, Mirroring People: The New Science of How We Connect with Others (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2008) 34 : V. S. Ramachandran, The Tell-Tale Brain: A Neuroscientist’s Quest for What Makes Us Human (New York: Norton, 2011), 121128. 35 : See Margaret Livingston and David Hubel, “Segregation of Form, Color, Movement, and Depth: Anatomy, Physiology, and Perception,” Science 240 no 4853 (6 May 1988): 740749.
Available at http://www.sciencemag.org/content/240/4853/740.abstract. 36 : “Introduction,” Post-Theory: Reconstructing Film Studies , ed. David Bordwell and essay on favorite Noël Carroll (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1996), xiii. More generally, much of what I’ve said in this online essay was said more pointedly in items Carroll’s pioneering 1985 article, “The Power of Movies.” See Carroll, Theorizing the life photo essayist, Moving Image (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), 7893. have comments about the state of items, this website? go here.