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Attachment purpose cover letter

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Attachment purpose cover letter

Biographical essay sample : Muhammad Ali#039;s Life. The article provides the example of the cover letter biographical essay, written for the topic: Muhammad Ali’s Life. Our essay writing service offers quality writing assistance. Writing a biographical essay requires following certain structure, rules and style. Here, you will find the example of the perfectly structured biographical essay that you may use as a template for your own writing.

Biographical essay : Muhammad Ali’s Life. It is hard to find a person that does not know anything about Muhammad Ali. Muhammad Ali was a legend, an example to follow for many beginners in boxing and general public. His strong character and standard rod fascinated millions of people for internet, whom Ali was the example of the never-giving-up hero. Muhammad Ali was an attachment letter American boxer and activist who is remembered as one of the most controversial personalities of the 20th century. Muhammad Ali whose actual name was Cassius Clay was born in Louisville, Kentucky on January 17, 1942, in a family of Black Americans of thesis internet African descent. The boy was brought up in the atmosphere of attachment purpose cover letter racial segregation, which had an argumentation research paper influence on his character and future career. The mother of Clay told various occasions of racial discrimination. For example, the boy was denied to purpose cover letter have a glass of water in a store because of his skin color.

Clay was directed to boxing coach by term paper, a police officer during a case of beating the thief of his bicycle. The officer saw a talent in a boy and suggested to use this talent in a right destination. At that time, Muhammad Ali was 12 years old. This was an attachment purpose cover letter unofficial start of his boxing career. His boxing debut was in 1954. In the following six years a boy won 100 battles among which were the six Kentucky Golden Gloves titles, two national Golden Gloves titles, an Amateur Athletic Union national title, and the Light Heavyweight gold medal in the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome.

He lost only 5 battles during these 6 years. Despite the superficial boxing records, Clay encountered the cases of racial discrimination. Process Essay Exercises! When he came back after his win in letter Rome, he threw the medal in cystic fibrosis Ohio river because he was refused a service at a “whites-only” restaurant. At the age of 22, Clay won the first title in the heavyweight championship by technical knockout in sixth round. His competitor, Liston did not answer the attachment cover bell ring for boeing 7e7 case, the seventh round. A year after, in 1965, Clay defended his title in a fight against Floyd Patterson.The fight lasted 12 rounds and ended in attachment letter a technical knockout. The next fights were with Ernie Terrel, George Chuvalo, Henry Cooper, Brian London, and Karl Mildenberger. The next battle was one of the most beautiful wins in Ali’s career.

He fought Clevelend Williams, once considered the most professional boxer in the heavyweight category. The fight eresulted in technical knockout in process the third round. Attachment Purpose Cover Letter! In 1967, Ali fought Terrel. This was one of the hardest fights since his first heavyweight fight with Liston. Terrel was unbeaten for essays on prospero the tempest, five years on a row. Terrel called Ali “Clay” as a reminder of his slave roots. When Ali dominated Terrel and letter beat him in eights round, he shouted: “What’s my name?”. This was a cruel fight, Terrel was bleeding, but at the same time, it was the revenge for construction, the discrimination. Ali’s career was suspended along with the suspend of his boxing license in attachment purpose almost all states.

This happened after his refusal to join armed forces. With the paper growing opposition to attachment letter Vietnam War, Ali gained more sympathy by advocating racial justice. In 1970 Ali was granted a license to box in boeing solution the city of Atlanta. Further, his license in the New York was renewed. On March 8, 1971 the “Fight of the cover letter Century” between Ali and Joe Frazier took place at Madison Garden Square in New York City. Both unbeatable heavyweight champions were determined to win the battle. The battle also had a political meaning. Ali was pro-left anti-war supporter, while Frazier supported conservative pro-war movement.

The 15-round fight ended up in the first professional loss for Ali. However, he refused to accept the defeat. Later, Ali became the heavyweight champion in fibrosis the second round. After several successful fights, Ali announced his retirement from boxing in 1979. But, short after he decided to come back. He was not in a good shape, and his comeback was a total failure. Moreover, the physical losses he received in the last three fights contributed to the development of Parkinson disease. After Ali ended his professional career as a boxer, he still took part in many public activities. Ali traveled to Iraq to cover letter negotiate with Saddam Hussein.

Later, he was sent as the United Nations Messenger of process essay Peace to Afghanistan. Ali also cooperated with Fox with an aim to raise awareness about the letter Parkinson disease and sponsor the construction innovation dissertation research. Attachment Purpose Letter! The life of the prominent boxing hero ended on June 3, 2016 at the age of 74 years old. The life of the legend in boxing Muhammad Ali was an example of the fight against racial discrimination. He showed by personal example that black people can reach the heights in the professional development. Muhammad Ali was a skillful, talented boxer who strived for excellence and boeing study never gave up. Cover Letter! If you are looking for a reliable assistance in writing paper, our essay writing service is ready to help you! Our professional degree-holding writers will meet your finest expectations and on prospero any deadline.

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Attachment purpose cover letter What is a cover letter? what is the

If correlation doesn’t imply causation, then what does? It is a commonplace of scientific discussion that correlation does not imply causation. Business Week recently ran an spoof article pointing out some amusing examples of the dangers of inferring causation from correlation. For example, the article points out purpose letter that Facebook’s growth has been strongly correlated with the yield on Greek government bonds: (credit) Despite this strong correlation, it would not be wise to conclude that the success of Facebook has somehow caused the current (2009-2012) Greek debt crisis, nor that the Greek debt crisis has caused the adoption of Facebook!

Of course, while it’s all very well to piously state that correlation doesn’t imply causation, it does leave us with a conundrum: under what conditions, exactly, can we use experimental data to innovation dissertation deduce a causal relationship between two or more variables? The standard scientific answer to this question is that (with some caveats) we can infer causality from a well designed randomized controlled experiment. Unfortunately, while this answer is satisfying in principle and attachment purpose letter, sometimes useful in practice, it’s often impractical or impossible to do a randomized controlled experiment. Construction Innovation? And so we’re left with the question of whether there are other procedures we can use to infer causality from experimental data. And, given that we can find more general procedures for inferring causal relationships, what does causality mean, anyway, for how we reason about a system?

It might seem that the answers to such fundamental questions would have been settled long ago. In fact, they turn out to be surprisingly subtle questions. Over the past few decades, a group of scientists have developed a theory of causal inference intended to address these and other related questions. This theory can be thought of as an algebra or language for reasoning about cause and effect. Many elements of the letter, theory have been laid out in a famous book by privacy, one of the main contributors to the theory, Judea Pearl. Although the theory of causal inference is not yet fully formed, and is still undergoing development, what has already been accomplished is interesting and worth understanding. In this post I will describe one small but important part of the theory of causal inference, a causal calculus developed by Pearl. This causal calculus is a set of three simple but powerful algebraic rules which can be used to make inferences about causal relationships.

In particular, I’ll explain how the causal calculus can sometimes (but not always!) be used to infer causation from a set of data, even when a randomized controlled experiment is not possible. Purpose Cover? Also in the post, I’ll describe some of the limits of the causal calculus, and some of my own speculations and questions. The post is a little technically detailed at points. However, the first three sections of the post are non-technical, and I hope will be of broad interest. Throughout the cystic fibrosis term, post I’ve included occasional “Problems for cover letter the author”, where I describe problems I’d like to solve, or things I’d like to privacy understand better. Feel free to ignore these if you find them distracting, but I hope they’ll give you some sense of what I find interesting about the subject. Incidentally, I’m sure many of these problems have already been solved by others; I’m not claiming that these are all open research problems, although perhaps some are. They’re simply things I’d like to understand better. Also in cover letter the post I’ve included some exercises for the reader, and some slightly harder problems for the reader.

You may find it informative to work through these exercises and process, problems. Before diving in, one final caveat: I am not an attachment purpose, expert on causal inference, nor on fibrosis, statistics. The reason I wrote this post was to help me internalize the ideas of the causal calculus. Occasionally, one finds a presentation of attachment purpose a technical subject which is beautifully clear and illuminating, a presentation where the author has seen right through the thesis privacy, subject, and is able to convey that crystalized understanding to others. That’s a great aspirational goal, but I don’t yet have that understanding of causal inference, and these notes don’t meet that standard. Nonetheless, I hope others will find my notes useful, and that experts will speak up to correct any errors or misapprehensions on my part. Let me start by explaining two example problems to cover illustrate some of the difficulties we run into when making inferences about cystic causality. The first is known as Simpson’s paradox. Attachment Purpose? To explain Simpson’s paradox I’ll use a concrete example based on the passage of the Civil Rights Act in the United States in 1964.

In the US House of about privacy Representatives, 61 percent of attachment cover Democrats voted for the Civil Rights Act, while a much higher percentage, 80 percent, of Republicans voted for the Act. You might think that we could conclude from this that being Republican, rather than Democrat, was an important factor in innovation causing someone to cover letter vote for the Civil Rights Act. However, the picture changes if we include an additional factor in the analysis, namely, whether a legislator came from a Northern or Southern state. If we include that extra factor, the situation completely reverses, in both the North and the South. Here’s how it breaks down: North: Democrat (94 percent), Republican (85 percent)

South: Democrat (7 percent), Republican (0 percent) Yes, you read that right: in both the North and 7e7 case study solution, the South, a larger fraction of Democrats than Republicans voted for the Act, despite the fact that overall a larger fraction of Republicans than Democrats voted for the Act. You might wonder how this can possibly be true. I’ll quickly state the raw voting numbers, so you can check that the arithmetic works out, and then I’ll explain why it’s true. You can skip the numbers if you trust my arithmetic. North: Democrat (145/154, 94 percent), Republican (138/162, 85 percent) South: Democrat (7/94, 7 percent), Republican (0/10, 0 percent)

Overall: Democrat (152/248, 61 percent), Republican (138/172, 80 percent) One way of understanding what’s going on attachment cover letter, is to note that a far greater proportion of Democrat (as opposed to 7e7 case solution Republican) legislators were from the South. In fact, at the time the House had 94 Democrats, and only 10 Republicans. Because of attachment purpose letter this enormous difference, the study, very low fraction (7 percent) of southern Democrats voting for the Act dragged down the Democrats’ overall percentage much more than did the even lower fraction (0 percent) of southern Republicans who voted for the Act. (The numbers above are for the House of Congress.

The numbers were different in attachment purpose cover letter the Senate, but the same overall phenomenon occurred. I’ve taken the numbers from Wikipedia’s article about Simpson’s paradox, and there are more details there.) If we take a naive causal point of view, this result looks like a paradox. As I said above, the overall voting pattern seems to suggest that being Republican, rather than Democrat, was an important causal factor in voting for the Civil Rights Act. Yet if we look at the individual statistics in both the North and the South, then we’d come to the exact opposite conclusion. Boeing Study? To state the same result more abstractly, Simpson’s paradox is the fact that the correlation between two variables can actually be reversed when additional factors are considered. So two variables which appear correlated can become anticorrelated when another factor is taken into account. You might wonder if results like those we saw in voting on the Civil Rights Act are simply an attachment letter, unusual fluke. But, in fact, this is not that uncommon. Wikipedia’s page on Simpson’s paradox lists many important and similar real-world examples ranging from understanding whether there is gender-bias in university admissions to which treatment works best for kidney stones. In each case, understanding the causal relationships turns out to be much more complex than one might at first think.

I’ll now go through a second example of Simpson’s paradox, the cystic term paper, kidney stone treatment example just mentioned, because it helps drive home just how bad our intuitions about statistics and causality are. Imagine you suffer from kidney stones, and your Doctor offers you two choices: treatment A or treatment B. Your Doctor tells you that the purpose cover, two treatments have been tested in a trial, and treatment A was effective for a higher percentage of patients than treatment B. If you’re like most people, at this point you’d say “Well, okay, I’ll go with treatment A”. Here’s the gotcha. Keep in mind that this really happened . Suppose you divide patients in thesis privacy the trial up into those with large kidney stones, and attachment letter, those with small kidney stones. Then even though treatment A was effective for a higher overall percentage of patients than treatment B, treatment B was effective for a higher percentage of patients in both groups , i.e., for both large and small kidney stones. Process Essay Exercises? So your Doctor could just as honestly have said “Well, you have large [or small] kidney stones, and treatment B worked for a higher percentage of patients with large [or small] kidney stones than treatment A”. If your Doctor had made either one of purpose cover these statements, then if you’re like most people you’d have decided to go with treatment B, i.e., the essays on prospero, exact opposite treatment.

The kidney stone example relies, of course, on cover, the same kind of arithmetic as in the Civil Rights Act voting, and it’s worth stopping to figure out for yourself how the paper, claims I made above could possibly be true. If you’re having trouble, you can click through to the Wikipedia page, which has all the details of the numbers. Now, I’ll confess that before learning about Simpson’s paradox, I would have unhesitatingly done just as I suggested a naive person would. Indeed, even though I’ve now spent quite a bit of time pondering Simpson’s paradox, I’m not entirely sure I wouldn’t still sometimes make the same kind of mistake. I find it more than a little mind-bending that my heuristics about how to purpose cover letter behave on the basis of statistical evidence are obviously not just a little wrong, but utterly, horribly wrong. Perhaps I’m alone in 7e7 case having terrible intuition about how to attachment interpret statistics. But frankly I wouldn’t be surprised if most people share my confusion.

I often wonder how many people with real decision-making power – politicians, judges, and so on construction dissertation, – are making decisions based on attachment purpose, statistical studies, and boeing study, yet they don’t understand even basic things like Simpson’s paradox. Or, to put it another way, they have not the first clue about purpose cover letter statistics. Partial evidence may be worse than no evidence if it leads to an illusion of knowledge, and so to overconfidence and certainty where none is justified. It’s better to know that you don’t know. Correlation, causation, smoking, and lung cancer. As a second example of the difficulties in establishing causality, consider the relationship between cigarette smoking and lung cancer. In 1964 the United States’ Surgeon General issued a report claiming that cigarette smoking causes lung cancer. Unfortunately, according to Pearl the 7e7 case study, evidence in the report was based primarily on correlations between cigarette smoking and lung cancer.

As a result the report came under attack not just by tobacco companies, but also by some of the world’s most prominent statisticians, including the great Ronald Fisher. They claimed that there could be a hidden factor – maybe some kind of genetic factor – which caused both lung cancer and people to want to cover letter smoke (i.e., nicotine craving). If that was true, then while smoking and term, lung cancer would be correlated, the decision to purpose smoke or not smoke would have no impact on whether you got lung cancer. Now, you might scoff at argumentation research, this notion. But derision isn’t a principled argument. And, as the example of Simpson’s paradox showed, determining causality on the basis of correlations is tricky, at best, and can potentially lead to contradictory conclusions.

It’d be much better to attachment purpose cover have a principled way of using data to about internet privacy conclude that the relationship between smoking and lung cancer is not just a correlation, but rather that there truly is a causal relationship. One way of demonstrating this kind of causal connection is to do a randomized, controlled experiment. We suppose there is some experimenter who has the power to intervene with a person, literally forcing them to either smoke (or not) according to the whim of the experimenter. Attachment? The experimenter takes a large group of people, and randomly divides them into two halves. One half are forced to about smoke, while the other half are forced not to smoke. By doing this the experimenter can break the relationship between smoking and any hidden factor causing both smoking and lung cancer. By comparing the attachment purpose cover, cancer rates in the group who were forced to smoke to those who were forced not to thesis about internet privacy smoke, it would then be possible determine whether or not there is truly a causal connection between smoking and cover letter, lung cancer.

This kind of randomized, controlled experiment is argumentation research highly desirable when it can be done, but experimenters often don’t have this power. Attachment Purpose? In the case of smoking, this kind of boeing experiment would probably be illegal today, and, I suspect, even decades into the past. And even when it’s legal, in many cases it would be impractical, as in the case of the Civil Rights Act, and for many other important political, legal, medical, and econonomic questions. To help address problems like the two example problems just discussed, Pearl introduced a causal calculus. In the letter, remainder of this post, I will explain the rules of the causal calculus, and use them to analyse the smoking-cancer connection. We’ll see that even without doing a randomized controlled experiment it’s possible (with the aid of some reasonable assumptions) to infer what the outcome of a randomized controlled experiment would have been, using only relatively easily accessible experimental data, data that doesn’t require experimental intervention to force people to smoke or not, but which can be obtained from innovation purely observational studies. To state the rules of the causal calculus, we’ll need several background ideas. I’ll explain those ideas over the next three sections of this post. The ideas are causal models (covered in this section), causal conditional probabilities , and d-separation , respectively.

It’s a lot to swallow, but the ideas are powerful, and worth taking the time to understand. With these notions under our belts, we’ll able to understand the rules of the causal calculus. To understand causal models, consider the following graph of possible causal relationships between smoking, lung cancer, and some unknown hidden factor (say, a hidden genetic factor): This is a quite general model of causal relationships, in the sense that it includes both the suggestion of the US Surgeon General (smoking causes cancer) and also the suggestion of the attachment letter, tobacco companies (a hidden factor causes both smoking and cancer). Argumentation Research Paper? Indeed, it also allows a third possibility: that perhaps both smoking and some hidden factor contribute to lung cancer. This combined relationship could potentially be quite complex: it could be, for example, that smoking alone actually reduces the chance of lung cancer, but the hidden factor increases the chance of lung cancer so much that someone who smokes would, on average, see an increased probability of purpose cover lung cancer. This sounds unlikely, but later we’ll see some toy model data which has exactly this property. Of course, the model depicted in the graph above is not the most general possible model of causal relationships in this system; it’s easy to imagine much more complex causal models.

But at the very least this is an study, interesting causal model, since it encompasses both the US Surgeon General and the tobacco company suggestions. I’ll return later to the possibility of more general causal models, but for now we’ll simply keep this model in mind as a concrete example of attachment purpose letter a causal model. Mathematically speaking, what do the arrows of causality in the diagram above mean? We’ll develop an answer to argumentation research that question over the next few paragraphs. It helps to start by moving away from the specific smoking-cancer model to allow a causal model to be based on a more general graph indicating possible causal relationships between a number of purpose cover variables: Each vertex in this causal model has an associated random variable, . For example, in the causal model above could be a two-outcome random variable indicating the innovation dissertation, presence or absence of some gene that exerts an influence on whether someone smokes or gets lung cancer, indicates “smokes” or “does not smoke”, and attachment, indicates “gets lung cancer” or “doesn’t get lung cancer”. Essay Exercises? The other variables and would refer to other potential dependencies in this (somewhat more complex) model of the smoking-cancer connection.

A notational convention that we’ll use often is to interchangeably use to refer to a random variable in the causal model, and also as a way of labelling the corresponding vertex in the graph for the causal model. It should be clear from context which is meant. Purpose Letter? We’ll also sometimes refer interchangeably to the causal model or to the associated graph. For the notion of causality to make sense we need to constrain the class of graphs that can be used in a causal model. Obviously, it’d make no sense to have loops in the graph: We can’t have causing causing causing ! At least, not without a time machine. Because of this we constrain the cystic term, graph to be a directed acyclic graph, meaning a (directed) graph which has no loops in it. By the way, I must admit that I’m not a fan of the term directed acyclic graph. It sounds like a very complicated notion, at purpose cover letter, least to my ear, when what it means is very simple: a graph with no loops. I’d really prefer to call it a “loop-free graph”, or something like that.

Unfortunately, the “directed acyclic graph” nomenclature is pretty standard, so we’ll go with it. Our picture so far is that a causal model consists of a directed acyclic graph, whose vertices are labelled by random variables . To complete our definition of causal models we need to capture the allowed relationships between those random variables. Intuitively, what causality means is that for any particular the only random variables which directly influence the value of are the parents of , i.e., the collection of thesis internet random variables which are connected directly to . For instance, in the graph shown below (which is the same as the complex graph we saw a little earlier), we have : Now, of course, vertices further back in the graph – say, the parents of the purpose cover letter, parents – could, of course, influence the value of fibrosis term . But it would be indirect, an influence mediated through the parent vertices. Note, by the way, that I’ve overloaded the notation, using to denote a collection of random variables. I’ll use this kind of overloading quite a bit in attachment purpose cover the rest of this post. In particular, I’ll often use the notation (or , or ) to essays denote a subset of random variables from the graph. Motivated by the above discussion, one way we could define causal influence would be to require that be a function of cover letter its parents: where is some function. In fact, we’ll allow a slightly more general notion of causal influence, allowing to not just be a deterministic function of the study, parents, but a random function. We do this by attachment purpose letter, requiring that be expressible in the form: where is a function, and is a collection of random variables such that: (a) the are independent of one another for process essay different values of ; and purpose cover, (b) for each , is independent of all variables , except when is itself, or a descendant of . Research? The intuition is that the cover, are a collection of auxiliary random variables which inject some extra randomness into (and, through , its descendants), but which are otherwise independent of the variables in the causal model. Summing up, a causal model consists of a directed acyclic graph, , whose vertices are labelled by random variables, , and each is essay exercises expressible in the form for some function . The are independent of purpose letter one another, and each is independent of all variables , except when is or a descendant of . In practice, we will not work directly with the functions or the fibrosis, auxiliary random variables . Instead, we’ll work with the following equation, which specifies the attachment letter, causal model’s joint probability distribution as a product of conditional probabilities:

I won’t prove this equation, but the expression should be plausible, and study solution, is pretty easy to attachment cover prove; I’ve asked you to prove it as an boeing 7e7 case, optional exercise below. Prove the above equation for the joint probability distribution. (Simpson’s paradox in causal models) Consider the causal model of smoking introduced above. Suppose that the hidden factor is a gene which is either switched on or off. Attachment Purpose? If on, it tends to make people both smoke and about internet, get lung cancer.

Find explicit values for conditional probabilities in the causal model such that , and yet if the additional genetic factor is purpose cover letter taken into dissertation account this relationship is reversed. That is, we have both and . An alternate, equivalent approach to defining causal models is as follows: (1) all root vertices (i.e., vertices with no parents) in attachment purpose cover the graph are labelled by independent random variables. (2) augment the boeing study solution, graph by attachment purpose cover letter, introducing new vertices corresponding to the . Internet Privacy? These new vertices have single outgoing edges, pointing to . (3) Require that non-root vertices in attachment cover letter the augmented graph be deterministic functions of their parents. The disadvantage of this definition is that it introduces the overhead of dealing with the augmented graph. But the definition also has the advantage of cleanly separating the construction innovation dissertation, stochastic and deterministic components, and I wouldn’t be surprised if developing the theory of causal inference from this point of view was stimulating, at the very least, and cover, may possibly have some advantages compared to the standard approach. So the 7e7 case, problem I set myself (and anyone else who is interested!) is to carry the consequences of this change through the rest of the theory of attachment cover causal inference, looking for advantages and 7e7 case study solution, disadvantages. I’ve been using terms like “causal influence” somewhat indiscriminately in attachment cover letter the discussion above, and so I’d like to pause to discuss a bit more carefully about process exercises what is meant here, and what nomenclature we should use going forward. All the arrows in a causal model indicate are the possibility of a direct causal influence. This results in two caveats on how we think about causality in these models. Attachment? First, it may be that a child random variable is actually completely independent of the value of one (or more) of its parent random variables.

This is, admittedly, a rather special case, but is perfectly consistent with the essay, definition. For example, in a causal model like. it is possible that the outcome of cancer might be independent of the hidden causal factor or, for that matter, that it might be independent of whether someone smokes or not. (Indeed, logically, at cover, least, it may be independent of both, although of 7e7 case course that’s not what we’ll find in the real world.) The second caveat in how we think about the arrows and causality is that the arrows only cover capture the boeing 7e7 case study, direct causal influences in the model. It is possible that in a causal model like. will have a causal influence on purpose cover, through its influence on about, and . Attachment Purpose Cover? This would be an indirect causal influence, mediated by other random variables, but it would still be a causal influence. In the next section I’ll give a more formal definition of causal influence that can be used to make these ideas precise. In this section I’ll explain what I think is the thesis about internet, most imaginative leap underlying the causal calculus. It’s the introduction of the concept of causal conditional probabilities . The notion of ordinary conditional probabilities is no doubt familiar to you. Attachment Purpose Cover Letter? It’s pretty straightforward to do experiments to estimate conditional probabilities such as , simply by looking at the population of people who smoke, and figuring out what fraction of those people develop cancer. Unfortunately, for the purpose of understanding the causal relationship between smoking and cancer, isn’t the quantity we want. As the tobacco companies pointed out, there might well be a hidden genetic factor that makes it very likely that you’ll see cancer in anyone who smokes, but that wouldn’t therefore mean that smoking causes cancer.

As we discussed earlier, what you’d really like to do in this circumstance is a randomized controlled experiment in which it’s possible for the experimenter to force someone to smoke (or not smoke), breaking the causal connection between the hidden factor and smoking. In such an experiment you really could see if there was a causal influence by looking at what fraction of people who smoked got cancer. In particular, if that fraction was higher than in the overall population then you’d be justified in concluding that smoking helped cause cancer. In practice, it’s probably not practical to do this kind of randomized controlled experiment. But Pearl had what turns out to be a very clever idea: to imagine a hypothetical world in which it really is possible to force someone to (for example) smoke, or not smoke. In particular, he introduced a conditional causal probability , which is the argumentation research, conditional probability of cancer in this hypothetical world. This should be read as the letter, (causal conditional) probability of cancer given that we “do” smoking, i.e., someone has been forced to cystic fibrosis paper smoke in a (hypothetical) randomized experiment. Now, at first sight this appears a rather useless thing to do. But what makes it a clever imaginative leap is that although it may be impossible or impractical to do a controlled experiment to determine , Pearl was able to establish a set of rules – a causal calculus – that such causal conditional probabilities should obey.

And, by attachment purpose letter, making use of this causal calculus, it turns out to essays the tempest sometimes be possible to infer the purpose, value of probabilities such as , even when a controlled, randomized experiment is impossible. And that’s a very remarkable thing to be able to do, and why I say it was so clever to have introduced the notion of causal conditional probabilities. We’ll discuss the 7e7 case study solution, rules of the causal calculus later in this post. Attachment Cover Letter? For now, though, let’s develop the notion of cystic fibrosis causal conditional probabilities. Suppose we have a causal model of some phenomenon: Now suppose we introduce an external experimenter who is able to intervene to deliberately set the value of purpose letter a particular variable to . In other words, the experimenter can override the other causal influences on that variable. This is equivalent to having a new causal model: In this new causal model, we’ve represented the experimenter by a new vertex, which has as a child the vertex . On Prospero? All other parents of attachment purpose cover letter are cut off, i.e., the edges from the parents to study solution are deleted from the graph. In this case that means the purpose cover letter, edge from to has been deleted. This represents the fact that the experimenter’s intervention overrides the other causal influences. (Note that the edges to process the children of are left undisturbed.) In fact, it’s even simpler (and equivalent) to attachment purpose consider a causal model where the parents have been cut off from , and no extra vertex added: This model has no vertex explicitly representing the experimenter, but rather the relation is replaced by the relation . Construction Innovation Dissertation? We will denote this graph by , indicating the graph in which all edges pointing to have been deleted.

We will call this a perturbed graph , and the corresponding causal model a perturbed causal model . In the perturbed causal model the only change is to delete the cover, edges to , and to replace the term paper, relation by the relation . Our aim is to use this perturbed causal model to compute the conditional causal probability . Attachment Cover Letter? In this expression, indicates that the argumentation research paper, term is attachment purpose cover letter omitted before the , since the value of is set on the right. Construction Dissertation? By definition, the causal conditional probability is just the value of the probability distribution in the perturbed causal model, . Attachment Cover? To compute the value of the probability in the perturbed causal model, note that the probability distribution in the original causal model was given by. where the product on about internet privacy, the right is over all vertices in the causal model. This expression remains true for the perturbed causal model, but a single term on the right-hand side changes: the conditional probability for the term. In particular, this term gets changed from to , since we have fixed the value of to attachment be . As a result we have: This equation is privacy a fundamental expression, capturing what it means for an experimenter to intervene to set the value of purpose letter some particular variable in a causal model. It can easily be generalized to a situation where we partition the variables into two sets, and , where are the variables we suppose have been set by intervention in a (possibly hypothetical) randomized controlled experiment, and are the remaining variables:

Note that on the right-hand side the values for are assumed to be given by the appropriate values from and process exercises, . The expression [1] can be viewed as a definition of causal conditional probabilities. But although this expression is fundamental to attachment purpose understanding the causal calculus, it is not always useful in practice. The problem is that the values of some of the variables on the right-hand side may not be known, and cannot be determined by experiment. Consider, for example, the case of thesis about smoking and cancer. Recall our causal model: What we’d like is to compute . Unfortunately, we immediately run into a problem if we try to use the expression on the right of purpose letter equation [1]: we’ve got no way of estimating the conditional probabilities for smoking given the hidden common factor. So we can’t obviously compute . And, as you can perhaps imagine, this is the kind of boeing 7e7 case solution problem that will come up a lot whenever we’re worried about the possible influence of some hidden factor. All is not lost, however. Just because we can’t compute the expression on attachment, the right of [1] directly doesn’t mean we can’t compute causal conditional probabilities in other ways, and we’ll see below how the causal calculus can help solve this kind of problem. It’s not a complete solution – we shall see that it doesn’t always make it possible to compute causal conditional probabilities. But it does help.

In particular, we’ll see that although it’s not possible to compute for this causal model, it is possible to compute in a very similar causal model, one that still has a hidden factor. With causal conditional probabilities defined, we’re now in position to define more precisely what we mean by causal influence. Suppose we have a causal model, and and are distinct random variables (or disjoint subsets of random variables). Then we say has a causal influence over if there are values and of and of such that . Boeing 7e7 Case? In other words, an external experimenter who can intervene to change the value of can cause a corresponding change in the distribution of values at . Attachment Purpose Letter? The following exercise gives an information-theoretic justification for this definition of causal influence: it shows that an experimenter who can intervene to set can transmit information to if and cystic term paper, only if the attachment purpose cover, above condition for causal inference is met. (The causal capacity) This exercise is for people with some background in information theory.

Suppose we define the causal capacity between and to be , where is the mutual information, the 7e7 case study, maximization is over possible distributions for (we use the hat to purpose indicate that the value of is on prospero being set by intervention), and is the corresponding random variable at purpose, , with distribution . Shannon’s noisy channel coding theorem tells us that an process essay, external experimenter who can intervene to set the value of can transmit information to an observer at attachment purpose cover, at a maximal rate set by the causal capacity. Show that the causal capacity is greater than zero if and only if has a causal influence over . We’ve just defined a notion of causal influence between two random variables in study a causal model. What about when we say something like “Event A” causes “Event B”? What does this mean? Returning to the smoking-cancer example, it seems that we would say that smoking causes cancer provided , so that if someone makes the choice to smoke, uninfluenced by other causal factors, then they would increase their chance of cancer. Intuitively, it seems to me that this notion of events causing one another should be related to the notion of causal influence just defined above. Cover? But I don’t yet see quite how to construction dissertation do that. Attachment Purpose Letter? The first problem below suggests a conjecture in this direction: Suppose and argumentation, are random variables in a causal model such that for some pair of attachment purpose cover values and . Does this imply that exerts a causal influence on ? (Sum-over-paths for causal conditional probabilities?) I believe a kind of sum-over-paths formulation of causal conditional probabilities is possible, but haven’t worked out details.

The idea is about internet privacy as follows (the details may be quite wrong, but I believe something along these lines should work). Supose and are single vertices (with corresponding random variables) in a causal model. Then I would like to show first that if is not an cover, ancestor of then , i.e., intervention does nothing. Second, if is an essays, ancestor of then may be obtained by summing over all directed paths from to in , and computing for each path a contribution to the sum which is a product of attachment purpose cover letter conditional probabilities along the path. (Note that we may need to thesis about internet privacy consider the same path multiple times in the sum, since the random variables along the path may take different values). We used causal models in our definition of causal conditional probabilities. But our informal definiton – imagine a hypothetical world in which it’s possible to force a variable to take a particular value – didn’t obviously require the use of attachment purpose cover a causal model. Indeed, in a real-world randomized controlled experiment it may be that there is no underlying causal model. This leads me to exercises wonder if there is some other way of formalizing the attachment cover letter, informal definition we’ve given? Another way of framing the last problem is thesis privacy that I’m concerned about the letter, empirical basis for causal models. About Internet? How should we go about constructing such models?

Are they fundamental, representing true facts about the world, or are they modelling conveniences? (This is by purpose cover, no means a dichotomy.) It would be useful to work through many more examples, considering carefully the origin of the functions and of the auxiliary random variables . In this section we’ll develop a criterion that Pearl calls directional separation ( d-separation , for short). What d-separation does is let us inspect the graph of a causal model and cystic fibrosis, conclude that a random variable in the model can’t tell us anything about the value of another random variable in the model, or vice versa. To understand d-separation we’ll start with a simple case, and then work through increasingly complex cases, building up our intuition. I’ll conclude by giving a precise definition of d-separation, and by cover letter, explaining how d-separation relates to the concept of conditional independence of random variables. Here’s the paper, first simple causal model: Clearly, knowing can in general tell us something about in this kind of cover causal model, and so in this case and are not d-separated. We’ll use the term d-connected as a synonym for cystic term “not d-separated”, and so in this causal model and attachment purpose, are d-connected. By contrast, in the following causal model and don’t give us any information about cystic fibrosis term each other, and so they are d-separated: A useful piece of purpose terminology is to say that a vertex like the middle vertex in this model is a collider for the path from to , meaning a vertex at which both edges along the the tempest, path are incoming.

What about the causal model: In this case, it is possible that knowing will tell us something about purpose cover letter , because of their common ancestry. It’s like the construction innovation, way knowing the genome for one sibling can give us information about the genome of another sibling, since similarities between the genomes can be inferred from the purpose, common ancestry. We’ll call a vertex like the middle vertex in this model a fork for the path from to exercises , meaning a vertex at which both edges are outgoing. Construct an explicit causal model demonstrating the assertion of the last paragraph. Letter? For example, you may construct a causal model in which and are joined by about internet privacy, a fork, and where is actually a function of cover letter . Suppose we have a path from to in a causal model. Let be the essays, number of colliders along the attachment cover letter, path, and let be the argumentation research paper, number of forks along the path.

Show that can only take the values or , i.e., the number of forks and colliders is either the attachment cover, same or differs by at most one. We’ll say that a path (of any length) from to that contains a collider is argumentation research a blocked path. Attachment Letter? By contrast, a path that contains no colliders is called an unblocked path. (Note that by the above exercise, an unblocked path must contain either one or no forks.) In general, we define and to be d-connected if there is an unblocked path between them. We define them to construction innovation be d-separated if there is attachment letter no such unblocked path. It’s worth noting that the boeing, concepts of attachment letter d-separation and d-connectedness depend only on the graph topology and on which vertices and have been chosen.

In particular, they don’t depend on the nature of the fibrosis term, random variables and , merely on attachment purpose letter, the identity of the corresponding vertices. As a result, you can determine d-separation or d-connectdness simply by inspecting the process essay exercises, graph. This fact – that d-separation and d-connectdness are determined by the graph – also holds for the more sophisticated notions of d-separation and attachment purpose letter, d-connectedness we develop below. With that said, it probably won’t surprise you to learn that the concept of d-separation is closely related to whether or not the random variables and are independent of one another. This is a connection you can (optionally) develop through the following exercises. I’ll state a much more general connection below. Suppose that and are d-separated. Cystic Fibrosis? Show that and are independent random variables, i.e., that . Suppose we have two vertices which are d-connected in a graph . Explain how to construct a causal model on that graph such that the random variables and corresponding to purpose letter those two vertices are not independent. The last two exercises almost but don’t quite claim that random variables and in a causal model are independent if and fibrosis term paper, only if they are d-separated.

Why does this statement fail to be true? How can you modify the statement to make it true? So far, this is pretty simple stuff. It gets more complicated, however, when we extend the notion of d-separation to cases where we are conditioning on purpose letter, already knowing the value of one or more random variables in the causal model. Consider, for example, the graph: Now, if we know , then knowing doesn’t give us any additional information about , since by our original definition of research paper a causal model is already a function of and attachment letter, some auxiliary random variables which are independent of . So it makes sense to say that blocks this path from to term , even though in the unconditioned case this path would not have been considered blocked. We’ll also say that and are d-separated, given . It is helpful to give a name to vertices like the middle vertex in Figure A, i.e., to vertices with one ingoing and one outgoing edge.

We’ll call such vertices a traverse along the path from to . Using this language, the lesson of the above discussion is that if is in a traverse along a path from to , then the purpose cover letter, path is on prospero blocked. By contrast, consider this model: In this case, knowing will in general give us additional information about , even if we know . This is because while blocks one path from to there is another unblocked path from to . And so we say that and are d-connected, given . Another case similar to Figure A is the model with a fork: Again, if we know , then knowing as well doesn’t give us any extra information about (or vice versa). So we’ll say that in this case is attachment purpose cover blocking the path from to , even though in the unconditioned case this path would not have been considered blocked. Again, in this example and are d-separated, given . The lesson of this model is that if is located at argumentation research paper, a fork along a path from to attachment cover , then the path is blocked. A subtlety arises when we consider a collider: In the unconditioned case this would have been considered a blocked path. And, naively, it seems as though this should still be the 7e7 case solution, case: at first sight (at least according to my intuition) it doesn’t seem very likely that can give us any additional information about (or vice versa), even given that is known. Yet we should be cautious, because the argument we made for letter the graph in Figure A breaks down: we can’t say, as we did for Figure A, that is a function of and boeing study, some auxiliary independent random variables. In fact, we’re wise to be cautious because and really can tell us something extra about one another, given a knowledge of . This is attachment purpose letter a phenomenon which Pearl calls Berkson’s paradox . He gives the essays on prospero the tempest, example of a graduate school in music which will admit a student (a possibility encoded in purpose cover the value of ) if either they have high undergraduate grades (encoded in ) or some other evidence that they are exceptionally gifted at music (encoded in essays on prospero ). It would not be surprising if these two attributes were anticorrelated amongst students in attachment purpose cover letter the program, e.g., students who were admitted on fibrosis term paper, the basis of attachment purpose cover letter exceptional gifts would be more likely than otherwise to have low grades.

And so in this case knowledge of (exceptional gifts) would give us knowledge of (likely to have low grades), conditioned on knowledge of essays on prospero the tempest (they were accepted into attachment letter the program). Another way of seeing Berkson’s paradox is to construct an explicit causal model for the graph in Figure B. Consider, for example, a causal model in which and research paper, are independent random bits, or , chosen with equal probabilities . We suppose that , where is addition modulo . This causal model does, indeed, have the structure of Figure B. But given that we know the value , knowing the value of tells us everything about purpose cover letter , since . As a result of thesis privacy this discussion, in the causal graph of letter Figure B we’ll say that unblocks the path from to , even though in the unconditioned case the path would have been considered blocked. And we’ll also say that in this causal graph and study solution, are d-connected, conditional on . The immediate lesson from the graph of Figure B is that and can tell us something about one another, given , if there is purpose a path between and where the only collider is at . In fact, the same phenomenon can occur even in this graph: To see this, suppose we choose and as in the example just described above, i.e., independent random bits, or , chosen with equal probabilities . We will let the unlabelled vertex be . Research? And, finally, we choose . Attachment Purpose Letter? Then we see as before that can tell us something about , given that we know , because . The general intuition about graphs like that in Figure C is that knowing allows us to infer something about the ancestors of , and so we must act as though those ancestors are known, too. As a result, in this case we say that unblocks the path from to , since has an ancestor which is research a collider on purpose cover letter, the path from to . And so in this case is d-connected to , given . Given the discussion of Figure C that we’ve just had, you might wonder why forks or traverses which are ancestors of can’t block a path, for similar reasons? For instance, why don’t we consider and to be d-separated, given , in construction dissertation the following graph: The reason, of course, is that it’s easy to construct examples where tells us something about in addition to attachment what we already know from . And so we can’t consider and to be d-separated, given , in this example.

These examples motivate the following definition: Definition: Let , and be disjoint subsets of vertices in a causal model. Consider a path from a vertex in to a vertex in . Dissertation? We say the attachment cover letter, path is blocked by boeing study solution, if the path contains either: (a) a collider which is not an letter, ancestor of , or (b) a fork which is in , or (c) a traverse which is in construction innovation . We say the path is unblocked if it is not blocked. We say that and attachment purpose, are d-connected , given , if there is an unblocked path between some vertex in innovation dissertation and some vertex in cover letter . and are d-separated , given , if they are not d-connected. Saying “ and are d-separated given ” is a bit of a mouthful, and dissertation, so it’s helpful to have an abbreviated notation. We’ll use the attachment, abbreviation . Note that this notation includes the fibrosis term paper, graph ; we’ll sometimes omit the graph when the context is clear. We’ll write to denote unconditional d-separation. As an aside, Pearl uses a similar but slightly different notation for d-separation, namely . Unfortunately, while the letter, symbol looks like a LaTeX symbol, it’s not, but is construction most easily produced using a rather dodgy LaTeX hack.

Instead of purpose cover using that hack over and over boeing solution, again, I’ve adopted a more standard LaTeX notation. While I’m making asides, let me make a second: when I was first learning this material, I found the “d” for “directional” in d-separation and d-connected rather confusing. It suggested to me that the key thing was having a directed path from one vertex to the other, and that the complexities of colliders, forks, and so on were a sideshow. Of course, they’re not, they’re central to attachment purpose the whole discussion. For this reason, when I was writing these notes I considered changing the terminology to argumentation research paper i-separated and i-connected, for informationally-separated and informationally-connected. Ultimately I decided not to attachment purpose do this, but I thought mentioning the issue might be helpful, in part to reassure readers (like me) who thought the “d” seemed a little mysterious. Okay, that’s enough asides, let’s get back to research the main track of discussion. We saw earlier that (unconditional) d-separation is closely connected to the independence of random variables.

It probably won’t surprise you to learn that conditional d-separation is closely connected to conditional independence of attachment purpose cover random variables. Recall that two sets of random variables and are conditionally independent , given a third set of random variables , if . The following theorem shows that d-separation gives a criterion for when conditional independence occurs in a causal model: Theorem (graphical criterion for conditional independence): Let be a graph, and let , and be disjoint subsets of vertices in that graph. Argumentation Research Paper? Then and are d-separated, given , if and purpose cover, only if for all causal models on the random variables corresponding to and are conditionally independent, given . (Update: Thanks to Rob Spekkens for cystic fibrosis term paper pointing out an error in my original statement of this theorem.) I won’t prove the theorem here.

However, it’s not especially difficult if you’ve followed the attachment letter, discussion above, and essay exercises, is a good problem to work through: The concept of d-separation plays a central role in the causal calculus. My sense is that it should be possible to find a cleaner and more intuitive definition that substantially simplifies many proofs. It’d be good to spend some time trying to find such a definition. We’ve now got all the concepts we need to cover letter state the rules of the construction, causal calculus. There are three rules. The rules look complicated at first, although they’re easy to purpose letter use once you get familiar with them.

For this reason I’ll start by explaining the privacy, intuition behind the first rule, and how you should think about that rule. Having understood how to attachment purpose cover letter think about the first rule it’s easy to boeing 7e7 case study get the hang of purpose letter all three rules, and so after that I’ll just outright state all three rules. In what follows, we have a causal model on a graph , and 7e7 case solution, are disjoint subsets of the variables in the causal model. Recall also that denotes the letter, perturbed graph in which all edges pointing to from the parents of have been deleted. 7e7 Case Study? This is the attachment purpose cover, graph which results when an experimenter intervenes to set the construction, value of , overriding other causal influences on attachment letter, . Rule 1: When can we ignore observations: I’ll begin by stating the first rule in all its glory, but don’t worry if you don’t immediately grok the whole rule. Instead, just take a look, and try to thesis about internet privacy start getting your head around it. Attachment Cover Letter? What we’ll do then is look at some simple special cases, which are easily understood, and process essay, gradually build up to an understanding of what the full rule is saying. Okay, so here’s the first rule of the causal calculus. What it tells us is that when , then we can ignore the observation of in computing the probability of , conditional on both and an intervention to set : To understand why this rule is true, and what it means, let’s start with a much simpler case. Attachment Purpose Letter? Let’s look at essays on prospero the tempest, what happens to the rule when there are no or variables in the mix.

In this case, our starting assumption simply becomes that is d-separated from in the original (unperturbed) graph . There’s no need to worry about because there’s no variable whose value is cover being set by intervention. In this circumstance we have , so is independent of . About Privacy? But the statement of the rule in this case is letter merely that , which is, indeed, equivalent to the standard definition of and being independent. In other words, the cystic fibrosis term, first rule is simply a generalization of what it means for and to be independent. Attachment Purpose? The full rule generalizes the notion of independence in two ways: (1) by adding in an extra variable whose value has been determined by passive observation; and (2) by adding in an extra variable whose value has been set by fibrosis term, intervention. We’ll consider these two ways of generalizing separately in the next two paragraphs. We begin with generalization (1), i.e., there is no variable in the mix. Cover Letter? In this case, our starting assumption becomes that is d-separated from , given , in the graph . By the graphical criterion for conditional independence discussed in the last section this means that is conditionally independent of , given , and so , which is exactly the statement of the rule.

And so the on prospero the tempest, first rule can be viewed as a generalization of attachment purpose cover what it means for and to research be independent, conditional on . Now let’s look at the other generalization, (2), in which we’ve added an extra variable whose value has been set by intervention, and where there is no variable in the mix. In this case, our starting assumption becomes that is d-separated from , given , in the perturbed graph . In this case, the graphical criterion for conditional indepenence tells us that is independent from , conditional on the value of being set by experimental intervention, and so . Attachment Cover? Again, this is exactly the statement of the rule. The full rule, of innovation course, merely combines both these generalizations in the obvious way. Attachment Cover Letter? It is really just an explicit statement of the content of the innovation, graphical criterion for attachment purpose cover letter conditional independence, in a context where has been observed, and the value of set by experimental intervention. The rules of the causal calculus: All three rules of the causal calculus follow a similar template to the first rule: they provide ways of using facts about the causal structure (notably, d-separation) to make inferences about conditional causal probabilities. I’ll now state all three rules.

The intuition behind rules 2 and 3 won’t necessarily be entirely obvious, but after our discussion of rule 1 the remaining rules should at innovation dissertation, least appear plausible and comprehensible. Attachment Cover? I’ll have bit more to say about intuition below. As above, we have a causal model on a graph , and study, are disjoint subsets of the variables in the causal model. denotes the perturbed graph in which all edges pointing to from the parents of have been deleted. denotes the graph in which all edges pointing out from to the children of have been deleted. Attachment Purpose Letter? We will also freely use notations like to denote combinations of these operations. Rule 1: When can we ignore observations: Suppose . Process Essay? Then: Rule 2: When can we ignore the purpose cover, act of intervention: Suppose . Then: Rule 3: When can we ignore an intervention variable entirely: Let denote the set of nodes in which are not ancestors of . Suppose . Then: In a sense, all three rules are statements of conditional independence.

The first rule tells us when we can ignore an observation. The second rule tells us when we can ignore the thesis internet privacy, act of intervention (although that doesn’t necessarily mean we can ignore the value of the variable being intervened with). And the third rule tells us when we can ignore an intervention entirely, both the act of intervention, and purpose, the value of the variable being intervened with. I won’t prove rule 2 or rule 3 – this post is cystic term already quite long enough. (If I ever significantly revise the post I may include the proofs). Letter? The important thing to take away from these rules is argumentation research that they give us conditions on the structure of causal models so that we know when we can ignore observations, acts of intervention, or even entire variables that have been intervened with. This is obviously a powerful set of tools to be working with in purpose manipulating conditional causal probabilities! Indeed, according to Pearl there’s even a sense in which this set of rules is complete , meaning that using these rules you can identify all causal effects in a causal model. Exercises? I haven’t yet understood the proof of this result, or even exactly what it means, but thought I’d mention it. The proof is in papers by Shpitser and Pearl and Huang and Valtorta. If you’d like to see the proofs of the rules of the calculus, you can either have a go at proving them yourself, or you can read the attachment letter, proof. Suppose the conditions of rules 1 and 2 hold.

Can we deduce that the conditions of rule 3 also hold? Using the causal calculus to analyse the smoking-lung cancer connection. We’ll now use the causal calculus to analyse the connection between smoking and lung cancer. Earlier, I introduced a simple causal model of this connection: The great benefit of this model was that it included as special cases both the argumentation, hypothesis that smoking causes cancer and the hypothesis that some hidden causal factor was responsible for both smoking and cancer. It turns out, unfortunately, that the causal calculus doesn’t help us analyse this model. I’ll explain why that’s the case below. Cover? However, rather than worrying about this, at this stage it’s more instructive to work through an example showing how the causal calculus can be helpful in analysing a similar but slightly modified causal model. So although this modification looks a little mysterious at first, for now I hope you’ll be willing to essay accept it as given. The way I’m going to modify the causal model is by introducing an extra variable, namely, whether someone has appreciable amounts of tar in their lungs or not: (By tar, I don’t mean “tar” literally, but rather all the material deposits found as a result of smoking.)

This causal model is a plausible modification of the original causal model. It is at purpose cover, least plausible to suppose that smoking causes tar in the lungs and that those deposits in turn cause cancer. Argumentation Research Paper? But if the letter, hidden causal factor is genetic, as the tobacco companies argued was the case, then it seems highly unlikely that the genetic factor caused tar in the lungs, except by the indirect route of causing those people to smoke. Essay? (I’ll come back to what happens if you refuse to attachment purpose cover accept this line of reasoning. For now, just go with it.) Our goal in this modified causal model is to compute probabilities like . What we’ll show is argumentation that the causal calculus lets us compute this probability entirely in terms of probabilities like and other probabilities that don’t involve an intervention, i.e., that don’t involve . This means that we can determine without needing to know anything about the hidden factor. Purpose Cover Letter? We won’t even need to know the about privacy, nature of the hidden factor. It also means that we can determine without needing to intervene to attachment force someone to smoke or not smoke, i.e., to set the value for . In other words, the causal calculus lets us do something that seems almost miraculous: we can figure out the paper, probability that someone would get cancer given that they are in the smoking group in a randomized controlled experiment, without needing to do the attachment cover, randomized controlled experiment. Construction Innovation? And this is true even though there may be a hidden causal factor underlying both smoking and cover, cancer. Okay, so how do we compute ? The obvious first question to ask is whether we can apply rule 2 or rule 3 directly to the conditional causal probability . If rule 2 applies, for example, it would say that intervention doesn’t matter, and so . Intuitively, this seems unlikely. We’d expect that intervention really can change the probability of cancer given smoking, because intervention would override the the tempest, hidden causal factor.

If rule 3 applies, it would say that , i.e., that an purpose cover, intervention to force someone to smoke has no impact on whether they get cancer. On Prospero? This seems even more unlikely than rule 2 applying. However, as practice and a warm up, let’s work through the details of seeing whether rule 2 or rule 3 can be applied directly to . For rule 2 to apply we need . To check whether this is true, recall that is the graph with the edges pointing out from deleted: Obviously, is not d-separated from in this graph, since and have a common ancestor. This reflects the fact that the attachment purpose cover, hidden causal factor indeed does influence both and . So we can’t apply rule 2.

What about rule 3? For this to apply we’d need . Recall that is the graph with the boeing study solution, edges pointing toward deleted: Again, is not d-separated from , in this case because we have an unblocked path directly from to . This reflects our intuition that the purpose letter, value of can influence , even when the value of thesis privacy has been set by cover, intervention. So we can’t apply rule 3. Okay, so we can’t apply the rules of the causal calculus directly to determine . On Prospero The Tempest? Is there some indirect way we can determine this probability? An experienced probabilist would at this point instinctively wonder whether it would help to letter condition on the value of , writing: Of course, saying an experienced probabilist would instinctively do this isn’t quite the about, same as explaining why one should do this! However, it is at least a moderately obvious thing to cover letter do: the boeing 7e7 case study, only extra information we potentially have in the problem is , and purpose letter, so it’s certainly somewhat natural to 7e7 case study try to introduce that variable into the problem. As we shall see, this turns out to attachment purpose cover be a wise thing to boeing 7e7 case study do.

I used without proof the equation . This should be intuitively plausible, but really requires proof. Purpose Letter? Prove that the equation is essay correct. To simplify the right-hand side of equation [2], we first note that we can apply rule 2 to the second term on the right-hand side, obtaining . To check this explicitly, note that the condition for rule 2 to purpose apply is that . We already saw the graph above, and, indeed, is d-separated from in that graph, since the only path from to on prospero is blocked at . As a result, we have: At this point in the presentation, I’m going to speed the discussion up, telling you what rule of the purpose cover, calculus to apply at each step, but not going through the process of explicitly checking that the process, conditions of the attachment cover, rule hold. (If you’re doing a close read, you may wish to check the cystic term paper, conditions, however.) The next thing we do is to purpose cover letter apply rule 2 to the first term on the right-hand side of equation [3], obtaining . We then apply rule 3 to remove the process exercises, , obtaining . Substituting back in gives us:

So this means that we’ve reduced the attachment cover letter, computation of to the computation of . This doesn’t seem terribly encouraging: we’ve merely substituted the computation of one causal conditional probability for another. Cystic Paper? Still, let us continue plugging away, and see if we can make progress. The obvious first thing to try is to attachment purpose cover letter apply rule 2 or rule 3 to simplify . Construction Innovation Dissertation? Unfortunately, though not terribly surprisingly, neither rule applies. So what do we do? Well, in a repeat of our strategy above, we again condition on attachment purpose cover letter, the other variable we have available to us, in this case : Now we’re cooking!

Rule 2 lets us simplify the first term to , while rule 3 lets us simplify the second term to , and so we have . To substitute this expression back into equation [4] it helps to change the summation index from to cystic , since otherwise we would have a duplicate summation index. Cover? This gives us: This is the promised expression for (i.e., for probabilities like , assuming the causal model above) in terms of quantities which may be observed directly from solution experimental data, and which don’t require intervention to attachment purpose do a randomized, controlled experiment. Once is determined, we can compare it against . If is larger than then we can conclude that smoking does, indeed, play a causal role in cancer. Something that bugs me about the derivation of equation [5] is that I don’t really know how to “see through” the calculations. Thesis About Internet Privacy? Yes, it all works out in the end, and attachment purpose cover, it’s easy enough to follow along. Yet that’s not the same as having a deep understanding. Too many basic questions remain unanswered: Why did we have to condition as we did in fibrosis term paper the calculation?

Was there some other way we could have proceeded? What would have happeed if we’d conditioned on purpose, the value of the hidden variable? (This is boeing 7e7 case solution not obviously the wrong thing to do: maybe the hidden variable would ultimately drop out of the purpose letter, calculation). Why is it possible to boeing 7e7 case compute causal probabilities in this model, but not (as we shall see) in the model without tar? Ideally, a deeper understanding would make the answers to some or all of these questions much more obvious. Why is attachment it so much easier to compute than in boeing the model above? Is there some way we could have seen that this would be the case, without needing to go through a detailed computation? Suppose we have a causal model , with a subset of attachment cover letter vertices for process which all conditional probabilities are known.

Is it possible to give a simple characterization of for which subsets and of vertices it is possible to purpose cover compute using just the conditional probabilities from 7e7 case study solution ? Unfortunately, I don’t know what the experimentally observed probabilities are in cover the smoking-tar-cancer case. If anyone does, I’d be interested to know. In lieu of actual data, I’ll use some toy model data suggested by Pearl; the data is quite unrealistic, but nonetheless interesting as an illustration of the use of equation [5]. The toy model data is as follows: (1) 47.5 percent of the population are nonsmokers with no tar in their lungs, and 10 percent of these get cancer. (2) 2.5 percent are smokers with no tar, and study, 90 percent get cancer. (3) 2.5 percent are nonsmokers with tar, and 5 percent get cancer. (4) 47.5 percent are smokers with tar, and purpose letter, 85 percent get cancer. In this case, we get:

By contrast, percent, and term, so if this data was correct (obviously it’s not even close) it would show that smoking actually somewhat reduces a person’s chance of getting lung cancer. This is despite the fact that percent, and so a naive approach to causality based on attachment purpose cover, correlations alone would suggest that smoking causes cancer. In fact, in this imagined world smoking might actually be useable as a preventative treatment for cancer! Obviously this isn’t truly the on prospero the tempest, case, but it does illustrate the power of this method of analysis. Summing up the general lesson of the smoking-cancer example, suppose we have two competing hypotheses for the causal origin of attachment purpose some effect in a system, A causes C or B causes C, say.

Then we should try to construct a realistic causal model which includes both hypotheses, and process exercises, then use the causal calculus to attachment purpose cover letter attempt to distinguish the relative influence of the two causal factors, on the tempest, the basis of experimentally accessible data. Incidentally, the kind of analysis of smoking we did above obviously wasn’t done back in the 1960s. I don’t actually know how causality was established over the protestations that correlation doesn’t impy causation. Purpose Cover? But it’s not difficult to think of fibrosis term ways you might have come up with truly convincing evidence that smoking was a causal factor. One way would have been to look at the incidence of cover lung cancer in populations where smoking had only essays on prospero the tempest recently been introduced. Suppose, for example, that cigarettes had just been introduced into the (fictional) country of Nicotinia, and that this had been quickly followed by a rapid increase in rates of lung cancer. If this pattern was seen across many new markets then it would be very difficult to argue that lung cancer was being caused solely by some pre-existing factor in the population. Construct toy model data where smoking increases a person’s chance of getting lung cancer. Let’s leave this model of smoking and lung cancer, and come back to attachment letter our original model of smoking and thesis about internet privacy, lung cancer: What would have happened if we’d tried to use the causal calculus to analyse this model? I won’t go through all the details, but you can easily check that whatever rule you try to apply you quickly run into a dead end.

And so the causal calculus doesn’t seem to be any help in attachment letter analysing this problem. This example illustrates some of the limitations of the causal calculus. In order to compute we needed to assume a causal model with a particular structure: While this model is exercises plausible, it is not beyond reproach. You could, for example, criticise it by saying that it is attachment purpose cover letter not the presence of tar deposits in the lungs that causes cancer, but maybe some other factor, perhaps something that is thesis about internet currently unknown. This might lead us to consider a causal model with a revised structure: So we could try instead to use the causal calculus to analyse this new model. I haven’t gone through this exercise, but I strongly suspect that doing so we wouldn’t be able to use the rules of the attachment purpose letter, causal calculus to compute the privacy, relevant probabilities. Cover Letter? The intuition behind this suspicion is that we can imagine a world in which the tar may be a spurious side-effect of process essay smoking that is in fact entirely unrelated to lung cancer. What causes lung cancer is really an attachment purpose, entirely different mechanism, but we couldn’t distinguish the two from the statistics alone.

The point of thesis about privacy this isn’t to say that the causal calculus is useless. It’s remarkable that we can plausibly get information about the outcome of a randomized controlled experiment without actually doing anything like that experiment. But there are limitations. To get that information we needed to make some presumptions about the causal structure in the system. Those presumptions are plausible, but not logically inevitable. If someone questions the presumptions then it may be necessary to revise the model, perhaps adopting a more sophisticated causal model. One can then use the causal calculus to cover attempt to analyse that more sophisticated model, but we are not guaranteed success. It would be interesting to understand systematically when this will be possible and when it will not be. The following problems start to get at some of the paper, issues involved. Is it possible to make a more precise statement than “the causal calculus doesn’t seem to be any help” for cover letter the original smoking-cancer model? Given a probability distribution over some random variables, it would be useful to have a classification theorem describing all the causal models in which those random variables could appear.

Extending the last problem, it’d be good to have an algorithm to answer questions like: in the space of all possible causal models consistent with a given set of observed probabilities, what can we say about the thesis about internet, possible causal probabilities? It would also be useful to be able to attachment cover input to the algorithm some constraints on the causal models, representing knowledge we’re already sure of. In real-world experiments there are many practical issues that must be addressed to design a realiable randomized, controlled experiment. These issues include selection bias, blinding, and many others. There is an entire field of experimental design devoted to addressing such issues. Process Essay? By comparison, my description of purpose letter causal inference ignores many of these practical issues. Can we integrate the best thinking on experimental design with ideas such as causal conditional probabilities and the causal calculus? From a pedagogical point of view, I wonder if it might have been better to work fully through the 7e7 case solution, smoking-cancer example before getting to the abstract statement of the rules of the causal calculus. Those rules can all be explained and motivated quite nicely in the context of the smoking-cancer example, and that may help in understanding. I’ve described just a tiny fraction of the work on causality that is now going on.

My impression as an admittedly non-expert outsider to the field is that this is an exceptionally fertile field which is attachment purpose cover letter developing rapidly and giving rise to many fascinating applications. Cystic Fibrosis Term Paper? Over the attachment purpose cover letter, next few decades I expect the theory of causality will mature, and be integrated into the foundations of disciplines ranging from process essay exercises economics to medicine to social policy. Causal discovery: One question I’d like to understand better is how to discover causal structures inside existing data sets. After all, human beings do a pretty good (though far from perfect) job at figuring out causal models from their observation of the attachment cover letter, world. I’d like to better understand how to use computers to automatically discover such causal models. I understand that there is already quite a literature on the automated discovery of 7e7 case study causal models, but I haven’t yet looked in much depth at attachment, that literature. I may come back to it in a future post. I’m particularly fascinated by the idea of extracting causal models from very large unstructured data sets. Cystic Paper? The KnowItAll group at the University of Washington (see Oren Etzioni on Google Plus) have done fascinating work on a related but (probably) easier problem, the problem of open information extraction. This means taking an unstructured information source (like the web), and using it to extract facts about the real world. For instance, using the web one would like computers to be able to learn facts like “Barack Obama is purpose President of the United States”, without needing a human to feed it that information.

One of the things that makes this task challenging is innovation all the misleading and difficult-to-understand information out on the web. For instance, there are also webpages saying “George Bush is purpose cover President of the United States”, which was probably true at the time the pages were written, but which is now misleading. We can find webpages which state things like “[Let’s imagine] Steve Jobs is President of the United States“; it’s a difficult task for an unsupervised algorithm to figure out how to interpret that “Let’s imagine”. What the 7e7 case solution, KnowItAll team have done is made progress on attachment cover letter, figuring out exercises how to learn facts in such a rich but uncontrolled environment. What I’m wondering is whether such techniques can be adapted to extract causal models from data?

It’d be fascinating if so, because of course humans don’t just reason with facts, they also reason with (informal) causal models that relate those facts. Letter? Perhaps causal models or a similar concept may be a good way of representing some crucial part of paper our knowledge of the world. What systematic causal fallacies do human beings suffer from? We certainly often make mistakes in the causal models we extract from our observations of the world – one example is that we often do assume that correlation implies causation, even when that’s not true – and it’d be nice to understand what systematic biases we have. Humans aren’t just good with facts and causal models. We’re also really good at juggling multiple causal models, testing them against one another, finding problems and inconsistencies, and making adjustments and integrating the results of those models, even when the results conflict. In essence, we have a (working, imperfect) theory of how to deal with causal models.

Can we teach machines to do this kind of integration of attachment causal models? We know that in cystic fibrosis our world the sun rising causes the rooster to crow, but it’s possible to imagine a world in purpose letter which it is the rooster crowing that causes the sun to process exercises rise. This could be achieved in a suitably designed virtual world, for example. The reason we believe the first model is correct in our world is not intrinsic to the data we have on roosters and sunrise, but rather depends on a much more complex network of background knowledge. For instance, given what we know about roosters and the sun we can easily come up with plausible causal mechanisms (solar photons impinging on the rooster’s eye, say) by which the sun could cause the rooster to crow. There do not seem to be any similarly plausible causal models in the other direction.

How do we determine what makes a particular causal model plausible or not? How do we determine the class of plausible causal models for a given phenomenon? Can we make this kind of judgement automatically? (This is all closely related to the last problem). Continuous-time causality: A peculiarity in my post is that even though we’re talking about purpose causality, and time is presumably important, I’ve avoided any explicit mention of time. Of course, it’s implicitly there: if I’d been a little more precise in specifying my models they’d no doubt be conditioned on events like “smoked at thesis about, least a pack a day for 10 or more years”.

Of course, this way of putting time into attachment cover letter the picture is paper rather coarse-grained. Attachment? In a lot of practical situations we’re interested in understanding causality in a much more temporally fine-grained way. To explain what I mean, consider a simple model of the relationship between what we eat and innovation dissertation, our insulin levels: This model represents the fact that what we eat determines our insulin levels, and our insulin levels in turn play a part in determining how hungry we feel, and attachment purpose, thus what we eat. But as a model, it’s quite inadequate.

In fact, there’s a much more complex feedback relationship going on, a constant back-and-forth between what we eat at the tempest, any given time, and our insulin levels. Ideally, this wouldn’t be represented by a few discrete events, but rather by a causal model that reflects the continual feedback between these possibilities. Attachment Cover? What I’d like to see developed is a theory of continuous-time causal models, which can address this sort of issue. The Tempest? It would also be useful to extend the attachment, calculus to continuous spaces of events. So far as I know, at present the causal calculus doesn’t work with these kinds of ideas. Can we formulate theories like electromagnetism, general relativity and quantum mechanics within the framework of the causal calculus (or some generalization)? Do we learn anything by argumentation research, doing so? Other notions of causality: A point I’ve glossed over in the post is how the attachment cover letter, notion of causal influence we’ve been studying relates to other notions of causality. The notion we’ve been exploring is based on innovation, the notion of causality that is established by purpose, a (hopefully well-designed!) randomized controlled experiment.

To understand what that means, think of what it would mean if we used such an term paper, experiment to establish that smoking does, indeed, cause cancer. All this means is that in the population being studied , forcing someone to smoke will increase their chance of purpose letter getting cancer. Now, for the practical matter of setting public health policy, that’s obviously a pretty important notion of process causality. But nothing says that we won’t tomorrow discover some population of people where no such causal influence is found. Or perhaps we’ll find a population where smoking actively helps prevent cancer. Both these are entirely possible.

What’s going on purpose letter, is that while our notion of causality is useful for some purposes, it doesn’t necessarily say anything about the details of an underlying causal mechanism, and it doesn’t tell us how the results will apply to other populations. In other words, while it’s a useful and important notion of causality, it’s not the only way of thinking about causality. Something I’d like to do is to understand better what other notions of causality are useful, and paper, how the intervention-based approach we’ve been exploring relates to those other approaches. Thanks to Jen Dodd, Rob Dodd, and Rob Spekkens for attachment cover many discussions about causality. Especial thanks to Rob Spekkens for pointing me toward the cystic paper, epilogue of Pearl’s book, which is what got me hooked on causality! Principal sources and further reading. A readable and stimulating overview of attachment causal inference is the epilogue to Judea Pearl’s book. The epilogue, in turn, is research based on a survey lecture by purpose cover letter, Pearl on causal inference.

I highly recommend getting a hold of the cystic term paper, book and purpose cover, reading the epilogue; if you cannot do that, I suggest looking over the survey lecture. A draft copy of the first edition of the entire book is available on essays on prospero the tempest, Pearl’s website. Unfortunately, the draft does not include the full text of the cover letter, epilogue, only the process essay, survey lecture. The lecture is still good, though, so you should look at it if you don’t have access to the full text of the epilogue. I’ve also been told good things about the book on causality by Spirtes, Glymour and Scheines, but haven’t yet had a chance to have a close look at it. An unfortunate aspect of the current post is that it gives the impression that the cover letter, theory of causal inference is term paper entirely Judea Pearl’s creation. Of course that’s far from the case, a fact which is quite evident from both Pearl’s book, and the Spirtes-Glymour-Scheines book.

However, the particular facets I’ve chosen to focus on are due principally to purpose cover letter Pearl and cystic, his collaborators: most of the current post is purpose based on chapter 3 and chapter 1 of Pearl’s book, as well as a 1994 paper by Pearl, which established many of the key ideas of the causal calculus. Finally, for an enjoyable and cystic paper, informative discussion of attachment purpose letter some of the challenges involved in understanding causal inference I recommend Jonah Lehrer’s recent article in Wired . Interested in boeing more? Please subscribe to letter this blog, or follow me on Twitter. You may also enjoy reading my new book about open science, Reinventing Discovery. Do you think there’d be a way to interpret causal structure via geometry, much like we use geometry to express correlation and other patterns in data mining. The geometry might have to be something that encodes causality – maybe a manifold with negative signature ? @Suresh – Fascinating idea! No idea if it’s possible, though, the thought never crossed my mind. I guess I think of causal models as having an inherent directionality, due to the dag structure, while most geometries don’t have the same kind of directionality. But maybe there’s some trick to get around that. There’s been plenty of work on essay, the geometry of curved exponential families, and their relation to inference in graphical models. See, as a start, e.g.

Bernd Sturmfels and cover letter, Lior Pachter also have a pretty good book that touches on a lot of this — Yes, I’m aware of that work. Term Paper? But the geometry there is a geometry in the parameter space. Purpose Letter? I don’t think it can be used to capture this kind of causality (at least at first glance) I came across this as I was interested in oral thrush. Boeing Study Solution? The NHS guidance (quite reasonably) states that a high proportion of AIDS patients have thrush. Attachment Purpose Cover? Thrush has many causes and is correlated with use of inhaled steroids. I read the article without a second thought – it seemed correct and balanced. Privacy? But commenters assumed that thrush had a high probably of attachment purpose cover being caused by aids and that it was highly irresponsible not to say it could also be caused by dissertation, steroids. This is a typical example of Bayes – the a priori chance of having AIDS is lower (I think) than being on Oral steroids.

I don’t know the cover letter, answer. I don’t think the human race can eveolve genetically to process probabilities correctly, so it has to be education at an early age! That’s another nice example, and of a type that I suspect often infects policy-making and public discussion. 1. If there’s an alternative . path from 7e7 case study solution smoking to attachment purpose cover lung cancer it may be possible to put bounds on essays on prospero, P(cancer|dio(smoking)) even if you can’t compute it exactly. 2. Similar graphs can be constructed for quantum amplitudes instead of (and in addition to) probabilities. It might be interesting to attachment cover letter analyse EPR and other experiments in this way, especially from the point of about internet privacy view of hidden variable models of cover QM.

Thanks for this very informative post. Let me just make a few comments about your “physics” question: “Can we formulate theories like electromagnetism, general relativity and quantum mechanics within the framework of the argumentation, causal calculus (or some generalization)? Do we learn anything by doing so?” I have been working on formulating quantum theory in a Bayesian network language, which is an obvious precursor to developing a causal calculus for it. Even that problem is not so simple, given that the standard formalism has an purpose cover letter, assumed causal structure built into it, which we need to get rid of essays on prospero the tempest before we start. My recent papers with Rob Spekkens are part of an attempt to do that.

One lesson that I have learned from this is that we need to get away from the usual “initial state+dynamics” way of looking at physics in order to fit it into this framework. Any correlations that exist in the initial state have to be modelled explicitly in the causal network because it assumes that the root vertices are independent. Finally, let me just mention that you might be able to get away with a simpler structure for modelling causality in purpose letter deterministic theories like electromagnetism. Directed acyclic graphs are needed in general in order to model non-Markovian causal processes, but deterministic theories (and unitary evolution in quantum theory) are necessarily Markovian. Therefore, you should be able to get away with just using a poset to cystic paper model causality in these cases, the corresponding DAG being just the attachment purpose cover, Hasse diagram of the poset. Essays? It is much easier to deal with continuous posets than continuous generalizations of cover graphs, so this could be a good first step.

By the cystic fibrosis term paper, way, this explains why Raphael Sorkin et. al. are able to get away with just using posets in the causal set approach to quantum gravity, because they only care about global unitary evolution. Thanks for the pointer to your work, Matt, it sounds fascinating. Although I’ve chatted with Rob about this, I didn’t realize that you were trying to formulate quantum theory in terms of Bayesian networks. (He may well have mentioned it, but I perhaps didn’t understand what he was saying – I hadn’t read Pearl at all at that time – and so forgot.) Nice exposition! Perhaps some notion of “latent surprise” could be relevant.

Adapting from the Wired article you cite, imagine that a candidate drug’s operation has two plausible causal models. The first and most plausible model is simple. It is used during drug development. The second-most plausible model is attachment cover complex (but still plausible if one analyzes it). If that second-most plausible causal model is very different from the first, that could be a “latent surprise” for researchers – a warning that, if their understanding of the argumentation research, drug’s operation changes somewhat, the attachment letter, clinical effects could be profound. In general, if the most plausible few models are close (in the metric of essays on prospero plausibility) yet very different (in the purpose cover, metric space of causal model similarity), this is a warning of big latent surprises if our understanding shifts a bit. Suppose that, as you speculate, we could automatically “determine the class of plausible causal models for a given phenomenon”. Argumentation Paper? We might then also be able to scan automatically for cover letter latent surprises in important systems: scientific, social, financial, policy, and so forth. You mentioned the following: “Obviously, it’d make no sense to have loops in the graph: We can’t have causing causing causing ! At least, not without a time machine.” Loops in causality DAG can be created without time machines as follows. 1. In some distant origin that is on prospero the tempest not in the history of measurements, A caused B;

4. so on and so forth. 5. Over time, A, B, and C have caused other variables due to attachment cover letter unknown reasons. So, to thesis internet the observer, A caused B, which caused C, which (in turn) caused A. This situation could happen in Human History due to lapses in purpose measurement and in Astronomy because the lifetime of the observed (universe) is process much longer than the lifetime of the observer (humans). Thanks for this interesting post, which provides a nice concise introduction to causal calculus. There is one interesting aspect to this whole chain of reasoning based on randomized controlled trials as the basis of empirical causality that I haven’t seen discussed yet: a controlled trial assumes that the experimenter is an attachment, agent possessing free will, and is thus outside of any causal model. There is a recent tendency in the scientific community (see this article for example, and my comments on it) to claim that free will does not exist, and that human behavior is governed entirely by molecular processes (and thus ultimately quantum physics). With that assumption, whatever an experimenter does is merely one more observable in research a stochastic network, randomized controlled trials disappear, and attachment purpose cover, causal calculus disappears as well. We arrive at the conclusion that the exercises, only scientific method to attachment purpose letter attribute causality relies on the existence of argumentation research paper free will as a source of “obvious” causality. But then, as you show, there are causal models from which the experimenter’s intervention can be eliminated. We can thus draw conclusions about causality without assuming the “obvious” source of attachment purpose free will.

I wonder if it is possible to state under which conditions a causal model permits this elimination. Rules 2 and term, 3 are about individual variables, but is there a rule that applies to a complete graph? Thanks for this. I’ve been spending a lot of time thinking about Pearl’s book lately and this is by far the most accessible introduction to the material that I have come across. One quick correction. Close to attachment letter the end of your discussion of rule 1 (2 paragraphs before the heading: “the rules of the causal calculus”), you give the the tempest, equation:

Presumably you mean: Thanks, I’ve corrected it! “Business Week recently ran an spoof article pointing out some amusing examples of the purpose letter, dangers of paper inferring correlation from causation.” Probably you meant the other way around: “amusing examples of the dangers of inferring causation from correlation”? I have enjoyed a lot reading this. I am slightly confused about the wording of the following sentence: where f_j is a function, and Y_j is a collection of random variables such that: (a) the Y_j,. are independent of one another for different values of j; and (b) for each j, Y_j,. is independent of all variables X_k, except when X_k is X_j itself, or a descendant of X_j. The intuition is that the are a collection of auxiliary random variables which inject some extra randomness into X_j (and, through X_j, its descendants), but which are otherwise independent of the variables in the causal model.

What you mean by that is that for instance in the diagram above the paragraph Y_4,i is not independent of attachment purpose cover X_3 and X_2? No the Y_4,i’s are independent of X_3 and X_2. The only way this could fail is if condition (b) is met. That condition tells us that Y_4,i may not be independent of X_k when X_k is X_4 or a descendant. In that particular diagram, X_4 has no descendants, so we merely have Y_4,i not a descendant of X_4. Thanks for writing this up. It was very helpful! Regarding eq [5], you commented that it wasn’t transparent. If I’m not mistake, you can reduce this to.

which is much more transparent. How do you do this? My mistake. I thought I had marginalized out the x’, but didn’t. one famous place case study where “hidden causality” is notoriously, even fiendishly difficult to isolate and shows the extreme subtlety involved: local hidden variable theories for quantum mechanics. Paper? which recently have been brought back from the dead (or maybe semi zombie state) by anderson/brady in attachment cover letter a soliton model. Innovation? more thoughts on that here. it has an aura of unorthodoxy but lets not forget that the greats have always been enamored with the idea. einstein, schroedinger, ‘t hooft, etcetera. part of the difficulty in QM is the idea of counterintuitive variables that might actually cause the experiment apparatus to cover “measure” or “not measure” (or “click” vs “not click/silent”). this has been called a “conspiracy” for decades. not sure who invented that description.

Goes into causal detection based upon thesis about privacy, ‘prediction when variable A has been removed’, and why correlation sometimes makes causal detection worse, not better. Imply causation? I think this has been an issue for some time now because, frankly, causality cannot be proven. What science engages in is probablistic hypothetical inductive empiricism – in short, we can never know causality no matter how much some scientists would like you to believe. Science today is merely a refined scholasticism, that just so happened to plague humanity for nearly 2000 years. Attachment Purpose Letter? Not a single person can or has or will prove (analytically) universal causality of paper Being – to put it in purpose letter easier terms, someone prove to 7e7 case study solution me gravity will exist next Tuesday… Interesting article overall, but I disagree with this statement: We can’t have X causing Y causing Z causing Y! In fact, this is called positive feedback loop and is common in cover nature. You will find a lot of examples in wikipedia, none of them needs a time machine #128521; I noticed I incorrectly quoted you above, but the research, point is, loops in causal diagrams are common.

The labels in the diagrams aren’t just for broad classes of phenomena, they’re labels for random variables. A reasonable informal way of attachment thinking is that this means you should think of the nodes as referring to research specific events. Suppose you have a feedback loop: Eating chocolate = causes Mark to gain weight = reduced tolerance for glucose = Eating chocolate (etc). The second “Eating chocolate” is actually a later event, which would be associated with a separate random variable, and would have a separate node in a causal diagram. Incidentally, that informal way of thinking – nodes as specific events in time – isn’t the cover, full story.

You really need to understand the technical definition of a random variable. But this informal approach conveys the gist of what’s going on. In [1], I’m confused how to fibrosis term paper expand the attachment cover letter, right side; I don’t see where I can get the values for pa(Xj). I’m trying to expand the basic cancer-smoking-hidden model in terms of term paper basic probabilities, and I can only get as far as P(gets cancer | do(smokes)) = P(gets cancer, smokes) / P(smokes | pa(Smoke)). (My end goal is to see if I can use [1] to expand the cancer-smoking-tar-hidden model and obtain the same result that you did, but without using the causal calculus.) pa(.) is just used to denote the parents of a node (or collection of nodes) in the causal graph. I had previously heard one of attachment purpose Pearl’s talks and I took a course in construction dissertation graphical models, but I really understood the Pearl’s ideas better after reading your post. Thanks. Hello, thanks for this nice explanation of Pearl’s al. Purpose Cover Letter? theory. But there is thesis internet something I can’t grasp in spite of reading Pearl’s lecture slides or some parts of his papers. When simplifying equation [2], you say (as Pearl does) that we can apply rule 2 to find : p(z|do(x)) = p(z|x) But rule 2 is cover letter much more complex than this.

It tells about x,y,z and w. How can you make disappear y and w in rule 2 ? Is it because w is internet privacy unobserved ? Is it because pa(y) = x and we can use another relation ? Thanks for attachment purpose cover letter your help. Okay, after many readings , I guess I’m now able to answer to myself. In the 1992 paper, Pearl derives three properties from [1] formula. p(z|do(x)) = p(z|x) iff z_|_ pa(x) | x. which is the case in the example graph.

Though Pearl says that rule 2 is equivalent to this property, I think the latter is much more powerful ! I am trying to understand your eq. [5]; when I set up the calculations in a spreadsheet table, I get the following result, namely no difference between P(cancer) and P(cancer|do(smoking)), which is what I intuitively expected. Can you tell me where I went wrong? no tar no smoke 0.1 0.5 0.475 0.95 0.0475. no tar smoke 0.9 0.5 0.025 0.05 0.0225. tar no smoke 0.05 0.5 0.025 0.05 0.00125. tar smoke 0.85 0.5 0.475 0.95 0.40375. Regarding the application of Simpson’s Paradox to about internet the Civil Rights Act and cover, your mention of thesis privacy application to gender bias I would ask, how far can one go in “slicing and dicing”? How often is purpose cover letter this an exercise in merely seeking an outcome that supports one’s pre-existing bias? For instance, can I go further and paper, split the “north” into east and west of the attachment, Mississippi? Suppose this how the the votes came out dissertation with this further split (recall we had DemNorth(145/154), RepNorth(138/162)):

North-East: Dem(129/134 .966) North-West: Dem(16/20 = .8) Rep(109/132 .825) Now we have three regions, NorthEast, NorthWest, and South and the republican % was higher in attachment two out of boeing 7e7 case study three. Given the Rep(0/10) in the south that can’t be sliced in any manner to seek a favorable outcome for a rep analyst, but you get my point. I just quickly jotted down a few trials to come up with this example which is not surprising given the initial split into north-south is just a first iteration that demonstrates this is attachment purpose possible. Process? But again I ask, where does the slicing and dicing stop in such an analysis? Usually with these sorts of political and judicial analyses, those things that involve human motivations, it usually stops where the desired outcome is achieved – and the best part is – one can claim it was scientific and mathematical so is attachment letter indisputable! The analyst can say under oath and with a straight face,”I lay the numbers before you and cystic fibrosis paper, the numbers don’t lie.” But just what do the numbers tell us? Your threshold “being Republican, rather than Democrat, was an important factor in causing someone to attachment purpose vote for the Civil Rights Act” is also subjective – as it must be in dealing with human motivations, e.g. Thesis Privacy? what is ‘important’?, what is ‘causing’? One could note the 94Dem/10Rep representation from the south, and analyzing the majority of southern voter’s motivations at that time conclude that a major reason for the big Dem majority in that region was in part caused by the voter’s view that based on platforms and reputation, being Rep, the purpose cover, losing challenger was most likely in favor of the Civil Rights Act.

In see that in the tempest my previous post on “slicing and attachment purpose cover, dicing” somehow things got a bit garbled between what I typed in and what displayed. Construction Dissertation? One could derive the purpose cover letter, details given what did display but here is fibrosis term paper what I intended regarding the cover, East-West split of the essays the tempest, North in the Civil Rights vote split: North-West Dem(16/20)=.80 Rep(109/132),825. I’ve applied Simpson’s Paradox to purpose letter the North vote split. This is hypothetical, but one could gerrymander a region to demonstrate or refute pretty much whatever one wanted. Sorry I’m a little late to the party… but I’ve been busy doing a lot of work in essays on prospero the tempest what I’m calling a “science of purpose cover conceptual systems” where a conceptual system is a set of interrelated concepts (theories, models, mental models, policies, strategic plans, etc.). My research shows how we can use these kinds of insights to create theories and policies that are more likely to be effective in practical application.

You can access some of my writings at: There, i analyze the term paper, evolution of a theory of physics from ancient times through the scientific revolution. By focusing on causal relationships, and concatenated relationships between nodes, we gain rather useful insights into how to create more effective theories and policies. This is attachment important because, within the social sciences, our current theories fail far more often than they succeed. Cystic Fibrosis Term Paper? imagine what we might be able to accomplish if our economic policies worked twice as well as they do? What about theories of attachment purpose letter management and psychology? Double the effectiveness and watch what happens to organizational and study, mental health! The immediate lesson from the graph of Figure B is that and can tell us something.

about one another, given , if there is a path between and where the only collider. is at . In fact, the same phenomenon can occur even in this graph: In the purpose cover, example you gave about the music academy, and Berkson’s paradox, there should be another node in the graph: that X gives information about Y if and only if X and Y have some other (external) connection. The other connection in this case is: our intuition that music prodigies are usually disinterested in their other studies. So, you cannot proceed to process exercises the principle that when X – Z – Y, X gives information about Y, i.e. that the path is cover unblocked. The path is only unblocked due to internet privacy the presence of another path (our personal guess that musical prodigies neglect their other studies). The immediate lesson from the graph of Figure B is that and attachment, can tell us something.

about one another, given , if there is a path between and where the essay, only collider. is at attachment purpose letter, . In fact, the same phenomenon can occur even in this graph: In the example you gave about the music academy, and Berkson’s paradox, there should be another node in the graph: X gives information about Y if and process, only if X and Y have some other (external) connection. The other connection in attachment purpose this case is: our intuitive guess that music prodigies are usually disinterested in their other studies. So, you cannot proceed to the principle that when X – Z Z – Y is blocked.

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Attachment purpose of a cover letter

Top 10 Details to cover letter, Include on a Nursing Resume. As healthcare recruiters, we reviewed thousands of nursing resumes. Unfortunately, the vast majority of boeing 7e7 case study, them were missing multiple details that were important to the Nurse Managers and attachment purpose letter, Nurse Supervisors who were largely responsible for about internet making the hiring decisions. Moreover, missing these critical details can ultimately lead to a lower ranking within the Applicant Tracking Systems so prevalent in attachment purpose cover, today’s hiring process. About Internet Privacy? We hope the information provided here will help you create an amazing resume! First, it’s important to have an idea of how the hiring process typically works in order to thoroughly understand the importance of these critical details. When a job opens up to the general public, the healthcare employer can sometimes receive hundreds of resumes. In some cases, the attachment resumes are electronically ranked by Applicant Tracking Systems that award higher rankings for resumes that include the 7e7 case study critical skills and attachment, experiences sought for the job. In any case, staffing office representatives, mostly recruiters, will review the rankings and construction, resumes and purpose cover, pass along the “best” candidates to the hiring managers. It’s important to boeing 7e7 case solution, note that being the “best” often means having a resume with all the critical details.

If the information isn’t there, then the resume stands a far greater chance of purpose cover letter, being removed from the process. It’s important to note that missing these details is not the on prospero the tempest nurse’s fault. Unfortunately, the vast majority of letter, informational resources pertaining to resumes is very general in nature. General resources are useful only for people with very general careers like “Sales”. These resources are mostly useless for nurses. Meanwhile, many resources specifically related to nurse resumes offer insufficient detail. Moreover, healthcare employers do a terrible job at conveying what they’re looking for in their job descriptions, so candidates have no clue what to include in their resumes. Skimming the term list below may leave the impression that everything on it is attachment, obvious. However, reading the argumentation research details provided for each item will most likely uncover items which are missing from your nursing resume . What to Include on Your Nursing Resume. There are literally thousands of attachment letter, potential professional affiliations for nurses.

In most cases, employers want to know if you belong to any. For example, if you belong to the American Association of Critical Care Nurses or the Emergency Nurses Association, then most employers would like to know this. Include the following information: Affiliation name Your date of admission Offices held Brief description of your role or reason you chose this group over others. 9. Honors/Awards/Special Assignments:

As with every other resume, a nurse’s resume should include any honors and awards they’ve received. Examples include honors and awards from 7e7 case study solution, school, work, volunteer work, professional affiliations, and even social clubs. Nurses should also include any special assignments they were given at attachment letter work. Did you ever take charge duty? Did you do any scheduling or mentoring? You may choose to place these items under their own heading. However, this isn’t necessary. You can also add them where applicable throughout the argumentation research rest of your resume.

8. Specific Nursing Education Details: Including the degree you earned (ADN, ASN, BSN, MSN, etc.) is a must. Not including it increases the chances that your resume will be removed from consideration. This is because the information is purpose, often required for the resume to move through the process and it isn’t easily attainable by the staffing office. So, they’ll often pass on a resume that doesn’t include the information in favor one that does. Provide at least the following information about your education: Name of boeing 7e7 case, school Degree earned Beginning date Completion date City, and purpose letter, State. You might also consider adding a description that includes achievements, awards, scholarly organizations and activities, or your GPA if it was really high. Of course, scholastic achievements are more important the earlier you are in construction innovation, your career, so keep that in mind when crafting the education section of your resume.

Finally, you may also wish to attachment letter, include details on any continuing education units you’ve taken within the last 2 years. Bonus: Are you bilingual? If so, be sure to include it on your resume! According to a recent study from Wanted Analytics, “bilingual” was the second most commonly required skill listed on nursing job advertisements. 7. Nursing License and Certification Details: It is highly recommended that you include the following for your licenses: License type (LPN, RN, NP, CRNA, etc.) Licensing State/Body Name on license if different from name on argumentation paper resume License expiration date License number If the attachment purpose cover license is term, part of the purpose cover Nurse Licensure Compact, then state it clearly.

Many people argue that a nursing license number should not be included on a resume as a matter of privacy. However, nursing license numbers are a matter of public record. Boeing 7e7 Case Study? They can be easily obtained from each state’s Board of cover letter, Nursing using the standard information included on your resume. Providing the essays license number simply makes the purpose letter recruiter’s job easier. And in cystic term, a competitive job market, that could make all the difference in attachment letter, the world. When it comes to certifications, it is highly recommended that you include the following for every certification you hold: Certification name (BLS, ACLS, PALS, TNCC, etc.) Certifying body (AHA, etc) Expiration date, or date acquired if it has no official expiration date.

Unlike most professions, nursing is conducted round-the-clock. Therefore, it’s best to cystic, convey the shifts you’re willing to work on purpose your nursing resume. Paper? Are you open to cover, working 8, 10, and/or 12 hour shifts? Are you open to working Days, Mids, PMs, and/or Nocs? You should include this information even if you’re applying for a specific job with a specific shift. You never know if the employer has another opening that is study solution, unadvertised which you maybe qualified for. Moreover, resumes aren’t always submitted to specific job advertisements. In fact, many sources indicate that 80% of attachment purpose cover, all jobs are filled through networking.

Including your availability is very helpful for general job inquiries. In addition, you should indicate your willingness to relocate when applicable. These statements regarding availability can be given their own heading, but it’s best to simply add them to essay exercises, your Professional Summary. The healthcare industry is going electronic. Attachment Purpose Cover Letter? Paper charting will soon be a way of the past. It’s imperative to list any and all Electronic Health Record (EHR) and Electronic Medical Record (EMR) experience you have. According to a recent study by Wanted Analytics, “Electronic Medical Record” was the most commonly required skill for essays on prospero the tempest nurses listed in cover, nursing job advertisements. “Epic Software” and “Meditech”, popular EMR software packages, were also on the list. Of course, billing codes are a big part of EMRs. And both ICD10 and ICD 9 are among the most commonly listed skills in job advertisements. So if your scope of practice deals with this in construction, any way, then be sure to add these to your resume.

You may also want to include any other computer experience you have just in case it may be of value to the employer, or to at least demonstrate that you have computer skills if you lack experience with EHRs and EMRs. Signifying the type of cover, facility you worked in tells the potential employer a ton about boeing 7e7 case solution, your experience with very few words. You should know the exact designation of all the facilities you worked with and if you don’t, now is the time to find out. Short term acute care? Long Term Care? Long Term Acute Care? Senior Nursing Facility? In addition, if you worked at a Trauma Hospital, then you should include this on attachment cover your resume along with the trauma designation (1, 2, 3, etc).

If you worked at a teaching hospital, then you should include this information. Such information can be included under the specific job description in your resume’s Work History section, or in cystic fibrosis, your resume’s Summary. For example, if the job listing you’re applying for lists trauma hospital experience as necessary or desired, then it’s a good idea to identify your trauma experience in the resume Summary to make it stand out. Include the number of total beds at the facilities you worked at, as well as the number of purpose letter, beds in the specific units on which you worked. Just like the innovation dissertation facility type, providing the number of beds tells the potential employer a ton about your experience with very few words. We regularly saw resumes that listed things like “3 West” as the unit.

Unfortunately, only people who work at that facility know what that means. Instead, include the type of unit (MS, TELE, ICU, CVICU, ER, LD, etc) in letter, order to convey the message. Essays On Prospero The Tempest? We can’t stress enough how important this is. Also include your caseload. Purpose Cover Letter? What was the nurse to patient ratio in this unit, and boeing 7e7 case solution, how much support was there in the form of LPNs, CNAs, or MAs?

Include any other unit specific details as well. Did the cover letter unit take trauma patients? Did the unit routinely deal with overflow from other units? If so, what types of patients were seen from overflow? 1. Specific Details/Duties and Accomplishments Regarding Your Nursing Experience: Up to this point, the focus has been on incidental, although very important, details. About? But what about the meat of purpose letter, your resume, the job descriptions and experiences that make up the bulk of your resume? When it comes to boeing study solution, this, nurses are in the precarious position of balancing duties with accomplishments.

You see, the current standard recommendation for resumes is to make them accomplishment driven. The idea is attachment letter, that you should provide specific accomplishments, as opposed to duties, that illustrate how your work translated into quantifiable and tangible results for process exercises your current and previous employers. Advocates of this approach advise against listing duties on your resume. However, healthcare employers need to know that you have experience with the highly technical duties that are integral to the job you’re applying for. At the same time, they too want to know about your accomplishments. Therefore, it’s important to include details about the attachment purpose specific day-to-day duties you performed. However, at the same time, you don’t want to fall into the trap of creating a “duties-driven resume”. Managing this challenge represents a key difference between nursing resumes and construction innovation dissertation, general resumes. Before we continue, it’s best to address the 800 pound gorilla in attachment cover, this conversation. Fibrosis Term Paper? Nurses sometimes have hundreds of duties and responsibilities.

How do you choose which ones to list because you certainly can’t list them all? We hate to say it, but including things like, “Provided patient care” is a complete waste of cover letter, space. It’s simply too general. Our experience indicates that many nurses believe that nursing is very similar no matter where you go which may be the reason that such general statements are so often included in nursing resumes. In reality, the differences are stark between various facilities. For example, the Step-Down Unit at one hospital may not work with Swan-Ganz Catheters while the SDU in process, another hospital may. With that in mind, here are some general themes to consider when determining the attachment purpose cover letter types of duties to include on your resume. The Tempest? This list is not comprehensive, but it should help you understand the attachment purpose letter level of specificity that we’re talking about: Did you start IVs? Did you administer medications? Which medications?

What type of patients did you care for? Renal? Cardiovascular? Neuro? Ortho? Rehab? What was the age range of the research patient population you cared for? What specific equipment do you have experience with? Did you read strips?

Work with vents? Trachs? Balloon pumps? Swan-Ganz? da Vinci Surgical System? Which industry-wide protocols, processes and procedures are you experienced with? For example, AIDET is among the most commonly listed requirements in nursing job advertisements. There are many similar protocols, processes and procedures throughout the industry, so be sure to make note of those that were used by your previous employers. Now, we’re still in the tough spot of determining exactly which skills and duties to include on the resume. First, start by including any duties specifically mentioned in the job description that you have experience with.

Next, do some research on the employer in question to find specific details that may help you decide which duties might be important to attachment purpose letter, list. Process Essay? Use the company website, news, and purpose, any professional connections you have in an effort to determine the types of patients, processes and procedures common to the specific employer in question. Once you have the duties narrowed down, there are a couple of ways to convey them on your nursing resume. First, you can incorporate the duties into your “accomplishment statements”. We discuss this approach below. Second, you can simply list out the duties.

While this is less preferred, it is sometimes not possible to construction dissertation, accomplish any other way. Your summary is purpose letter, a good place for this. Innovation? For example, you might include the following in attachment, your resume summary if you’re applying for boeing study solution a position in the CVICU: Proficient with starting IVs, Intra-aortic balloon pumps, 12-Lead Placements, 12-Lead Interpretation, AICD Insertion, Beta Blockers, Argotroban, Atropine and other cardiovascular medications. Bonus: Given the large number of skills and duties nurses are responsible for, you may consider utilizing a “Skills Checklist” during your job search.

Skills Checklists are self assessment tools commonly used throughout the healthcare industry. BluePipes provides members with free access to over 100 comprehensive skills checklists that can be completed, saved and downloaded as PDF documents. Purpose Cover Letter? You can view a sample here. They’re a great way to cystic fibrosis term paper, convey your skills to potential employers. You might consider uploading them along with your resume when applying for jobs or you can bring them to your job interviews.

Considerations for Accomplishments. Now that we’ve covered duties, let’s take a look at accomplishments. Attachment Cover Letter? First, you can try to frame duties inside “accomplishment statements” in order to knock them both out at the same time. Thesis About Internet? In other words, offer an explanation about how you achieved results while performing your duties. Again, this isn’t always possible, but here are some considerations: Did you receive recognition or awards from your previous/current employer?

Did your previous/current employer receive recognition or rewards? How did performing your duties contribute to attachment purpose cover letter, that? When framing accomplishments, it’s also useful to cystic term paper, know how your previous and current employers quantified their success as an organization. For example, patient satisfaction is typically tracked with programs like HCAHPS or Press Ganey. Did your employer experience improvements with such indicators? How did performing your duties influence that? Next, it’s important to attachment letter, understand how your current and former employers measured your individual performance as this is very helpful when framing accomplishments. Nearly every healthcare employer conducts employee evaluations. Evaluations typically offer both qualitative and quantitative information that can be leveraged when framing accomplishment statements. Again, you may choose to list specific duties you’re proficient with separate from your accomplishments.

Or, you may choose to frame the fibrosis duties within your accomplishment statements. Or you may choose a combination of the purpose cover two approaches. Research? In any case, it’s important to provide both job-specific duties and accomplishments on attachment cover your nursing resume. Bonus: Healthcare is very diverse. Many hiring managers would also like to know what other skill sets you have outside of your primary area of expertise. Process Essay Exercises? Did you float to purpose cover, the ER or LD units when needed? If so, then you may want to about privacy, provide some reference to the skills and accomplishments you achieved in these areas.

General perspective on nursing resumes. This may seem like a ton of information to purpose, incorporate into a standard resume. However, nursing is not a standard profession and concerns over 7e7 case solution, resume length are becoming antiquated with the advent of Applicant Tracking Systems. Moreover, the push to attachment cover letter, force nursing and healthcare resumes to conform to the standard format that serves general professionals, like salespeople, is a disservice to both healthcare professionals and process essay, employers. Healthcare professionals often miss opportunities to highlight skills and experience that are highly sought after. As a result, healthcare employers often miss out on perfect candidates. This push toward generalized conformity is purpose cover letter, even prevalent on the most popular job boards, like Monster and CareerBuilder, and professional networking services like LinkedIn. Nurses and other healthcare professionals are better served by industry specific professional networking services like BluePipes. For example, BluePipes provides nurses with a profile builder capable of recording healthcare specific career details as well as the ability to print the profile to PDF as a resume formatted specifically for healthcare professionals. So it’s like a cloud based resume service. It also offers several other tools that help nurses manage their careers more effectively and efficiently.

As always, your feedback is greatly appreciated. Please let us know what you think by posting a comment! 16 Tips To Prepare Your Nursing Resume For Applicant Tracking Systems We’ve spoken to countless nurses and other healthcare professionals who. How to fibrosis term, Write the attachment purpose letter Best Nursing Cover Letter A well crafted nursing cover letter can be just as. Argumentation Paper? Nursing Resume Objective or Summary? Nurses often wonder if they should include an objective or. I am wondering how to list my experience as a maternal-child float RN of 2+ years. Letter? I worked 4 different units, all quite different, ranging from essays, mom baby, to peds, peds ed/uc, and nicu. How do i go about addressing those different areas and purpose letter, responsibilities and the tempest, skills, when they all fell under 1 position? Thank you for attachment cover letter the information, its very helpful.

This site is of so much help to cystic paper, me. Purpose? thank you, and process essay, it is attachment purpose cover letter, also free. Its amazing, I just can’t appreciate it enough. I was wondering, i am a one year experience nurse at a step down ICU (PCU), I am now looking for a job in an ICU. The locations and facility i am looking at have nothing for innovation dissertation experience nurses, but have a lot of positions for new nurses that want to work in ICU. I just want to apply to the new nurse position and purpose, i really don’t mind the pay. Cystic Term? Now my question is, should i just use my new grad resume with my clinical experience or i should update my resume with my one year experience and apply although the position is for new grads. please i will really appreciate any advise. Cover Letter? thanks you. How can I include my Medical-Surgical Certification from ANCC on my resume.

Can I include it on my credentials area on top of exercises, my resume – following my name and degree? I ask because the ANCC instructs to do so on their website. I’ll be honest it’s somewhat confusing though, at attachment purpose cover least to me. I plan to include my Medsurg certification in certification section of cystic fibrosis term, my resume where BLS and RN licensure are, etc. I just wanted it to attachment letter, stand out and essays on prospero the tempest, pop so to attachment purpose cover, speak – as to not have to read on to notice it. On ANCC site, on on prospero the tempest a “How to Display Your Credentials” page they instruct you to include RN- BC (Registered Nurse-Board Certified). Was hoping you could clarify or add something else. Great web site … thanks. Thanks for the inquiry, Jesse, and my sincerest apologies for the delay!

Your Medical-Surgical Certification from purpose letter, ANCC is considered a “National Certification” and should be listed after your name at the top of your resume and in the Licenses and Certifications section of your resume. The order for listing credential after your name is: Highest Degree Earned State License National Certification Nationally Recognized Honors and Awards. I hope this helps! I have been working out of the acute care setting in public health nursing for 7 years.

I have heard over boeing solution, and over that because I have been out of the purpose acute care setting for so long that I don’t qualify for a lot of the positions that I have applied for. Admittedly, I have not used many nursing skills for the last 7 years, except for giving immunizations and occasionally drawing blood. I have gotten very weary and feel like I will not be able to find another job, and I am really not happy with my current job. Cystic Term? I am unsure of letter, how to make my resume “pop” and have prospective employers want to give me a chance. Exercises? I am not looking to get back into attachment letter, areas that are highly skilled, but I would not mind getting back into acute care. Any ideas. Kurt, I am an RN at a VA hospital in cardiac telemetry. One of the thesis biggest hurdles to cover letter, applying at process essay exercises any VA facility is the fact that USA Jobs is a digital screening tool as much as it is an online application portal. Matching as many keywords in the functional statements for attachment cover your desired role in your application can be the difference between getting an interview and boeing 7e7 case, being passed over. Hope this helps! In your article you talked about whether or not your previous/current employer received recognition or rewards.

I’m working on applying for a position that is attachment purpose, open for an orthopedic nurse after quitting my previous orthopedic nurse job. The hospital that I previously worked received recognition for their total joint replacement program. I was wondering if this would be something that is good to include as part of research, my resume, considering I was a part of the unit during that time for the hospital’s certification/recognition. If so, how would you go about including that in without making it seem just a random fact listed and make it more as an accomplishment for purpose letter myself also since I was a part of paper, that unit/team during that time. Thanks for the inquiry, Jessica. Yes, this is definitely something you can include on your resume. Attachment Purpose Cover? If you feel that you’re not able to expand in about, a way that adequately describes your role in the achievement, then you may want to expand in attachment purpose, your cover letter. On your resume, you might want to couple this team achievement with one of your own that demonstrates you were a key contributor. For example, you might have received an individual award or a high employee evaluation score. You may also want to include this in your summary as opposed to the job description to make it stand out a little more.

I hope this helps! I am an experienced OR nurse who has performed in just about every surgery setting from Open heart to Ophthalmology, outpatient as well as pre-op admitting and recovery In the past I have managed a surgery department at 7e7 case a busy hospital and purpose cover, also ran a surgery center. I have been fortunate to have been able to take off time to stay home and be with my children. That being said, I am worried about the years off and blank space on my resume. How would you go about filling in the gap? I have volunteered in construction innovation dissertation, multiple areas at their schools, from attachment letter, organizing an Emergency Preparedness fair, fundraisers and teaching Compression Only CPR. Essays? My license and continuing CEU’s have always rained current.

Do you think this will make it difficult for me as I try entering the job setting? I appreciate any suggestions you might have. Thanks for the inquiry. Attachment Purpose Letter? There is no steadfast rule on how to handle this situation, but there are two fundamental approaches to consider. Essay Exercises? First, you can consider a “Functional Resume.” Functional resumes are resumes that focus on skills instead of experiences. In your case, you would focus on all of your OR experience. You might have a small section to purpose, list your previous employers. or you may even choose to construction innovation, leave it out entirely. There are many examples of Functional Resumes available on the internet.

Second, you could use a traditional chronological resume. Attachment Cover Letter? In this case, you would list your experience raising the kids as one of the entries in your chronological work history. You could include details on argumentation paper the experiences mentioned in your comment on this blog post. Again, there is no right or wrong way. Each has its advantages and disadvantages. To answer your question, yes, this situation is always a bit of challenge. However, experienced nurses are in high demand at the moment, so you should be fine. Also, I’m personally inclined to recommend the attachment purpose cover letter chronological format. The main advantage of Functional Resumes in this particular case is to draw attention to your skills and away from the gap in recent experience. However, employers are going to find the solution gap no matter what.

So, I think it’s best to purpose letter, embrace it. With the thesis about chronological resume, you can still include all the applicable skills. I hope this helps! I have worked in home health and corrections for about 5 years now. I have done a lot of basic nursing ranging from blood draws, interpreting labs, starting IVs, wound care, peritoneal dialysis, picc line care (including using clot busters) and removal. IV anti biotics, med passes small and large including mental health medication passes. I have responded to chest pain calls, shortness of breath, hangings, falls, knife wounds, self inflicted wounds, and unresponsive patients. I have worked in attachment cover letter, a corrections hospital with acute and long term patients as well as hospice patients, but it isn’t seen as ER work even though it seems from on prospero the tempest, talking to other nurses that that isn’t so far different than those working in a hospital ER..

Trying to format my resume to make my experience fit into what the Veterans Administration would want/be attracted to.. I am a soon to be retiring Military Nurse and attachment purpose, will be transitioning to boeing 7e7 case study solution, the civilian workforce. How important are listing awards? I have numerous military awards based on my work ethics and performance on attachment purpose cover the job, but I am afraid that the general public is not going to have any idea what they are or mean. Also, any good tips on turning military missions into civilian language? Thanks for your service!!

I think it’s a great idea to add the awards to your resume. You could do one of two things. Simply list them out by their official name. There’s a good chance that the reviewer will search for the award on the internet and find it. Or, you could add a very brief description of the award in thesis about, parentheses. Cover? For example: X Award (earned for valor in action). Either way, if you have a lot of awards, then you may want to include only the highest ranking awards. If you choose to list many of them, then put them in columns or in a continuous stream separated by commas to save space. Conveying your military experience in civilian language can be challenging if you did not work in a military hospital. My apologies, but I lack the technical expertise to provide detailed recommendations. That said, I’d recommend reviewing the job descriptions for the jobs you’re applying for use them to guide your efforts whenever possible.

I hope this helps and thanks again! I have a position working in a “float pool” (we call it the Mobile Unit). The unit is split into two different tracks, med/surg (HV general acuity patients; ortho/urology/gen/gyn surgery; neuro/ENT; Onc [recent unit merge means I don’t float here anymore]; gen med; adult psych; child/adolescent psych; Postpartum (moms and babies); inpatient rehab) and critical care track (Onc/Med/Surg IMCU; ICU; HV high acuity patients; ER; Neonatal ICU). How do I discuss bed numbers for each unit and descriptions that highlight any specific training I have had to play into each patient population? It seems like there’s no way for me to cover all of this detail without leaving a lot out internet privacy, or getting too wordy. I also accepted a critical care position, but have not transitioned yet. My husband just got a job out of state, so we have to relocate, as much as I love my current employer.

This is cover, a great question; thanks for posting it here! You’re right, you’re probably not going to be able to study, convey the broad spectrum of your experience without getting too wordy for attachment your nursing resume. So, you’ll need to offer some general details as well as some specific details. When it comes to specifics, it’s best to tailor your resume to the specific job you’re applying for. Find out what they’re looking for and be sure to convey that you have the skill set, or convey relevant details about paper, your experience. I believe this is the most important consideration for your resume. When it comes to generalizations, you could offer a description similar to the one you’ve provided here.

For example: I worked on a Mobile Unit, or Float Pool, caring for Med/Surg patients 50% of the time and ICU patients 50% of the time. The Med/Surg patients included Postpartum, PSYCH, general Med/Surg, and Neuro/ENT. The ICU patients included ER, NICU and general ICU. Unit sizes varied from 5 beds up to 25 beds. You might also try utilizing skills checklists to attachment letter, convey your experience, especially if you make it to the interview stage.

Also, many applicant tracking systems allow applicants to upload documents, so you might be able to argumentation research paper, upload skills checklists there. You can complete and save skills checklists on BluePipes and utilize them at your convenience. I hope this information helps! My husband was an ICU nurse for attachment 5 years (18 months of that he was an ICU travel nurse) but took 2.5 years off to work in another field. He’s now applying for nursing positions as we prepare to move. Should he address the clinical gap in argumentation paper, his resume?

With just his last RN job listed, it looks like he last worked in 2013 though he’s been employed as a youth minister since then. Letter? How should he handle this? Yes, you should address the gap in the resume. It’s fairly common for hospitals to require the last 7 years of work history to be included on their job applications. A large percentage of the hospitals I worked with had similar requirements for on prospero the tempest resumes. Attachment Letter? Unfortunately, the essays default assumptions when it comes to attachment purpose cover, employment gaps are all negative. Do your best to essays the tempest, tie the experience into attachment purpose cover, nursing. I believe most career advisers would recommend the same.

I hope this information helps! I am applying for RN jobs, but am still waiting to fibrosis term paper, take my boards (will take them within the next 1-2 months). How should I address this on my resume? You may want to add an excerpt under Licenses and Certifications or your Summary (or wherever appropriate) that provides the date you’re scheduled to take the exam. For example: RN: Scheduled for NCLEX on July 9, 2015. I hope this helps! Thank you! I think that’s what i’ll do. For a new graduate of letter, a second-degree BSN program, would you recommend including GPA (3.9) on a resume?

Thanks for the question, Emily! Yes, I recommend adding a great GPA to your nursing resume. We discuss this in innovation dissertation, our blog post on new grad resumes and in our blog blog post on job search tips nurses should avoid. Many people argue that your GPA doesn’t matter. They say that all that matters is that you’re licensed. Purpose Cover? If that were the case, then no details about you as a person, your work ethic, or achievements would matter either. And we know that’s not true.

It is HIGHLY unlikely that your resume is passed over because you included your high GPA. Meanwhile, many hospitals and hiring managers love to see it, and process exercises, assign value to it. So yes, by purpose letter, all means, add it. Boeing 7e7 Case Study? I hope this helps! Great work, by purpose letter, the way! I am wondering if I should include phone numbers for my previous employers? If yes, which number should I use – the thesis about privacy general number, the unit, or HR?

Also, some of my employment history goes back many years and the identifying information(number of beds, etc.) has changed. I do not have the correct information from when I worked there. How should I list this information? Is there a good way to find current identifying information for a hospital? Thanks in advance for your response. Thanks for posting these great questions! First, there are no set rules for nursing resumes, so you’ll find some disagreement on almost every resume recommendation. That said, the attachment purpose cover general rule is argumentation research paper, that you should not include the contact telephone numbers for your previous employers on your resume. In fact, you don’t need to include the complete address either.

The city and state will suffice for your resume. Purpose Cover? On a side not, chances are that you’ll be applying for innovation most jobs on purpose the company’s website through an applicant tracking system. These online applications may allow you to enter the telephone numbers and addresses for your former employers. Thesis About? In this case, I always recommend adding every last bit of information you can to your online applications. Purpose Cover? Again though, that’s separate from your resume. On a another side note: If you are applying for travel nursing jobs, then you should include the telephone numbers and thesis about privacy, the supervisor names for your previous jobs. In order to find current information for your former employers, you can use a website like The American Hospital Directory. They have a free hospital profile lookup tool. I recommend using the attachment purpose letter “advanced search” for dissertation best results. Please note that the links to these pages are underlined in blue.

Here you will find the current contact information, number of beds, teaching hospital status, trauma status, etc. If you are unable to locate the information here or if your former employers are not hospitals, then you can simply try a google search for them or try the site. If your former employer does business with Medicare, then they should be in the database with current information…assuming they want to get paid :-). Now, about your older work history. Many resume experts recommend including only the attachment purpose cover letter last 10 years of paper, work history on attachment purpose cover letter your resume. However, that assumes that your prior experience may no longer be applicable to essays on prospero, your current job search. Cover? Others argue that you shouldn’t include more than 10 years of work history because you don’t want to exercises, date yourself.

They’re concerned about “ageism” in letter, the hiring process. These same people recommend not to include the dates you attended college. Ultimately, it’s up to you to 7e7 case, include this information, I just wanted to provide some considerations. I hope this information helps. Please let me know if there are further questions! Help! I have over 22 years of clinical experience including ICU, hemodialysis, and outpatient surgery ctr (pre and pacu), and for the last 6 years (in addition to purpose cover letter, the 22 years) I’ve been reading electronic charts to extract data and support level of care (I’m told this is utilization review by argumentation research, a friend but we never called it that in work). Now Ive been laid off (it was a large comp layoff). I’m trying to get into attachment purpose cover letter, QA, UR, pre cert or case managment.

I was told I have a solid resume but I’ve gotten 3 calls in 3 months, I blew the first interview and the next 2, they said they wanted CM experience. What do I need to thesis, do to get into these fields? Any suggestions? We’re sorry to attachment purpose cover letter, hear about your current situation! It’s always difficult to break into an entirely new field.

However, it sounds as though you have some experience to build on. Typically, Case Management and paper, Utilization Review require InterQual experience. Attachment Purpose Cover Letter? If you have experience with that system, then be sure to include it on your resume. Otherwise, see if you can obtain some training in it. Check with local and state agencies to see if there are any offerings for people in your situation.

Also, review the specific details of cystic fibrosis term paper, each job opening and tailor your resume to cover, include the key requirements where applicable. Check to see if there is research, a local association that you can network with like the Case Management Society of attachment cover, America for example. Ask anyone you speak with if a Case Management Certification would improve your chances, perhaps even call the research people you’ve interviewed with previously to see what they say. Attachment Purpose Cover? If so, look into construction, certification. We hope this information helps! I have been reading through some of this thread and was wondering if you do any resume/cover letter revisions? I can tell you put a lot of purpose letter, useful/productive feedback into your responses and would value your opinion if you were to review a copy of about privacy, mine! P.S. Purpose Letter? When you mention Computer Experience in the article above, do you suggest adding these details under each individual job (under work experience/history) the comp. experience applies to or under a separate section such as the essays on prospero one you have listed as Comp. Experience?

Thank you for all your time and effort! Thanks for reaching out! My sincerest apologies, but I do not do resume/cover letter revisions. Thanks so much for your interest though. As for attachment cover the computer experience, you can add it with any of the methods you described. The important thing is that it’s there. The resume builder on lists computer experience under a separate heading. Research Paper? We do this as way to ensure that members recognize and record it and perspective employers and attachment cover, recruiters are able to argumentation, easily locate the details on the members’ profiles and attachment purpose cover letter, resumes. Given that EMR experience is 7e7 case study, becoming such a prevalent requirement, it’s good to have it easily accessible on your resume. However, it’s also good to add these details under each individual job when creating your own resume.

It may not be as easy to locate, but it takes up less space, avoids redundancy, and still presents the information. We hope this information helps! I am currently an RN with 4 years solid experience in a 16 bed transitional care unit. Now I’m trying to move to a more challenging position. Purpose Cover? Prior to construction innovation dissertation, immigrating to attachment purpose cover letter, America I was a medical doctor for 9 years in ER. Would it be wise to mention that experience? …maybe describing my duties and medical college? I work in a program that enrolls military medic and corpsman and gives credit for their military experience towards an intensive BSN-RN program.

My question is what should the boeing study solution graduates highlight on their resumes? Many have extensive trauma and nursing care experience. Suggestions? Hi! I have a question / concern. I just finished my 2nd year of nursing and on a med Surg unit. Attachment Purpose? I have been asked to apply to an ICU position and I need to update my resume. I don’t know what to include. Prior to nursing, I was a surgical tech for 16+ years and active duty for 10 years. I really enjoyed your blog and boeing study solution, will refer to it when updating my resume! We’re glad to hear the information was useful.

Congratulations on being asked to attachment purpose, apply for 7e7 case solution an ICU position. That’s a good sign! #128578; Sounds like you have a lot of cover letter, great experience to include on your resume. We recommend focusing most attention on your recent experience in MedSurg as it is the most applicable to research, the ICU role you’ll be applying for. However, you can also include brief descriptions of your surgical tech and active duty experience as they are certainly desirable experiences. Relate all your work history descriptions to the ICU position. To do so, find out as much as possible about the job and the unit. We hope this helps!! Oh MY! I’m sooOOO grateful to have found your blog page! I was about to do my sister a grave disservice –as you’ve mentioned. Attachment? Indeed, the day of the one page crammer is dissertation, passe’.

Especially with the value of the keyword in purpose letter, electronic filing. Thanks so very much; you may have saved my Sis’s resume from becoming fodder for the shredder. [[shudder]] We’re glad to boeing 7e7 case solution, hear the information is useful. To be clear, 1 page resumes are still useful, particularly for cover letter job fairs or any other instance where the resume will be given directly to process essay, an individual. However, in most cases, people are attaching their resume in cover letter, an Applicant Tracking System. In this case, it’s still good to be brief and choose your words wisely. Don’t be overly verbose and don’t “keyword stuff.” However, you also shouldn’t be worried about a 2-3 page resume if your background requires it.

Be sure to tailor the boeing study solution resume’s wording to the job posting where applicable based on purpose cover your background. We hope this helps! Thank you for this article! I realized that my resume was not up to par by reading this. I had many generalized statements, which I have replaced with information on what I really did on thesis internet privacy the day to day. I recently worked at a hospital for attachment cover 4 months and resigned due to it not being a good fit. It was a cardiac surgery step down unit, so it gave me experience with tele that I have not had in my 5 years as a nurse. Should I include it on thesis about internet my resume?

You’re welcome! We’re glad to hear you found the information useful. Purpose Cover Letter? This is a tough question. I assume you’re asking because you’re concerned that the short employment duration might raise some questions in process exercises, the minds of potential employers. That’s a valid concern. On the flip side, you did gain some valuable experience that would be great to add to your nursing resume. There is another issue to consider.

Hospitals often have strict policies requiring that healthcare professionals provide them with every last bit of the healthcare professional’s employment history. Omitting a previous job on your employment application could be grounds for dismissal depending on how they have their clauses worded. Of course, this depends on their ability to verify the omitted employment. This may not necessarily affect you during the candidate review process when your resume is typically the document they’re working off of. However, if you land a job offer, then they’ll eventually require an application to completed. If you choose to add the omitted job at that point, then you’ll have some explaining to do.

Utltimatly, the decision is yours. If you choose to add the purpose employment to essays on prospero the tempest, your resume, then you may want to offer a brief explanation of purpose, why you left in your cover letter. It’s all about the story you tell. We hope this helps. This is all great information but I do have a question.

I am a recent BSN grad and licensed RN trying to cystic fibrosis term paper, land my first job. Would you recommend including my preceptorship under clinical experience or as work experience? I have seen it both ways in examples online. Thanks, Kristin. We’re glad to hear this information on purpose was useful.

You’re correct, you’ll find preceptorship experience displayed both ways…under clinical and work experience. To further confuse the issue, some people believe that clinical experience and cystic fibrosis term paper, work experience are one and the same while others believe they are two different things entirely. We view the preceptorship as something akin to a highly advanced internship. For all intents and purposes, it is work experience. Purpose Cover Letter? However, it doesn’t constitute a traditional employment relationship. Therefore, feel free to include it under either category on your resume, but be sure to essays the tempest, clearly indicate that it’s your preceptorship. On a side note, we cannot stress enough the attachment letter importance of professional networking when landing your first job. 70%-80% of all jobs are obtained through networking. While your resume is important, networking is the key…especially for essays on prospero new grads.

We hope this information helps. Best of luck!! Great info – I could have used that for my last job application! Do you have any tips / strategies to prepare for job interviews? I am finding these horribly stressful and hard to get my point across even when I know I’d be really good at the job I’m applying for. Thanks, Heidi! We don’t have any blog posts regarding interviews yet. Attachment Letter? Thanks for the suggestion. We’ll explore the topic soon. Thank you! This is very informative.

Do you have any sample resume and application letter? We’re glad to hear the 7e7 case solution information is useful, Meth! Yes, you can view our sample nursing resume which you can create for attachment cover letter free as a member of BluePipes. Research Paper? You can view our recommendations on attachment purpose cover writing a nursing cover letter. We hope this helps! I LOVE this information!

Thank you. Here’s my question. Thesis About Internet Privacy? I have had several careers, all with different education components, dating back to the mid 1980’s. How far back should I go? None relate to my current field (new nursing graduate). Attachment Cover Letter? It’s been a long time since I’ve actually developed a resume and things have changed…Plus, this career doesn’t match those careers…. Is it appropriate to ask a nursing instructor to be a reference? Are references included now-a-days?

Many, many thanks! We’re glad to hear the information is helpful!! Congratulations on your recent graduation from nursing school! Yes, it’s a great idea to ask an instructor to research, be a reference. Cover? Unfortunately, your questions regarding what to include on your resume aren’t so cut and dry. I think it’s fair to say that the vast majority of career consultants would say you shouldn’t put references on a resume.

However, if you could get a redeeming quote from a strong reference, like an instructor, to put in innovation, your resume summary, then it could be an eye catcher. You’re right, things have changed! We recommend reviewing our article on attachment purpose letter optimizing your resume for on prospero applicant tracking systems. However, one thing is as true today as it ever has been…networking is the single best approach to landing a job. Attachment Purpose? We discuss the importance in our article with recommendations for the tempest New Grad RNs. It’s tough to attachment, recommend that you leave off your past education. Exercises? I’d say it would be good to add any College level education as well as healthcare related education. We hope this helps!!

Best of luck! Excellent information! Nursing is purpose, a second career for me and trying to put together a winning nursing resume has been a challenge. Paper? You are right on the money….the resume I had for my corporate career doesn’t translate well into the healthcare field. I am currently looking for a new position and realized what I had on my resume wasn’t going to work. I was destined to be one of attachment cover, those that got lost in the system. The tips you provided have been so helpful. I feel confident that I am submitting a resume that will get me noticed. Thank you again for internet providing such valuable information. Congratulations on your new career path! We’re so glad you found this information useful.

We wish you the best of luck in your job search. We hope you’ll consider joining where you can create a resume, access skills checklists for free, and build your healthcare professional network. Please excuse my shameless sales pitch #128578; Please let us know if we can help with any questions. I have read this post with great interest. Purpose Cover? Due to a job opportunity for my husband, we moved from KS to PA in 2012. Boeing? Even securing an interview has been daunting! I have gotten some feedback from ‘ recruiters’ in cover letter, a large hospital in Pittsburgh, which was to paper, be sure to apply to the job requirements, which interestingly were two pages long. How is that possible?

The other problem I suspect I have is the fact I have more than 20 years as a registered nurse. It seems the attachment letter practice of the three major ‘players’ in this area, is to lay off their experienced nurses, in construction dissertation, favor of hiring new grads and those with ‘ at least a year experience’. I did secure an interview which ended favorably; just short of a job offer. Attachment Cover? The next step at this particular hospital required by the nurse recruiter, was to list ALL OF MY EXPERIENCE. I have been in nursing since 1974! LPN in 1977 and BSN in 1989. When she responded to my email outlining all this information, which took me more than 2 hours to complete, was ‘we want to make certain we give you recognition for all the years you have been a nurse. AND, that was the last I heard from dissertation, them. Attachment Purpose Cover Letter? I contend she realized I would have to start at the upper end of compensation for my experience.

Do you know of anyone who may be advocating for the ‘older nurse?’ Never thought I would use those words to describe myself… I am so much more than my age. I am effective, reliable, comprehensive in my assessments, professional role model and delightful as a team member. Essays On Prospero? Please give me some feedback relating to these concerns. I am ready to consult with the department of labor regarding this ‘alleged practice’ to decrease costs per fte.I think it’s a shame! really good information here! I was updating my resume as I was reading your tips – will definitely share with friends and purpose cover letter, collegues. Thank you so much! Hello, This was very thorough advice. I’ve yet to figure how to be concise yet detailed with these tips in paper, mind.

I have almost 2 years experience in attachment purpose letter, In-Patient Psychiatry and innovation, SNF just because those were the two jobs I landed. However, I always wanted to do LD or NICU. I did my preceptorship in 2011 in cover letter, LD. How can I use my experience and study solution, make it appealing for LD again? We’re glad to hear that you found the attachment purpose cover information useful! You can view the boeing 7e7 case study solution BluePipes sample resume to get an idea for formatting yours. Please bear in mind that our site generates a PDF document and purpose letter, you could get more compact results with a word processor like Microsoft Word.

Also, you might be interested in cystic term paper, reading our post on resume length. You can find creative ways to translate your Psych and cover, SNF experience to about internet privacy, NICU and L#038;D. However, you most likely won’t be able to address the unique technical skills required for these units. Purpose Cover Letter? You could look for volunteer opportunities working with pregnant women and newborns in your community. While it’s always tough to find time to volunteer, you’ll be doing a great service for your community and getting some relevant experience to add to your resume. Thank you for this very interesting article. I have been an innovation dissertation RN for 9 years; 4 years at the bedside and 5 years in attachment purpose letter, a hospital-based surgical practice doing outpatient, telehealth and some inpatient care. I would like to transition back to the bedside but feel that my lack of fibrosis term paper, direct patient care over the last 5 years may be hamstringing me. How can I turn this perceived negative into cover letter, a positive and at least get through the front door of the interview process? You’re welcome, we hope you found the article useful. Yours is a legitimate challenge that many nurses share.

With respect to 7e7 case solution, your resume, you should focus on demonstrating how your recent experience translates to purpose, bedside nursing. While we’re not familiar with your specific scenario, we’re certain that there are aspects of your experience with outpatient, telehealth and fibrosis term paper, inpatient care that translate to bedside nursing. Attachment Cover Letter? Carefully review the job duties and research paper, qualifications of bedside nurses, and purpose cover letter, not just those found in the job descriptions of online job postings, to get ideas for framing your recent experience in a way that applies to bedside nursing. Next, focus on writing an process essay exercises excellent nursing cover letter in cover letter, which you present yourself as a solution to the problems facing the employer in question. Of course, you’re still going to have some difficulties ranking highly in the applicant tracking system due to the lack of privacy, recent bedside experience. Attachment Cover? Therefore, networking is a must.

Nearly 40% of cystic fibrosis term paper, all new-hires are the result of attachment purpose cover letter, employee referral. With 9 years of experience, you’re bound to thesis internet, have some connections and now is the time to leverage them. We realize this type of job searching can feel unorthodox, but its success rate is too good to neglect it. Use professional networking sites like BluePipes and LinkedIn to letter, enhance your networking efforts. Finally, we’ve spoken to many nurses who tout the exercises benefits of refresher courses for bedside nursing. While we aren’t familiar with such courses, the fact that many nurses recommend them is an indication that they should be further researched as a potential tool when facing your challenge. We hope this information helps…and Good Luck!!

i have a question regarding applying to purpose, nursing positions. I am a new grad RN and have several nursing job applications that have been under review for over a month. On Prospero The Tempest? Last week I became certified in ACLS and was wondering how to go about informing the hospitals that I am waiting to hear back from attachment, that I am newly certified in this skill, since it is not on my resume that they have on cystic term file (that I originally sent in). Congratulations on your recent achievements! This is a great question. You may be able to log in to the hospitals’ applicant tracking systems (the online system you most likely used to apply) and update your resume and/or profile. Either way, you may also want to give them a call, ask for the staffing office and attachment purpose cover, pose this question to the representative you speak with.

We find that hospitals are quite responsive to candidate inquiries relative to other employers. We hope these recommendations help, and dissertation, we’d love to attachment cover letter, hear back about what actions you take and how they work out. Good luck! I completely disagree that availability should be included on the resume. When a nurse applies for boeing 7e7 case study solution a position it is usually clear what hours that he/she is applying to work. I actually think it’s a bit juvenile to put availability on your resume. What I do think that many nurses omit is a well-crafted cover letter to accompany their resume. The additional touch of purpose cover letter, a thoughtful and appropriate cover-letter can help give you an thesis about privacy edge over other applicants who omit this step. Attachment Purpose Cover? I found some good details on cover letters for the tempest nurses here: . Thanks for the feedback, Brittney. Including availability on attachment purpose cover a nursing resume is process essay exercises, important for many reasons. First, the job applied for isn’t the only job available, and most jobs are never advertised so candidates will never really know about all of the available jobs with a particular employer.

Second, job specs don’t always display every last pertinent detail. With respect to availability, this can mean that a job advertised for attachment letter day shifts might in-fact be for mid shifts, or pm shifts. Process Essay Exercises? This happens frequently when the job board technology limits the employer’s ability to accurately display the letter shifts. Third, job specs often change on the back-end and are never updated on the front-end. So a job that’s advertised for process essay days may have changed to nights without being updated on the job board. Fourth, due to the proliferation of applicant tracking systems, resumes are added to a searchable database these days.

So resumes are searchable for future job openings. Attachment Letter? Finally, recruiters will almost always contact the process exercises candidate with the most attributes in letter, common with any given job description. Process Essay? So in all of the purpose cover letter scenarios described above, a recruiter will be more prone to contact the candidate with matching availability assuming all else is equal. Finally, it’s true that nursing resumes should always be tailored for a specific job description when a specific job is being applied for. About Internet Privacy? However, a plurality of purpose, jobs are filled via networking and referrals. In such cases, it’s rare that a specific job is cystic paper, being applied for.

Instead, a candidate passes their resume along to attachment purpose cover, a contact who has connections with the employer in question. Essays? The resume is reviewed for potential matches with available jobs and the candidate is contacted. Again, availability is one detail that recruiters and hiring managers are looking for. Lastly, we agree that cover letters are important and related to this topic. However, they necessitate their own discussion and we plan on addressing this in a future blog post. This is great information! As a new graduate RN with no prior experience in the healthcare field what would you recommend? I have over 4 years in retail but I’m not sure if this would make much of a difference for recruiters.

Any help is greatly appreciated, thanks! Hi there! Wow this information is great! Although I’m still an purpose undergraduate, I find this site very helpful for tips to keep in mind when applying for a job! I just had a concern that may affect my decision within the Nursing field… For a while, I was thinking of minoring in cystic fibrosis paper, something in addition to Nursing that I can apply to the work field. I know that computer knowledge is a great booster for a resume, but I wanted to attachment cover, know if there were any other skills hospitals are looking for in their RNs? Thank you again for the detailed explanations! Thanks, Michele! We’re glad you found the information useful!

Yes, computer knowledge is a great booster for the resume. You can look into Health Care Informatics as an option for a minor or additional coursework. You may also consider Healthcare Management or Administration, Nutritional Sciences, Biology, Sign Language, or Spanish. In fact, Spanish is a huge selling point these days. Cystic Term? As a side note: make the absolute most of purpose cover letter, your preceptorship. Be at your best and use the opportunity to network with everyone you can. We hope this information helps!! Please let us know if you have any other questions. This is great information! Thank you!

I am wondering though, as a RN with 1 year of experience in the CVICU, trying to 7e7 case study solution, move, with most places wanting more experience than that for hire, how should I market myself? I have done all of these critical care elements, but just not a ton of it. Before nursing school, I was a critical care telemetry tech for 3 years and attachment cover letter, a hospital pharmacy tech of 3 years as well as a SNE(student nurse extern) during school. Because it is not nursing, but healthcare related, should I include it in my resume? It seems juvenile but pertinent to process exercises, add some experience. Thanks! We’re happy to purpose cover, hear you found the information helpful, Dashia! You pose an excellent question regarding the inclusion of non-RN healthcare experience on your resume. There isn’t a steadfast rule, unfortunately, and you’re going to find that some people will say yes and boeing study, some people will say no.

I fall in attachment cover, the yes camp and believe you should include all healthcare related experience on essays your resume for attachment cover letter several reasons. First, it demonstrates progression within the general field of healthcare. Construction Dissertation? Second, it conveys additional experience within the field that other candidates may not have. Third, in many cases (and certainly in your case) the experience is related to attachment purpose letter, the jobs you’re applying for. Fourth, it may help you stand out from other candidates with otherwise similar experience. Fifth, unbeknownst to many candidates, many hospitals require your last 7 to 10 years of work history regardless of whether or not it was healthcare related. Construction? While this requirement doesn’t factor into cover letter, their candidate selection process, they will certainly collect the information at some point during the hiring process. Finally, it may help your resume rank higher in applicant tracking systems. Paper? I hope this information helps! This information is very helpfull. Hi.

I obtained an MD degree overseas before I even started getting licensed here as RN. I was told it would not help or matter anymore if I include that in my resume. What would you suggest? Hey Liza, I hope all is well. Cover Letter? I recommend including your overseas education. I agree that it most likely will not influence the initial resume screening process. However, it could have influence later in on prospero, the process. You may not want to purpose, make it a significant part of your resume, but I think including it is research paper, better than not. Purpose Letter? It certainly enhances your personal story. Do you have an example resume? Hey Michaele, My apologies for the delay.

We’ve been busy transferring our blog to this new domain. We do not have an dissertation example nurse resume that we’re able to publish to the blog at purpose cover letter this time. Innovation Dissertation? However, we will work on getting one up soon. Also, I recommend becoming a member on BluePipes where your professional profile will allow you to record the top 10 details recommended for purpose letter nursing resumes in term paper, this article. You can then print your BluePipes profile as a resume. Thanks so much!!

This clarifies a lot for attachment purpose me. Essay? I am a new LPN attempting to start my career in a new state and have read a lot of advice on that is wrong. I’ll take the advice of a recruiter over general opinions anytime. Most on the other sites were saying NEVER to include your license # details until you actually get a job offer. Then I just applied to letter, one that specifically asked that I provide that info as well as any certifications on my resume in order to construction, be considered. I was hesitant since all the attachment purpose cover threads warn of protecting it at all cost due to construction innovation, identity theft? I’m glad you clarified this and some other points. I do have one question that is not addressed in your article. If you are continuing your education to receive your BSN or MSN for example would mentioning that on your resume make a candidate more desirable to potential employers or would you leave that off?

Hey Aimee, I’m glad to hear that you’ve found the information useful. Great question!! I think it’s a great idea to attachment purpose letter, add your education in progress to your resume. I recommend including an estimated completion date and perhaps even the number of units completed to date. There are several reasons adding your education in progress could be beneficial. First, it could result in a higher ranking by the Applicant Tracking System. Second, it shows that you’re interested in 7e7 case solution, advancing your knowledge and attachment cover, your career. Third, it demonstrates your own personal motivation. As for construction innovation the identity theft claims: Your license number is a matter of public record already. Anybody can go to your state board of cover, nursing and essays on prospero, search by attachment purpose cover, name to verify your state license, which includes the license number.

So, even letting someone know your name, that you’re a registered nurse, and the state you’re licensed in provides the means to easily obtain your license number. Providing it on on prospero your resume simply allows the human resources rep to skip this step. Attachment Letter? Which increases the chance that your resume will be passed up the chain. And remember, you’re attaching your resume in secure Applicant Tracking Systems, many of which also ask for your Social Security Number and Date of Birth (although some states prohibit employers from asking for SSN on job applications). I recently completed my ADN, passed the NCLEX, and now I am working on my resume. I already have a BA and MSW, which I will include on my resume, but I am wondering how I can state that I intend to pursue a BSN, although have not yet applied and don’t have credits towards the degree. Thanks for your advice. Congratulations on your recent achievements! You pose a great question regarding RN resumes, one for which there is no steadfast answer. My belief is that it wouldn’t be appropriate to include the information in the Education section of your resume because you haven’t yet been accepted to a BSN program. However, you could certainly add it there once accepted to research paper, a program.

Until then, you could make brief mention of attachment purpose, this information in your nursing resume summary. Essay? We hope you find this response useful. Attachment? Please feel free to argumentation research paper, post any follow-up or additional questions you may have. Good luck!! I have an additional question regarding previous education that I haven’t seen asked by anyone. I’m an older new grad.

I recently had someone look at attachment cover letter one of my resumes and give me her input. Thesis About? She deleted all but my nursing education (Associates Degree). In some ways I think it’s not a bad idea since the attachment cover previous education dates me if I include the years I attended (which I don’t but suppose that omission might make HR wonder). On the other hand, I attended highly regarded universities for undergrad and grad studies, not to mention it shows I have a Bachelors even though it’s not in the sciences. It seems like the innovation dissertation RN to BSN courses are more human and social science courses, rather than science courses, however, and that is the majority of my BA. OK… That’s some background info, now I’ll get to the point #128578; I know that resumes should cover only the last 10 years of employment history. Do you think this ‘rule’ also applies to education?

Should I leave it to discuss in an interview (as recommended by the person who revised my resume)? I’m feeling very conflicted about this. The new resume doesn’t feel like me, my degrees can be related to the psycho-social aspect of nursing, and when you fill in the online application portion they ask for all education (although you usually have to add on attachment purpose cover letter education). I would greatly appreciate your insight and recommendation. My sincerest apologies for the delay. Congratulations on your recent graduation! This is a tough situation. Both sides of the argument have merit. Moreover, there really aren’t any steadfast rules about resumes…only staunch opinions. Thesis Internet? To me, your nursing resume and attachment cover, cover letter are all about telling your story in process essay exercises, a way that convinces the reader you’re the right person for the job while providing them with the attachment letter details they need. Personally, I’d keep the education details on the resume, and use a brief portion of the cover letter to on prospero, tie that education into the story about you being the attachment best candidate for the job in question.

Given the information you’ve provided about your previous education, it sounds as though you have a great opportunity to do just that. Again, there is no right or wrong answer here. You may even try it both ways. Some readers will appreciate it one way and other will appreciate it another. Boeing Solution? However, I’m of the belief that all education is valuable.

I hope this information helps. We’d love to attachment cover letter, hear back about on prospero the tempest, how it all works out!!

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An Essay For The Book The Giver Essays and Research Papers. The Giver - Summary The Giver This book is about a boy names Jonas. Jonas lives in a futuristic society where there . is attachment purpose cover no pain, fear, war, and hatred. There is also no prejudice, since everyone looks and acts basically the same, there is very little competition. They have also eliminated choice.

You have to apply for a spouse. You cannot just chose who you want and innovation, marry them, the community does it for you. His dad works as a Nurturer of new children, and attachment purpose cover, his mom works at the Department of Justice. Cystic Fibrosis Term? Lois Lowry , Newbery Medal , The Giver 1095 Words | 3 Pages. Study Questions 1. The ending of the purpose cover letter giver has been interpreted in a few different ways. Choose one possible interpretation of the 7e7 case study ending and . argue its validity, using clues from the text to explain your conclusions. Answer for Study Question 1 The two major interpretations of The Giver’s ending are that (1) Jonas and purpose, Gabriel have truly escaped the physical boundaries of their society and discovered a real village in Elsewhere, and (2) Jonas’s vision of the village is only a hallucination. Thesis Privacy? Dystopia , Gender , Gender role 1815 Words | 5 Pages. THE GIVER Compare / Contrast Essay In The Giver I believe that in Jonas’ community they live in a dystopia. . The book gives me many reasons to cover believe so. The setting for Jonas’ community is in the future where numerous technological advances have been made.

In the beginning of the book it is December, the argumentation research paper month where the Ceremonies 1 through 12 happens. In this community during the Ceremonies your name, your job, and your child are “assigned” for you unlike in the real world. . Dystopia , Intersectionality , Jonas 923 Words | 3 Pages. In her book ‘The Giver ’, Lois Lowry has created a futuristic utopian community where there are no feelings, no choices and attachment purpose letter, . Sameness prevails. Argumentation Paper? Sameness, as the name suggests, is the idea that all aspects of life are almost invariably the purpose cover same for all community members and life itself has no choices; everything is dictated, from what to wear and paper, who to attachment letter marry, to study solution how one is required to act and the number of offspring. There exist no colours; the community sees in attachment letter black and white and hues of cystic fibrosis paper grey.

Because. Dystopia , Feeling , Jonas 999 Words | 3 Pages. The Community that Lois Lowry creates in The Giver appears to attachment cover be a utopia, but is in fact a dystopia. To get rid of the extremes, such as pain . and hunger, you have to get rid of things like true friendship and happiness. Jonas is constructed to convey ideas about society by the tempest, his speech, thoughts, actions, appearance, interaction with others and his name. Purpose Letter? We first see this when his sister, Lily says to him, “He has funny eyes just like you Jonas!” Most people in the community have dark eyes but. Envy , Eye , Eye color 917 Words | 3 Pages. ? Book Report English Title: The Giver Author: Lois Lowry Setting: A controlled, utopian community Sometime in the future . Protagonist(s): Jonas Antagonist(s): The Community Relationship between the on prospero Protagonist and Antagonist Jonas, the protagonist of the attachment purpose cover story, is a twelve-year-old boy who lives in a place called The Community, which is the antagonist of the story. In the Community, led by on prospero, a Committee of Elders, almost all aspects of every citizen’s lives are controlled and planned. Dystopia , Jonas , Lois Lowry 2276 Words | 6 Pages. Example Literary Essay : The Giver by attachment purpose letter, Lois Lowry Example Introduction Paragraph: “The real voyage of discovery consists not in . seeking new landscapes, but in having new eyes.” This quote by Marcel Proust speaks of discovering what?s right in front of you by seeing it differently, with “new eyes.” The main character, Jonas, in Lois Lowry?s The Giver goes through a similar experience when he discovers his “Capacity to See Beyond.” Jonas begins to see his Community differently, with an 7e7 case study awareness or. Letter? Lois Lowry , Newbery Medal , The Giver 856 Words | 3 Pages.

The Giver is a 1993 American children's novel by Lois Lowry. It is set in cystic fibrosis term a society which is at first presented as a utopian society and . gradually appears more and more dystopian. The novel follows a boy named Jonas through the twelfth year of his life. The society has eliminated pain and strife by converting to Sameness, a plan that has also eradicated emotional depth from their lives. Jonas is purpose cover letter selected to boeing 7e7 case study solution inherit the position of Receiver of Memory, the person who stores all the purpose cover past memories. Cystic Fibrosis Term Paper? Dystopia , Gathering Blue , Jonas 1319 Words | 4 Pages.

Book Title: The Giver Author: Lois Lowry Date of attachment purpose letter Publication: 2002 Publisher: Laurel Leaf (reprint edition) ANALYSIS I. . Cystic Fibrosis Term Paper? Setting: In an isolated Arcadian community at an unknown time in the future II. Characters and Commentary: A. Jonas – The eleven year old protagonist (turns twelve at a point) who has “bizarre powers” and is chosen as the Receiver of letter Memory. He has a wide variety of interests. For a pre-adolescent, he is extremely wise, curious, thoughtful, and has a much deeper understanding. Dystopia , Jonas , Literary technique 1327 Words | 4 Pages. The Giver INTRODUCTION The book was great! This book and its story are unique.

The Giver is a . deftly crafted work, both stunningly beautiful and deeply disturbing. Finding myself being imperceptibly lulled by the peace, order, safety and serenity of Jonas's world; being awakened by the sickening thud of paper reality's steel-toed boot in the gut, leaving both him and me breathless and disoriented in the aftermath. This story is haunting and powerful. It's a raw portrayal of the presumed moral sacrifices. Purpose? Dystopia , Gathering Blue , Jonas 1614 Words | 4 Pages. The Giver and cystic fibrosis term paper, Holes Comparative Essay. The Giver and Holes The Giver of Lois Lowry and Holes by Louis Sachar are both based on attachment, certain societies and cystic fibrosis term paper, how the main . characters on each book made decisions to solve the purpose cover main problem. The two stories contain a lot of essay exercises dillemas for the main characters to attachment decide on. They both also contain great adventure and inspiring stories for research paper the reader to enjoy. These two John Newberry Awarded books will definitely prove themselves why they deserved their award.

THEME The two books gave the. Attachment? Holes , Lois Lowry , Louis Sachar 1197 Words | 4 Pages. ?Reflective Essay : The Giver by Lois Lowry The Giver by Lois Lowry is term a directive novel about how structured . lifestyle could lead to absence of being a true human. In a lifestyle of freedom, people are not mainly subjected to how they should feel and also what to have feelings for. For instance, in a country like United States, as a citizen you have the right to freedom which is stated in attachment cover letter its Constitution. In such, there is little to 7e7 case solution no infringement as to what you choose to believe in or have feelings. Human , Lois Lowry , Newbery Medal 983 Words | 4 Pages. Attachment Purpose Letter? novel The Giver is “Choices cannot be made without wisdom and knowledge of the past”. This is displayed in many times in the . Paper? book . Three examples are; the elders asking the Giver for advice on important tasks, Jonas’s father releasing a baby, and attachment purpose letter, Jonas’s choice to leave community. The first examples of the theme take place after Jonas recently received the painful memory of war. That memory had poured him over the edge of bearing the memories.

He had then started to question why the fibrosis paper Giver and himself. Cognition , Decision making software , Decision theory 917 Words | 3 Pages. The Giver by Lois Lowry. A sociological view of the book The Giver. The Giver Society refers to people who interact in a defined territory and share culture. In Lois Lowry's The Giver 1993, . Purpose Cover? Jonas grows up only knowing the existence of his society. The society in which The Giver takes place is known as sameness. Everything is done the same, and nobody knows different. It is considered rude to ask a question that makes another citizen look different. In the book Jonas has lighter eyes compared to everyone else.

It would be wrong to bring his eye shade up in conversation. Boeing 7e7 Case Solution? Family , Jonas , Lois Lowry 1170 Words | 3 Pages. ?English Essay - Freedom Essay Question: How has the cover letter study of your prescribed text The Giver , and construction, one other . related text, challenged your understanding of freedom. Page reference: (15.6) 15 = Chapter 6 = Page Freedom is the power or right to act, speak or think as one wants. The power to ones self views as to their will and to determine their actions without restraint. Acquiring the ability of cover knowing the truth, and the knowledge are essential elements, to experiencing a life of boeing 7e7 case study solution freedom.

However. Jonas , The Giver , Truth 1018 Words | 3 Pages. Victoria, British Columbia, Canada Dearest Mother and Father, I know you are probably very concerned upon learning I have left the community. However, . Purpose Cover? I have written to you to explain why I did so. As you both know, I have been training along the on prospero Giver to purpose become the new Receiver of Memory. Over time, I have received many memories, and experienced pain like no other, you are unable to grasp the paper concept of some things I have learned, but I will try my best to explain them to you so you can understand. Color , Dystopia , Jonas 1255 Words | 4 Pages.

Book Report - The Giver The Giver by Louis Lowry was published in 1993. I did not choose this . book it was recommended to me I classify this book as an inner adventure. As in Jonas goes through an emotional metamorphosis (if you will) Jonas lives in a community where pain, rudeness, and war are non-existent. Purpose? All children undergoes a ceremony in December every year until they reach twelve years of internet age, at which point they receive their Assignments, the jobs they will perform as adults. A committee. Dystopia , Islam , Jonas 1073 Words | 3 Pages. The Giver Essay Finallllllllllllllllll. ?English 93 9MWF May 15th 2013 Sameness does not mean perfectness The Giver , by cover, Lois Lowry, is told from the perspective of a twelve-year-old . boy named Jonas growing up in a Utopian society. Jonas lives in a seemingly perfect community in which there is little pain and little crime.

People are polite. Everyone belongs to a supportive family. About Internet Privacy? But this harmony comes at attachment cover, a price. There is also no choice, and real emotions are nonexistent. Life is dictated by strict rules. This story is set in a perfect.

Dystopia , Emotion , Human 1306 Words | 4 Pages. Title: The Giver Author: Lois Lowry Science-fiction # Pages : 179 By: Annika Keewatin Monday June 17, 2013 Meet Jonas, a twelve year . old boy who lives in a rigidly controlled society sometime in the future. In his “community,” there is no suffering, hunger, war, and, as you will see, no color, music or love. In short…this world is a lame place to hang out. The Giver , by thesis internet, Lois Lowry is a classic which has 179 pages. I think it’s an emotional dystopia, with a genre of science fiction.

This. Lois Lowry , Newbery Medal , The Giver 910 Words | 3 Pages. Purpose Cover Letter? have choices, or to 7e7 case solution love one another. In the novel, The Giver , by Lois Lowry, a 12-year-old boy called Jonas finds himself in a dystopia when . he realizes that there is more to purpose letter life outside of his sheltered community. Although the thesis about people of Jonas' community know no different than their way of life, the society is a dystopia, rather than a utopia. 'It wasn't a practical thing, so it became obsolete when we went to the Sameness.' (84) The Giver , by Lois Lowry, is told from the attachment purpose cover letter perspective of a twelve-year-old. Dystopia , Lois Lowry , Newbery Medal 1050 Words | 3 Pages. figuring out how to show happiness and sadness and other emotions.

When The Giver first transmits his memories to Jonas, he was just beginning . to feel and learn for himself. Process Essay? Jonas learns that there are many emotions, good and bad ones. Letter? Toddlers are also curious, and I think Jonas is 7e7 case too. Purpose Letter? And because of their curiosity, they like to explore. Jonas was interested in process essay exploring the new emotions he was feeling. The book says that Jonas was “perceptive”. He was interested in sharing these emotions. Debut albums , Emotion , Feeling 1319 Words | 7 Pages. Julia Jones Literary Analysis Essay Language Arts 1.14.12 Feel?ings noun [feliNGs]- 1. An emotional state or reaction; love compassion . grief.

In the story The Giver , by attachment letter, Lois Lowry, ‘feelings’ is nothing but a word, for feelings do not exist. They were removed long ago, along with all other forms of solution diversity, leaving everyone numb, unable to experience love, depth, risks, and the unknown. Letter? Everyone, that is, except Jonas, who learns the importance of feelings and discovers the process many imperfections. Combined oral contraceptive pill , Emotion , Family 1012 Words | 3 Pages. Essay for the Giver: Relationships in the Story. The Giver , the community which the cover main character, Jonas, lives in is exactly like this.

The society which is portrayed in the story is an essays . illusion of what a utopia is. Through the relationships that we are able to see in the story, such as interactions with the opposite sex, Jonas’s relationship with the cover letter Giver , and relationships between family members, we can clearly see that the idea of a utopia has clearly been misunderstood by the society and its leaders. In the society of essays the tempest The Giver , interaction. Dystopia , Interpersonal relationship , Jonas 1201 Words | 3 Pages. ?Date: February 8, 2013 The Giver : The Fight For Freedom The challenging attempt to successfully achieve a Utopian Society, while . balancing the freedom of the letter citizens has existed since the first civilizations. Lois Lowry’s, The Giver (1993), follows the story of a young boy named Jonas living in a supposedly utopian society as well discovering the flaws in the community’s apparent freedom and safety. The community of The Giver violates many basic human rights as set forth by essays on prospero the tempest, the Universal. French Revolution , Human , Human rights 1243 Words | 4 Pages.

Imagine a world without fear, pain, warfare, poverty, hunger, or terror. It sounds like a perfect world, a utopia but as you read farther into the . Cover Letter? book you realize that to accomplish all of these things you have to take away some fundamental elements of life such as feelings, love, diversity, choices, and even the ability to see colors. Innovation Dissertation? For a community to attachment purpose cover letter take away all those aspects of life I don’t think there is a utopia in fact it’s the exact opposite. Life is all about perception of events. Dystopia , Emotion , Feeling 1511 Words | 4 Pages. ?Tornike Obolashvili English F Block Manana Mgeladze 26/02/2014 Essay It is an uninteresting book teacher! It was phrase . which I told, when I started reading of The Giver , but after a few chapters I understood, that it was good and ideally book with deep thought. The Author of this book is Lois Lowry. Essays? The main character is Jonas 12 years old boy, who lives in community in purpose letter where everything is internet privacy calculated and there are no feelings.

People move with bicycle and every year they celebrate their birthday. Emotion , Jonas , Lois Lowry 491 Words | 2 Pages. The giver is written from the point of view of Jonas, an eleven-year-old boy living in attachment letter a futuristic society that has eliminated all pain, fear, . war, and hatred. There is no prejudice, since everyone looks and acts basically the cystic fibrosis paper same, and there is very little competition. Everyone is unfailingly polite. The society has also eliminated choice: at age twelve every member of the community is assigned a job based on his or her abilities and interests. Citizens can apply for attachment and be assigned compatible.

Family , Jonas , Memory 1121 Words | 3 Pages. Sameness and a predictable society, Jonas's community has rejected the truly utopian possibilities of a society where people are free to process essay move society . forward. The result is a dystopia of conformity. A series of conversations between Jonas and The Giver shows that the attachment cover letter totalitarian rationale for restricting each person's choice of clothing, job, spouse, and children results from the fear of making wrong choices. Construction Innovation? Yet, as Jonas realizes after he escapes from the cover community, he would rather be able. Dystopia , Emotion , Human 1252 Words | 4 Pages. Persuasive Essay : The Giver Imagine living in a world full of lies, a world where there are many secrets, a world . where what you see is not always what it is. Jonas has lived all his life in a world like this. Can you even imagine a perfect, uniform and fully equal life for all people? It would be a boring life, right? At the end of the innovation dissertation book , Jonas gets tired of all the lies of the community in which he lives and decides to escape.

Many people like his father, his foster brother, Gabe. Jonas , Lois Lowry , Newbery Medal 523 Words | 2 Pages. The utopian society described in Lois Lowry's The Giver is very similar to the form of government described in the Republic by Plato, . especially The Allegory of the Cave. Both are descriptions of attachment cover letter totalitarian dystopic governments included the internet privacy separation of people by professional class, assignment of profession and purpose by the state, and the absence of traditional family units, replaced by state-organized breeding. If Jonas, the attachment purpose letter leader, is the man released from the cave, then his obligations as. Dystopia , Jonas , Knowledge 1037 Words | 3 Pages. Thomas Araujo December 13, 2012 The Book Thief Essay In The Book Thief there are many references to on prospero words having . power.

Throughout the book , Liesel stole many books which would affect her life during World War II. She learns how to read and this allows her to cover letter survive the world of construction innovation dissertation war. These books keep her away from the attachment letter destruction and despair from the war. Liesel and Max, the Jewish man hiding in about internet privacy her basement, give each other strength through the words and stories that they exchange. There are. Adolf Hitler , Fuhrer , Mein Kampf 898 Words | 3 Pages. his job. Then Jonas’s sister Lily appears, asking for her “comfort object”—a community-issued stuffed elephant. The narrator refers to the comfort objects as . “imaginary creatures.

Jonas’s had been called a bear.” Analysis At the beginning of The Giver , we have a difficult time figuring out the setting of the novel. We do not know what it is that Jonas is afraid of—from the reference to purpose cover unidentified aircraft, we might think that he lives in a war zone. Argumentation Research Paper? When we find out that it is against attachment purpose, the rules. Thesis Privacy? Anxiety , Family 1441 Words | 4 Pages. Independent Novel Essay Small literary devices create maximized results in the novel, The Book Thief by Markus Zusak.

Zusak’s . novel is about a young girl, named Liesel Meminger, who after losing her brother was given away by her mother to a couple from Mochling, Germany, named Hans and Rosa Hubermann. The Hubermann’s raise Liesel well, helping her through chaos she went through, as Liesel made friends, like her best friend and unknown lover, Rudy Steiner. As Liesel explores her love of attachment books and her thrive. Adolf Hitler , Fiction , Foreshadowing 1395 Words | 4 Pages. Fibrosis Term Paper? Shaheed Awati Ms.Pindar ENG2D April 17, 2015 The Book Thief Essay The Book Thief written by Mark . Zusak, which is narrated by cover letter, Death who is also a character in the story. Death states, ? “It’s just a small story really, about, among things: A small girl, some words, an accordionist, some fanatical Germans, a Jewish fist fighter, and quite a lot of thesis about internet privacy thievery” (Zusak 5). ? Humans are capable of purpose both great compassion and privacy, great evil based . Adolf Hitler , Antisemitism , Jews 1833 Words | 7 Pages. ?One of the main themes in The Book Thief is that words have the power to destroy and to purpose save lives. More important, however, is thesis about privacy that words can . change the way a person feels. Whether written or spoken, words bring the characters in Zusak’s novel happiness, and fear. This novel also shows that words can sometimes be used for evil. The words they encounter influence the moods of Liesel, and the people around her.

Several times throughout the story, words give people a feeling of happiness or serenity. Anger , Emotion , Happiness 935 Words | 2 Pages. Essay compare and contrast givers and takers. ? Givers versus Takers Givers versus Takers There is purpose cover letter a reason why the biblical phrase it is . better to give than to receive is so popular. Essay Exercises? For a long time, authors described successful people in business as having talent and attachment purpose letter, luck, but nowadays according to research Adam Grant, they share another quality; they give back (Brandom, 2013, para 1). In this context a dilemma surfaces. One component that distinguishes organized cultures is whether the cultures themselves are framed. The Giver , Time 818 Words | 5 Pages. Individualism, The Only Way. Persuasive Essay with Background on the Book: The Giver Jonas, a pale-eyed, different, calm, intelligent and determined kid was introduced in the plain Giver ?s society by Lois Lowry; society in which . Cover Letter? everybody most be the same in paper terms of physical appearance and psychological structure, theres always tension because of fear of braking rules and being released (that in this specific community means to be killed), theres a permanent seek for purpose cover perfection that reaches the about privacy point of killing the weird people and the needs and worries of individuals are not even. Anarchism , Capitalism , Collectivism 1115 Words | 4 Pages. Smith 01 Peter Smith Professor Stone HUM 202 26 JAN 2013 Night Comes to the Cumberlands- Book Review Essay I recently . Attachment Purpose? read a book titled “Night Comes to the Cumberlands” written by a man named Harry M. Construction Innovation Dissertation? Caudill.

I chose this book for a couple of different reasons. The first is because after reviewing the book , I realized it was very thorough in how it covered the plight of the Appalachia people, it also goes into attachment purpose detail about on prospero the tempest how many different events from when his grandfather’s grandfather. Attachment Purpose Letter? Appalachia , Appalachian Mountains , Coal 2062 Words | 6 Pages. Children’s Book Essay : The Tale of boeing study solution Peter Rabbit Human nature of children, adolescents, and teens will at times resurrect the . urge to purpose cover approach a rebellious stance, which include receiving various body piercings, consuming alcohol, and construction innovation dissertation, listening to loud music. This stance often challenges the intention of parents, who reared their young with hopes that their offspring would reflect good character and proper behavior. Attachment Purpose Letter? Consequently, rebellious children must endure negative repercussions, often affecting. Beatrix Potter , Peter Rabbit , The Tale of essays Benjamin Bunny 816 Words | 3 Pages. Paula Barragan Period 2 Ms. Bui 11.01.12 Euthanasia becomes a very important topic and conflict in ‘The Giver ’ as Jonas realizes what . ‘releasing’ really means. What impacts him the most is the letter fact that his own father is the responsible of many newchildren, or newborn children, being ‘released’.

Which leads him, Jonas, to take a really important choice to make the Community realize of what really happens and not just what they know. In our society, euthanasia is a very relevant concept, due. Boeing 7e7 Case Study? Idea , Lois Lowry , Newbery Medal 669 Words | 2 Pages. Attachment Purpose Letter? How the book tries to research paper warn us about the attachment purpose letter importance of right of choice, feelings and memories. The Giver is a very . distinguished novel written by Lois Lawry. It follows the story of a boy through the twelfth year of construction dissertation his life. Jonas?s world was perfect, and everything was under control.

In his “community ” there was no war, no pain, nor choices. At the time he turned twelve , he was assigned as the cover new memory receiver and was singled out to receive special training from the giver . Cystic Fibrosis Paper? So as he undergoes. Emotion , Feeling , Human 604 Words | 2 Pages. Bread Givers The book , Bread Givers is a novel written by Anzia Yezierska following the lives of woman who have . to go through struggle because of new tradition verses old tradition. In the book I found that there are several themes within the purpose cover book Bread Givers . Woman Rights, being one of them, seem to be an issue throughout the book . This book revolves around the on prospero lives of woman in a household on Hester Street in New York City. In the 1920’s times were not easiest for purpose letter immigrants. In this book. Daughter , English-language films , Family 1148 Words | 3 Pages. ever so greatly over the course of time there are still factors that stand in thesis about privacy its way, mainly book banning and the fact that the nation is . becoming more and more excepting of the fact, and not truly willing to take any action to prevent it what so ever. Though some pieces of literature might have instances of attachment cover crude and unsettling language, it does not give the community the right to ban them. About Privacy? Say no to book banning, say no to the man that believes to be above all others, say no to the system that. Attachment Purpose Cover Letter? American Library Association , Book , Censorship 1103 Words | 3 Pages.

The Comparison and Contrast Essay the Book and the Movie. THE COMPARISON AND CONTRAST ESSAY THE BOOK AND THE MOVIE Two weeks ago I finished reading . the book “The Firm” by John Grisham. It was really interesting for me to read this story because of the construction innovation unpredictable plot and purpose cover, the bright characters. Essays? At that moment I thought that the book had a really fantastic ending. But when I saw the film about “The Firm”, I was surprised that the attachment purpose cover letter book and the movie could be so different. I was amazed with the last episodes of the process essay movie. Antagonist , Crime , John Grisham 929 Words | 3 Pages. Miss Jane Pittman, Ernest Gaines Go Tell it on the Mountain, James Baldwin Black Boy, Richard Wright (memoir) Dystopian/Futuristic/Science Fiction . Attachment Purpose? Ender’s Game, Orson Scott Card Slaughterhouse 5, Kurt Vonnegut Catch-22, Joseph Heller The Giver , Lois Lowry Martian Chronicles, Ray Bradbury Realism/Naturalism/Regionalism The Call of the cystic Wild, Jack London White Fang, Jack London O’Pioneers, Willa Cather My Antonia, Willa Cather Maggie, Girl of the attachment purpose Streets, Stephen Crane The Jungle.

American novelists , American short story writers , Ernest Hemingway 494 Words | 2 Pages. 1984 Essay What do you think a normal human being needs to have a good, hearty life? What are the most basic needs that are vital to one’s . About Privacy? survival? According to attachment purpose cover Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, physiological needs are those required to construction innovation dissertation sustain life, such as air, water, nourishment, and sleep. If such needs are not satisfied, then one’s motivation will arise from the quest to attachment purpose cover letter satisfy them. Higher needs such as social needs and esteem are not felt until one has met the needs basic to dissertation one’s bodily functioning.

Abraham Maslow , Big Brother , Dystopia 1788 Words | 4 Pages. The Giver - Essay The novel ‘The Giver ’ was written by Lois Lowry. It’s about a boy, Jonas, who lives in a . highly controlled world. The Elders of the community try to make the community a utopia but in fact they take away human privacy and freedom of cover letter choice. They kill people without the individual knowing what is on prospero happening to purpose letter them.

The Elders take away life and what it means to be human. Cystic Term Paper? The Elders spy on the community constantly. Surveillance is on every corner and in every home. Part of being. Human , Lois Lowry , Newbery Medal 676 Words | 2 Pages. Capitalism, 1865-1900.

New York: Anchor Books , 2010. Paper $17.95. ISBN: 978-0-307-368677-9.. H. Purpose Cover? W. Term? Brands attended Stanford . University where he earned a bachelor’s degree in history; he then went on to earn at masters and doctorate in history at the University of Texas in Austin. In addition to attachment American Colossus, Brands has also written other books about history and biography like the Man Who Saved the Union and American Dreams. He has also edited books such as The Selected Letters of Theodore. Essays The Tempest? American Civil War , Andrew Carnegie , John D. Rockefeller 849 Words | 3 Pages. “The Book of attachment purpose cover Negroes is a master piece, daring and impressive in its geographic, historical and human reach, convincing in its narrative art . and detail, necessary for construction innovation dissertation imagining the purpose cover letter real beyond the traces left by history.” I completely agree with The Globe and Mail’s interpretation of this story. One could almost see the desolate conditions of the slave boats and feel the pain of every person brought into slavery. Lawrence Hill created a compelling story that depicts the hard ships, emotional turmoil. Africa , African , African people 1281 Words | 4 Pages. love someone whose not loveable compared to someone who is. It embodies a hidden message made by Markus Zusak about process essay exercises love, through the use of purpose letter Death, Hans, and argumentation, . Liesel, in attachment cover his book about argumentation research a family, the attachment purpose Hubermanns, taking in a foster child, Liesel Meminger, during the Holocaust in Nazi Germany.

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? Student Number: 201423787 Course: GradDip Unit: OT501D: Old Testament Foundations Title: What is the theological function of the plague . narratives within the book of Exodus? Word limit: 2000 Word count: 1927 Date due: 16/4/2014 Date submitted: 15/4/2014 Disclaimer: The following essay , of attachment which I have kept a copy, is entirely the work of the undersigned and all sources of fibrosis term ideas and purpose, expressions are duly acknowledged in footnotes or endnotes. Signed: Daniel Chieng Date. Bible , Book of Exodus , God 2462 Words | 10 Pages. The Tempest? nature. Attachment Letter? “The madness in the fact that the savage and the splendid can exist in one creature, one person and often in one instant.” I enjoyed reading . about Liesel Meminger in essays on prospero the tempest the novel The Book Thief by Markus Zusak. Liesel is purpose cover letter nine years old and lives in Nazi Germany. In the early chapters of the book we learn that her younger brother has dies, her father is missing ad her communist mother has arranged for her to be adopted by Hans and Rosa Hubermann. It is while Liesel is living in the Hubermann’s. Acts of the Apostles , Adolf Hitler , Interpersonal relationship 1167 Words | 3 Pages. Book Analysis Essay - William Penn by John A. Moretta John A. Moretta, a history teacher at the University of Houston, wrote the . Research? book William Penn and the Quaker Legacy which was a biography that told the tale of William Penn but reminded its readers that Penn was a legend and hero according to, . Cover Letter? According to Moretta, Penn produced a Founding Father image and to process essay exercises him Penn “shaped the American creed and ideal” (pg.xi). In my opinion.

Creed , George Fox , Inner light 957 Words | 3 Pages. This book is about a young man who attends a small West Virginian High School. He lives in a house that is attachment letter located off of the coal mine that . the town rests on. Process Essay Exercises? Homer’s dad is the manager of the mine. Homer doesn’t receive much appreciation from his father. Homer sees on television the launch of the satellite sputnik, and after seeing this he is driven to be a part of the space race.

He convinces some of attachment purpose his friends to help him build a rocket. Boeing 7e7 Case Solution? They used terrible materials, and the rocket blew. Coalwood, West Virginia , Cold War , Homer Hickam 905 Words | 3 Pages. killed in the attempt. Living conditions were not pleasant, “We walked all day. Purpose Letter? No water.

No food. No breaks to pee. If you had to go, you had to it and keep . walking with the urine running down your sore legs and burning your broken skin” (116 The Book of Negroes) is what Aminata said of the experience. The slaves had to on prospero walk for purpose cover months until they arrived at a boat to cystic fibrosis be shipped off to England. Being captured as a slave is bad enough but Aminata endured even more public humiliation.

Imagine walking. Black people , Embarrassment , Family 1010 Words | 3 Pages.

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Free Essays on 12 Angry Men Irony. LETTER RECOMMENDING THE MOTION PICTURE “ 12 ANGRY MEN ” In 1954, an understated motion picture was released in attachment, theaters. Despite its invigorating content, the movie made very little money and was virtually unknown to the vast public for decades. About 25 years ago, this movie was rediscovered, and. ?The plot of thesis internet privacy 12 angry jurors revolves around the attachment purpose innocent boy who was accusing of stabbing his father. Their decision may end this boy’s life at the same time it can make him a better person to argumentation research live. They are all sitting around a hard wooden table still in the center of the attachment cover humid New York in a sunny. 12 Angry Men This movie tells the story of essays on prospero the tempest a jury made up of attachment purpose 12 men as they deliberate the boeing guilt or acquittal of a defendant on the basis of reasonable doubt.

The film begins in a New York City courthouse, where an 18-year-old boy from a slum is on trial for allegedly stabbing his father to death. Reflection on purpose cover, 12 Angry Men When the scene is introduced, the twelve men are discussing how to sentence someone who may have committed murder in the first degree. However, we quickly realize that all of the men have different things going through their mind and even more complicated ways of expressing. Critical Thinking Exercise 12 Angry Men Dat Nguyen. “Twelve Angry Men ” (Developed by P. Internet Privacy. Bishop) 12 Angry Men (and in those days, 1957, it was all men !) is an purpose letter outstanding dramatization of critical thinking. The story is simple: A teen-age boy is accused of murdering his father.

The evidence against him seems indisputable, at least to 11 of the 12 men. Analysis of Mosque at Ground Zero – 12 Angry Men Script • Juror 3, like in the story says, “Everybody gets a fair trial. (He shakes his head.) That's the system. Well, I suppose you can't say anything against it.” And in the skit he believes that it’s disrespectful if we don’t discuss the issue. ?Running Head: 12 ANGRY MEN Character synopsis of construction 12 Angry Men Thomas Ricks, Cheri Toftdahl, Lakeshia Grimes, Bertrina Little HCA 455 June 22, 2012 Abstract The movie 12 Angry Men is as poignant today as it was five decades ago. The movie demonstrates the true nature of people especially. The Ironies of Marriage in Kate Chopin’s “the Story of an attachment purpose cover letter Hour” the world outside Louise Mallard’s bedroom window, the (2) setting and strategic positioning of secondary characters within the house, and (3) the irony of the story suggest that marriage for cystic term paper 19th-century women was not the fairy tale it appeared to be. [Topic sentence—matches claim 1 above:] The imagery. The Irony of Dreams and Loneliness.

The Irony of Dreams and Loneliness Of Mice and Men is an extraordinary tale of a unique friendship that deals with many aspects of human responsibility and love. Attachment Cover Letter. “The characters in Of Mice and cystic term paper, Men are specifically necessitated by and respond directly to attachment the limitations placed on their lives, and [this]. Taylor Armstrong English 12 Prep Mr. Robinson 27 September 2010 Uses Of Irony Often times, authors implement literary techniques to add certain elements in their stories. Process. One way that authors do this is by attachment purpose letter, introducing irony . Irony is an thesis internet privacy outcome of attachment purpose events that is contrary to what was expected. Many. Twelve Angry Men is argumentation a drama written by Reginald Rose concerning the jury of a homicide trial. It was broadcast initially as a television play in 1954. The following year it was adapted for the stage, and in 1957 was made into a highly successful film. Since then it has been adapted, remade, and homaged. combination of verbal irony , repetition, connotation, and imagery rhetorical devices while strongly appealing to the plebeians pathos emotions.

The rhetorical device Antony took hold of and made the purpose cover central device throughout his persuasive argument was verbal irony . The use of verbal irony in his speech is. The movie “ 12 Angry Men ” was about a group of 12 jurors deciding whether the defendant was guilty or not. About. The case looks like an open and shut thanks to the evidence that was presented in letter, court. During the trial, all the construction evidence pointed to the defendant being guilty for letter the crime of murder. The defendant’s. ?John Ward ARTH 334 02Feb15 12 Angry Men released in cystic term, 1957 by Sidney Lumet The director of attachment “ 12 Angry Men ” used a basic approach to captivate the audience. About Internet. The camera angles, sound, and editing techniques are all used together to gain an emotional response from the cover audience. The cast that starred in.

Movie: Twelve Angry Men The movie Twelve Angry Men begins with an eighteen year old boy from the ghetto who is on trial for about the murder of his abusive father. Attachment Purpose Cover Letter. A jury of twelve men are locked in the deliberation room to decide the solution fate of the young boy. All evidence is against letter, the boy and a guilty. Hum115 12 Angry Men The character in this movie that was the most effective critical thinker was juror 8(Henry Fonda). The types of characteristics that Fonda, exemplify is provisionalism, creativity, and critical thinking.

By doing this he is uncover new ways of term interpreting evidence, turns to certainty. accused, a reasonable doubt, then you must bring me a verdict of not guilty…however you decide, your verdict must be unanimous.” The movie, The Twelve Angry Men , was a fascinating movie. Surprisingly, it was very interesting and engaging even though it was in black and white and made in 1950. Cover Letter. This movie was. Desdemona, but at the same time, wishes Othello much joy of her. As Iago finds out about internet later, he has no love for her, though much respect; so it is with much irony that Cassio is charged as being Desdemona's lover, when he is perhaps the only male figure in the play who has no feelings of attachment passion for her. It is. Jeremiah 11:1- 12 :17 I. Historical/Cultural Context The Book of Jeremiah records the prophetic ministry of Jeremiah who undertook his prophetic duties in research, the thirteenth year of Judah’s King Josiah (627) and finished in the eleventh year of king Zedekiah. (586 BC) He prophesied in attachment cover, a time of. Ryan Corrigan Valerie Afam Bryan Irony - Les Miserables Group Project Irony - It is process essay exercises a literary or rhetorical device, in which there is discordance between what one says or does and what one means or what is generally understood. Irony is a mode of expression that calls attention to purpose cover the character’s.

summoned to deliberate the fate of a young man who is accused of murdering his father. Reginald Rose’s dramatic play Twelve Angry Men is set in innovation dissertation, the summer of 1957, when twelve men make the conversation taking place in a New York courtroom where the attachment purpose cover letter twelve jurors attempt to make a unanimous verdict as to. Twelve Angry Men (Norms, Roles, Process) able to defy the peer pressure of the jury room in his quest for the truth. The jurors are transformed by the process of deliberating. Eleven men voted guilty because of their prejudices, fears, laziness and insecurities, but they are eventually persuaded by reason to give up these limiting beliefs.

“ 12 Angry Men ” Essay Svetoslav Zhechev Introduction to Psychology-Psy 201 Elka Todorova Argumentative essay 20.10.2008 The movie “ 12 angry men ” shows how a jury takes the important decision of either sending the defendant to prison or not. As the title emphasize the. A View from the Bridge Film and Play Comparison. being hit by Eddie, the construction stage directions say that he “had a certain gleam and letter, smile” (43). When readers read this, they sense that Rodolpho is not angry at Eddie for causing his fall; rather, he may even find it humorous for allowing an old man to get the best of him. He seems to be oblivious to the. of first love and sexual attraction, but also issues of rising against parents and believing oneself to be misunderstood. Play is full of dramatic irony as the prologue tells the 7e7 case solution audience what will happen throughout the play. It also explains about the attachment cover family feud that has been going on throughout generations.

society. The first human instinct is process exercises survival. Purpose Cover. The fittest will survive, as in the book, and in thesis about, today’s world. 5. Letter. Major Themes: loss of innocence; men are naturally savages at heart: As the boys turn from research civilized, well-behaving, uniformed children to cruel, savaged hunters, they lose their innocence. The movie Twelve Angry Men is about a young man who is accused of stabbing his father to death. The twelve jurors have to decide whether the defendant is guilty or innocent. If the young man is found guilty, there is a mandatory death sentence (the jury needs to cover be unanimous in their decision). At. shared grief of the women that it becomes apparent the title of ‘Top Girls’ is an ironic choice for a title, in the events of Act One.

Perhaps the irony of the title is lost through the representation of Marlene as the physically dominating and successful character who is indeed portrayed by Churchill. Women Versus Men as Managers - Are they different? By Dr. Larry Pfaff In terms of motivating and the tempest, leading the workforce of today, who is best for the job? Men or women? There has been a sort of conventional wisdom about male and female managers. Each supposedly has certain strengths and weaknesses. According to this line of thinking, women tend to. the Friend of the People newspaper the included his rants 2. Which group gets so angry that they march to letter Versailles? – A group of poor women 3. Does Marie actually say, Let them eat cake? - No 4. What does the angry crowd at Versailles want from the king and queen? – They demand they move to Paris . Dr. Privacy. Colman COM 353 2/20/13 The movie Twelve Angry Men provided an example of a work group and purpose cover, a service group, because they had the goal of finding the man innocent or guilty on behalf of the organization of the court system and thesis, assisted a worthy cause that helped people outside the attachment purpose letter group. The.

The Play “Twelve Angry Men” by Reginald Rose’s. Twelve Angry Men The play “Twelve Angry Men ” by argumentation research paper, Reginald Rose’s is generally about 12 Juror’s figuring out attachment cover letter whether or not the defendant murdered his father or not. The boy claims to have not committed the murder, but any sane person would vote against this boy with a back round of his. The murder. Introduction 12 Angry Men (1957) is one of the most acclaimed feature films of all time. It was produced at a time when the 7e7 case solution United States was just twelve years out of World War II and “Leave It To Beaver” and “Father Knows Best” broadcast across television airwaves the attachment purpose perfection, conformity and affluence. Meet John Steinbeck and His Novel 'of Mice and Men'

14 January 2009 Of Mice and about, Men John Ernst Steinbeck, Jr. OF MICE AND MEN by John Steinbeck first takes place a few miles south of Soledad. There were two men by the names of George and cover, Lennie who became life long partners. George thought Lennie needed support because Lennie was mentally retarded. I would be lying. Lennie’s name is an irony in itself; Lennie Small? More like Lennie Large. Privacy. Lennie is a very complex individual; he is one to be compared to a bear or a giant. Lennie is able-bodied, he lumbers around and does what he is told. In Of Mice and Men , although Lennie is a superb laborer.

Eric Pompa Shearhart English IV Period 6 October 27, 2010 Oh the Irony Irony the one thing everyone find funny until it happens to them. As if someone could not believe it was possible for that to happen. Like when one person tries to trip another and in return they fall. When trying. Techniques in Twelve Angry Men Summary: Reviews the purpose film Twelve Angry Men , directed by Sidney Lumet. Discusses the solution director's use of cinematic techniques, including lighting, music,and set design, to reinforce the themes of the story. ________________________________________ Twelve Angry Men , directed by.

Greco-Roman tragedy than that of irony . Sophocles’s three Theban plays: Oedipus the King, Oedipus at Colonus, and Antingone serve as an ideal mediums to illustrate three distinct and prevalent dramatic themes: that of dramatic, situational, and purpose cover letter, cosmic irony . Term Paper. All three types of irony are illustrated and epitomized. for a few minor flaws, the paper is well written. This was a fun paper to read. Jim Larson Movie Analysis “ 12 Angry Men ” Jay Rosen Social Psychology Larson 312 The film “ 12 Angry Men ” exemplifies many social psychology theories. Cover. This tense, compelling film, features a group of jurors who must.

‘Twelve angry me highlights the importance of seeing things from more than one perspective.’ Discuss Reginald Rose’s play Twelve Angry Men emphasises the importance of seeing things from more than one perspective. Rose highlights how important it is process essay exercises that the jury discuss all of the evidence from the. OF MICE AND MEN : FREE STUDY GUIDE VOCABULARY - GLOSSARY A Glossary is provided below of various colloquial terms. Attachment Purpose Letter. The words are presented in the order in which they appear: ’coons’ - racoons split-wedge - a crack or tear which is triangular in shape. jungle-up - a camp for tramps who spend the. terrible fear that I have overslept; when I imagine that my father is waiting for me in the room below the darkened stairs or that the shorebound men are tossing pebbles against boeing 7e7 case, my window while blowing their hands and stomping their feet impatiently on the frozen steadfast earth. Attachment Purpose. There are times. the texts, and how is the central idea developed?

Thesis—Rough Draft: In the articles “On Compassion” by dissertation, Lazaear Ascher and purpose, “Just Walk on By: Black Men in Public Space” by Brent Staples, the idea of fearing the boeing study “other” is attachment letter developed throughout the texts. What is missing in the thesis according to the. 12 ANGRY MEN Twelve Angry Men was created in 1957 and thesis about privacy, directed by Sidney Lumet. The is basically about a dissenting juror in a murder trial who slowly manages to convince the attachment letter others that the case they're examining is not as obviously clear as it seemed in court. The defense and the prosecution have. of the angry man and privacy, bigot were tolerated. As the group spent more time together and learned more about each other, they no longer accepted negative or abusive behaviour. An example is when the painter told the angry man to respect the old man and threatened to lay out (Lumet, 1957) the angry man if. Twelve Angry Men” – A Critical thinkers Argument analysis. ?“Twelve Angry Men ” – A Critical thinkers Argument analysis. The search for truth, does the purpose cover end justify the the tempest means?

Introduction. The play and subsequent movie “Twelve Angry Men ” is an examination of the dynamics at attachment cover, play in a jury room in the 50’s in The United States. The action revolves around. knowing what she should fight against. We can also see this naturalism manifesto in Jimmie’s description in research paper, chapter 4. Seeing rich people made him angry , as he was a very violent boy, but he had to attachment purpose work because his father died and there were no chances with him to become rich, although he pretended he. In the fibrosis film ‘Twelve Angry Men ’ the director William Friedkin uses dialogue, body language, camerawork and colour techniques in many significant scenes to convey the idea that everyone has their own prejudices and attachment purpose cover letter, that the juror’s emotional baggage influences their decisions to judge. Essays On Prospero The Tempest. One of the major. up getting the jury to agree to a non guilty verdict after lots of deliberation between them. The least effective critical thinker from 12 angry men would have to cover be juror number three. He is so loud and thinks he is right when he doesn’t want to look from the other side of the fence. Comunication methods between men and women.

Communication Styles Between Men and Women Have you ever heard the argumentation research paper saying “Women are from Venus and Men from Mars?” The reality is that people are all from the same planet. Men and women communicate in attachment purpose cover letter, different ways, and they always don’t understand each other clearly. The men and women appear to be derived. Literature Review: Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet. fighting. Shakespeare uses a range of dramatic devices to make it such an interesting and exercises, important scene. One device Shakespeare uses is dramatic irony ; this is where the audience knows something which has happened in the story which the other actors do not know. Purpose. An example of this is when Tybalt wants. Chapter 12 - The Second War for Independence and the Upsurge of Nationalism I. On to Canada Over Land and term paper, Lakes I. Due to widespread disunity, the cover letter War of 1812 ranks as one of process essay exercises America’s worst fought wars. II.

There was not a burning national anger, like there was after the Chesapeake outrage; the. Brent Staples’s “Black Men and Public Space” “Black Men and Public Space” Title, author, p*ublication*: “Black Men and Public Space” by attachment cover, Bent Staples, American author. Process Essay. It was originally published in Harper’s Magazine in 1986. Purpose, audience, and purpose cover, enthymemes: Staples publishes this article to inform the general public on how colored men are. Josiah Bont- to what degree should he be excused given his own history of abuse (200 words) Are men capable of anything extraordinary--- do they have emotional capacities Who is the juror who most disappoints you Juror 7 is disappointing because he selfishly wants to go to the ball game. Initially.

The irony in Ha Jin's Saboteur is that Mr. Chiu accuses the police of Muji of being saboteurs, when he is essays the tempest actually the purpose cover letter true saboteur. Thrasher points out another of the stories ironies in her discussion. She highlights the irony of the intellectual people of this time being portreyed as weak while. time of dramatic and extensive national upheaval. Cromwell and Fairfax had contrasting behavioral reactions to England’s crises investing the two great men with symbolic status, functioning largely as representative examples in Marvell’s poems. In spite of Marvell’s habitual air of detachment however, it. ?Of Mice and Men – Crooks exam question The details in the passage add to my understanding of Crooks by the uses of process language used in the given text. Crook’s has a ‘narrow plank door’ leading to the barn signifies his close relationship to the animals, horses in particular that currently reside. failed to uncover what the cover real idea. Some say the book is racist, this is completely wrong.

First, Jim seems much better hearted than all of the white men , this makes him seem equal, relative to the thoughts at the time that 'the white man is superior to the black man'. All throughout, all the exercises white man. In form, 12 Angry Men is a courtroom drama. In purpose, it's a crash course in purpose letter, those passages of the Constitution that promise defendants a fair trial and the presumption of innocence. It has a kind of thesis privacy stark simplicity: Apart from a brief setup and a briefer epilogue, the attachment purpose cover entire film takes place within. The 12 Dos and Don’ts You Learn from Watching the 12 Angry Men. The 12 Dos and Don’ts you learn from watching the 12 Angry Men In reviewing this excellent 1957 classic directed by Sidney Lumet about essentially 12 jurors with “life in thesis internet, their hands and death on their minds,” one can draw parallels to the daily choices we make in attachment purpose cover, our lives.

I would refer to.