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Case Study Research: Foundations and Methodological Orientations
bpm ba resume After a decade of what has often been conflicting and contentious debate over what study research, the meaning of “BPM”, we at BPM.com have joined with other industry experts on the establishment of an official and definitive definition of BPM: “Business Process Management (BPM) is a discipline involving any combination of modeling, automation, execution, control, measurement and optimization of business activity flows, in support of enterprise goals, spanning systems, employees, customers and partners within and beyond the enterprise boundaries.” The goal of worst, this effort is to what is case study research, find the definition that closely represents the concept that most people (including both experts and otherwise) have for the term BPM. The goal was not offer judgment on different BPM methods, technologies or products, many of which are discussed on this site. This definition is by thesis design short and concise, yet definitive and what study research, complete. Some broader considerations. BPM is a discipline; it is a practice; it is something you do. Business stems from the resurrection tale state of being busy, and it implies commercially viable and profitable work. A business exists to is case study, provide value to naturally violence essays, customers in what study exchange for something else of dissertation word per section, value.
Process means a flow of business activities and seeing those activities as connected toward the achievement of some business transaction. Flow is meant loosely here: the what is case study order may or may not be strictly defined. A person doing BPM must consider a process at on a, the scope of interrelated business activities which holistically cooperate to fulfill a business objective. This is the key difference from a functional view of what study, business where each function might be optimized independent of the other functions. Essay On A Shave! In a complex system like a business, it is what is case study research well known that local optimization of part of the system will rarely lead to tale, good overall results. Is Case! A BPM practitioner must consider the metrics of the entire system when evaluating a specific process. Season! Modeling means that they would identify, define, and make a representation of the complete process to support communication about the process. There is what is case study no single standard way to essays, model, but the model must encompass the is case study process. Automation refers to the work that is done in advance to assure the smooth execution of the process instances. City Resurrection Tale! In many cases this means writing software, but it might include building machinery or even creating signage to direct participants. What! Execution meaning that instances of a process are performed or enacted, which may include automated aspects.
Conceptually, the process instance executes itself, following the BPM practitioner’s model, but unfolding independent of the BPM practitioner. Control means that the there is some aspect of making sure that the process follows the designed course. This can be strict control and enforcement, or it might be loose control in the form of guidelines, training, and manual practices. Measurement means that effort is essay taken to what is case study research, quantitatively determine how well the process is working in terms of serving the needs of customers. Optimization means that the discipline of BPM is an ongoing activity that builds over time to steadily improve the measures of the process. Improvement is relative to essay close, the goals of the organization, and is case study research, ultimately in terms of meeting the needs of customers. Enterprise is used here simply to mean a business organization; any organization where people are working together to meet common goals; it does not need to be exceptionally large, and it does not need to essay two, be for profit. The mention of enterprise goals is included here to emphasize that BPM should be done in the context of the goals of the enterprise, and not some small part of it. This might seem a bit redundant in is case research one sense: any improvement of a process must be an improvement in terms of the enterprise goals anything else would not be called an of migration to the north improvement. Within and beyond the enterprise boundaries recognizes that the enterprise is part of a larger system.
Customers are part of the business process. Their interaction, along with those of employees should be considered as part of the end-to-end interaction. Assumptions and Understanding Beyond the Definition Alone. The discussions and commentary that led to the official definition of BPM also uncovered several assumptions and is case study, immutable notions about BPM. These are presented below. BPM is an activity; a practice - BPM is of expository essays something you do, not a thing you own or buy. It is described in many definitions as a practice.
There was wide agreement on this, well over 90% of the participants expressed this view. BPM is about improving processes - It presumes the idea that you view business as a set of processes, and BPM is the act of improving those processes. Is Case Study Research! This is important: “skill” is different from “skill improvement”. This can be confusing. For example in worst advisor competitive situations the two ideas are often intertwined - what is the act of playing tennis, if not also the act of is case research, trying to improve the way you play tennis? However, in other contexts it is easier to thesis advisor, distinguish the activity of driving is different than taking a driving course to improve the way you drive. Study Research! The implication is that BPM is not about automating business process (in the ‘paving the cowpaths’ meaning) but about improving them.
The same way that ‘reengineering’ a process is about not simply automating what is currently there. Some will say that automation by itself is an improvement over of expository essays, a manual process. The BPM is the activity of what is case study research, discovering and designing the automated process, and is done when the finished application is deployed to the organization. The running of the different styles of expository processes is not part of BPM. However, monitoring the process to find areas of improvement would still be an important part of what is case, BPM. BPM is done by people concerned primarily with improvement of the process - A business process will involve many people, but how many of them are concerned with improving it? Some will insist that improvement is everyone’s job. That is, the receptionist should be thinking about how to improve the operations if possible.
This interpretation is worst thesis too broad to be useful. The cook who adds salt to what is case, the food making it taste better, motivating more employees to eat in the building, cutting down on waste of time driving to an outside restaurant, and improving the amount of information interaction between worker, and violence, resulting in better performance is NOT business process management by any account. Everybody in a business is working to do their best job, and every good job helps the business, but all of this is not BPM. BPM must be narrowly defined as the what is case activity done by people who actively and primarily look specifically at the business processes, and trying to improve them. Clearly those people must solicit input from as many others as possible, but those others are not doing BPM. Participating in a process is are humans naturally essays not doing BPM - A manager approving a purchase order is not doing BPM even though that approval is an what activity in a process. A bank manager rejecting a loan application is not doing BPM even though this activity is a step in a business process. These people are doing jobs that are part of a process, but they are not doing BPM. Implementation (coding) of the process application is not BPM - An application developer designing a form for data entry as a step in a process is not doing BPM at that moment. Once the “to-be” process has been adequately spelled out, the actual implementation of the application that supports it is no longer actively engaged in improving the process. A small caution here: applications are often developed incrementally show to the customer, get feedback, improve, and iterate and the process may be improved incrementally as well.
Those incremental improvements should be included as the are humans essays activity of BPM, but the activity of implementation of the application is research not BPM. The criteria is clear: if you are actively and worst, primarily engaged in improvement of the process, then it is BPM, otherwise it is engineering. Making a suggestion for process improvement is not BPM - This means that there is a distinction between many people who make suggestions, and those who then actually do the BPM. When a process analyst is what is case research involved in BPM, it is expected that they will solicit lots of information about what is and is not working, as well as suggestions on how it might work. Those people who give the are humans essays feedback are helping the BPM work, but not themselves doing BPM.
Improving a single step of a process is not BPM - Some have the mistaken idea that any possible action that improves a process is BPM no matter how small. A person doing BPM needs to what is case, have some kind of big-picture view of the process. It has been described as an “end-to-end view” of the process. Dissertation Word Per Section! Optimizing one step in a process, without knowledge of the entire process, is exactly what Hammer and Champy were warning about: to understand the correct optimizations we need to consider those optimizations within the context of a complete business process. What Is Case Study Research! A workman smoothing gravel on season of migration north a road is is case study improving all of the process that involved driving on that road, but it is not BPM because he does not have visibility of the whole process.
The engineer finding a way to double the of expository essays bandwidth of a fiber optic cable is improving all the processes that require communications, but this is what not BPM either. Season Of Migration To The! An office worker who finds that OpenOffice4 helps to create documents faster than some other word processor is what study improving all the processes that involve writing documents; this is not BPM either. In order to thesis, have a discussion about BPM, we can consider only those activities by people who have a view to, and consider the effect on, the entire end to end process. Here we get into what is case study a variety of different ways that people abuse the BPM term. BPM is not a product - There is a category called “BPMS” which is a BPM Suite or BPM System.
Gartner has introduced a new product category called “intelligent BPMS.” What is included depends very much on the vendor. Analysts have attempted to city essay tale, list features and capabilities that are necessary, but those features change from year to year. Is Case Study! For example, in 2007 analysts commonly insisted that BPM Suites must have a BPEL execution capability, but today this is entirely ignored or forgotten. Most products designed to support BPM also include a lot of other capabilities beyond just those the BPM practitioner requires. Particularly they generally include a lot of to the north essay, application development and data integration capability. What Is Case! It is very convenient to offer all this in a single package, while other vendors bundle collections of offerings together to get the worst thesis advisor same benefit. By analogy “driving” is an activity, but an automobile offers many more things than just those needed to drive. BPM is not a market segment again, there might be a market segment around products that support BPM, or BPMS products, but BPM itself is a practice.
Vendors may be labeled as a “BPMS Vendor” which simply means they have some products which can support the activity of what is case, BPM, among other things. An application does not do BPM the application might be the result of BPM activity. Once finished, it either does the business process, or support people doing the business process. It may, as a byproduct, have metrics that help further improvement of the are humans violence process. In this sense it supports BPM in the same way that receptionist may support BPM by coming up with good ideas, and that is not enough to say that the application, or the what is case study research receptionist, is doing BPM. BPM as a Service is essay on a close shave not application hosting We use the term business process as a service (BPaaS) to mean applications hosted outside the company that supports more than one function of a business process.
Like the application above, it does the process, but it does not do BPM. Entire organizational units don’t do BPM To say that a company is doing BPM is simply a way of study research, saying that there are some people in the company that are doing BPM. This kind of abstraction is normal. It should be obvious that when a company or division claims to worst advisor, be doing BPM, the majority of the people there are not actually doing BPM. BPM is not anything that improves business some argue that every activity is part of a process because a process is just a set of what is case, activities. Then, any action taken to of expository, improve any activity is study BPM. I have argued against this interpretation because such a broad interpretation would make BPM meaningless: it would mean anything. There is broad acceptance that BPM is a practice of methodically improving a process that supports business, and are humans violence essays, that improvements in part of the process must be done only after the study research consideration of the masters dissertation word entire end to end process. BPM is not all activities supported by a BPMS as I mentioned earlier, a BPMS supports many things (e.g. application development) which is not BPM. A BPMS that only supported the exact activity of BPM would not be as useful as one that bring a lot of capabilities together. It is however a common mistake for people to say that because a BPMS supports something, it is then an aspect of BPM.
While it is study true that someone who does BPM needs to document a process, it is not true that anyone who documents a process is doing BPM. While it is true that many BPMS support designing a screen form, it is not true that design a screen form is BPM. The activity of BPM is fairly well defined, but a BPMS support a much wider set of activities. Because you can do something with a BPMS does not mean you are doing BPM A BPMS is designed to support the activity of BPM. However there are many things a BPMS can do that are not BPM.
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How to Do Case Study Research - ScholarWorks UMass Amherst
LEARN HOW TO WRITE A SONG: a step-by-step guide. This easy-to-use guide will show you how to write a song, from finding a great title to writing your melody. Hands-on songwriting exercises will jump start your creativity, while ‘how-to’ video tutorials are a fun way to find out more. What comes first, melody or lyrics? How does an what is case research idea become a whole song? How do you know if your song is any good? Well, I’ll answer the first two questions in this article. Worst Advisor? The third question – How do you know if your song is good? – is answered like this: If a song genuinely expresses your feelings, then it’s a good song. It doesn’t matter what anyone else thinks.
If a song expresses your feelings AND touches other people, moves them emotionally, or gets them on the dance floor – that’s a good song with the potential to become a HIT. So, how do you write a song that moves other people and makes them want to what is case, listen? Well, that’s where song craft comes in. ? What is worst song craft and why do I need it. Good songwriters use song craft to is case study, give their songs emotional impact and naturally violence essays, create a memorable experience for listeners. The tools and techniques of our craft are not arbitrary; they weren’t invented just to drive us crazy or make us write copy-cat songs without depth or originality. They exist because, over study, hundreds of years, songwriters have found that they help listeners to understand, experience, and remember the message at the heart of a song. The simple, time-tested ideas on this page will help you create a song that expresses your feelings and moves listeners, keeping them involved and interested in what you have to say.
Like any skill, though, song craft takes a little practice, so be sure to try the “Go Ahead and Do It!” exercises that follow each step. ? How does a song get started? (Good question!) Getting started can be one of the hardest tasks in songwriting. And it’s also one of the most important because if you start well, you’ll have a lot less trouble later on. You’ll know where you’re going and you’ll have plenty of things to say. There’s always the temptation to jump right in and begin with the different of expository essays first thing that occurs to you. You know you want to write a song – lyrics with a melody and some chords – but you may only have a vague idea or a feeling about what you want to express. When that happens you could end up with a song that listeners can’t understand or relate to. So which comes first – lyrics, melody, or chords? My answer is: None of the above.
There are a lot of ways to start a song and what study, you could start with one of those, but I’m going to suggest that you start with THE TITLE. The title is going to be the line that everyone remembers. More important, it’s going to are humans violence, define the message of the study song. It will be your guide, keeping your song on track and keeping listeners interested. Think of your title as the peak of a pyramid. The rest of the song is styles of expository made up of the building blocks that support it. Start your song with a title that appeals to you. Make sure it’s a phrase that rings true in what research, your ears. Essay Tale? Something that makes you say, “I’ve got to study, know more about that!” Because if YOU want to know, others will want to know.
TIP: Short phrases make good titles because they grab attention and violence essays, they’re easy to remember. Is Case? The ideal length for a title is are humans naturally violence essays one to five words. Where to find good titles. Keep your eyes and ears open for good titles that have energy for you. Action words, images, or short phrases make good titles. Attention-grabbing newspaper headlines are full of good titles. Here are a few examples of titles I picked up by reading through a popular magazine: “A Dream On The Edge,” “Hiding in the Shadows,” “What You Can’t Change,” “Slipping Away.” When you watch television always keep a little corner of your mind alert for dialogue lines that capture your attention. Listen to your friends and family to see if you can pick out interesting phrases.
Or turn inside and listen to yourself by doing some stream-of-consciousness writing. Write or type as fast as you can, trying not to think or make judgments, then go back and look for good phrases. What Research? Start keeping a list of of migration to the north essay, these potential titles. GO AHEAD DO IT – Start your title list right now. Pick up a book or magazine, or scan for interesting short phrases. Write down at least three phrases. Mix and what, match words between phrases, substitute your own words, play around with ideas. Try to come up with at least one phrase that makes you want to write a song. Keep looking for more phrases until you have something you like.
Draw a big circle around that phrase. Then keep reading. ? Turn a title into dissertation word count a lyric. Here’s how. Now, let’s begin to turn your title into what study a great lyric by simply asking a few questions – the questions suggested by on a close, your title. If you use these questions as a guide when writing your lyric, you’ll be able to… Finish every song you start Keep listeners with you Make your song say what you want. Ask the questions hidden in your title. Every title suggests questions that need to is case study research, be answered.
Some of the questions will be ones that you want to explore, others will be questions that listeners have. You’ll need to answer both. Are Humans Essays? Let me give you a few examples… Take a classic song title like “Heartbreak Hotel.” Some of the questions this title suggests are: What is a ‘heartbreak hotel’? What happens there?
Where is it? Sure enough, these questions are all answered in this great Rock standard. What is a ‘heartbreak hotel’? A place to go when your baby leaves you. Study? What happens there? Brokenhearted lovers cry.
Where is it? Down at the end of styles of expository essays, Lonely Street. A title like Taylor Swift’s “I Knew You Were Trouble” suggests questions like “Who was trouble?” “What kind of trouble?” and ‘How did things turn out?” If these questions aren’t answered in what research, the song, listeners will go away disappointed. Here’s the lyric. Take a look to resurrection two, see how these questions were answered. In a big Country hit like “You’re Gonna Miss This” recorded by Trace Adkins, listeners will be asking “What is is case research it we’re going to miss?” and “Why will we miss it?” Check out the lyric. You might be surprised by the answer! That’s the sign of a great song. City Essay? It draws the listener in study, with questions, then answers them in a fresh way. Of course, you’ll also have questions you want to write about.
Exploring our own feelings and experiences is a big part of what drives us to write songs. So, here are a few questions you might want to answer. What does your title mean? How do you feel about resurrection, that? Why do you think that happened? What do you hope or fear will happen next? If you’d like to hear a lyric example, listen to is case, “Be With You,” a song I wrote with singer-songwriter Ed Patrick. The lyric answers questions suggested by the title, questions like: Why is the essay resurrection two singer saying this? What’s happening?
Who is is case research involved? What is the singer feeling? Why is essay it important to him? A simple title like this one can suggest a lot of different emotions and situations. Ed and I wrote about the feelings we wanted to is case research, express, but another songwriter could go in an entirely different direction with the same title. Shave? You can choose the questions you want to what study, answer and the way you want to answer them. GO AHEAD DO IT – Go back and masters per section, look at the title you circled in the previous exercise. What Study? What questions does it suggest to essay tale, you? What would you like to say about it? Make a list of questions you’d like to answer. Then add any questions you think listeners might have.
Answer your questions in short phrases, eight to ten words will convert easily into lyric lines. Is Case Study? Write more than you think you’ll need; you won’t use all of it. Remember, it’s just raw material. Explore the possibilities. Don’t worry about rhyming, just say what you want to say. That’s the best place to start.
? Add images related words to bring your song to are humans violence, life. Just like a potter has clay and a painter has tubes of paint, the songwriter has images, action words, and what research, fresh ideas. These are your raw materials. You’re going to create that raw material yourself by using the of migration essay words, phrases, and images suggested by what is case, your song title. Make a list of words and images the title suggests. Let’s say your song title is “You Make Me Smile.” To create raw material based on this title, think of words and images associated with smiling. We can start with obvious ones like “happy,” “sunny,” “bright,” and “fun.” These are words you can use in your lyric, but they’re a little bit abstract. Let’s see if we can come up with words that will actually create an upbeat feeling for listeners and really make them feel like smiling. Take the words “happy” and “fun,” for instance.
What are a few things that are fun, things that make people smile? Parties, dancing, weekends, and vacations. The sound of laughter and music. Of Expository? Favorite foods and a day at the park with friends. A trip to the beach, a night on is case the town. Bright lights and crowds and carnival rides. These are just rough ideas. Try not to judge whether they’re good or not at this stage. Just write down everything that comes to you. You won’t use all of it, but you never know what might end up in your song. Now, let’s try the word “sunny.” Obviously that word makes me think of naturally, sunshine, which makes me think of what is case study, summer and being outdoors, which makes me think of grass, trees, and flowers.
Flowers make me think of colors – gold, red, purple – and bees buzzing around. So now we have a whole bunch of violence, words that evoke mental images – bees, flowers, sunshine, parties, dancing, colors! They all have to do with smiling and study research, feeling good. And they all came from styles starting with one or two words, and then letting them suggest more. To hear how these words are used in a hit song, here’s part of the chorus lyric of “Smile” by Uncle Kracker. Research? Notice how many words are similar to the ones we came up with. You make me dance like fool.
Forget how to breathe. Just the thought of you can drive me wild. Oh, you make me smile. Now the worst thesis listener is able to picture how the singer is feeling instead of just having to what study, take his word for it. This is one of the most important tools a songwriter has. Check out essay shave “Smile” by Uncle Kracker on Spotify, read the lyrics online, or watch the video to hear even more fun images and ideas based on what is case study research smiling. BONUS TIP: After you have a list of related words, make a list of worst thesis advisor, contrasting words and images, ones that suggest the opposite. For example, I wrote a song called “California Girl.” Obviously the related words will include summer, sun, warm, waves, water, sand, feeling free – a kind of what is case, or paradise. Contrasting words will be winter, moon, cold, fire (contrasting with water), and feeling caught or trapped (the opposite of feeling free).
If you’d like to naturally violence, hear how I turned these lists of related and study, contrasting words into a lyric, watch the video of my song “California Girl” or listen and read the lyrics here. GO AHEAD DO IT – Make a list of words, images, and phrases related to violence essays, your title. Write down single words or short phrases. Don’t think about rhyming or making sense of things at this point. And try not to be critical of your ideas – just write down what comes to is case, you. Different Styles Essays? Then, make a list of contrasting words, images, and phrases.
Write as many words as you can think of in each column. Is Case Research? Let one idea suggest another and follow the styles of expository essays trail wherever it takes you. This is research a great exercise for different styles, stretching your creativity. ? Why is song structure such a big deal? Now is a good time to get familiar with one very important aspect of songwriting: Song Structure. An easy-to-follow structure acts like a path leading your listener through your song from beginning to end. The most common contemporary hit song structure looks something like this: VERSE / CHORUS / VERSE / CHORUS / BRIDGE / CHORUS . Listeners like this song form because it provides enough repetition to feel familiar and enough variety to keep them interested. It also gives you, the is case study songwriter, the chance to add emotional dynamics to your song. Season Of Migration To The Essay? Many of today’s hit songs feature a conversational, low-key verse followed by a big, powerhouse chorus with plenty of emotional punch. Once you get familiar with this basic song structure, there are plenty of add-ons and variations to play with.
Some songs have a pre-chorus or extra post-chorus hook. But try using this one to get started. It’s been the foundation of many huge hits and many more to come. Here are some useful definitions for understanding song structure: – Verse: The verses in a song all have the same melody but different lyrics. The verse lyrics give us information about the situation, emotions, or people in the song.
– Chorus: We may hear the chorus of a song three, four or more times. The lyric and melody remain the same each time it recurs.The chorus lyric sums up the what study heart of the song. The title of the song almost always appears in the chorus section and may be repeated two or more times. – Bridge: The bridge has a different melody, lyrics, and worst advisor, chord progression from the verse or chorus. It provides a break from the repetition of verse and what, chorus. The lyric often provides an of expository insight or revealing moment. GO AHEAD DO IT. Use the song form VERSE / CHORUS / VERSE / CHORUS / BRIDGE / CHORUS . Go back to what research, the list of questions you made earlier and choose a question to resurrection tale two, answer in what is case study research, each section. The chorus will be repeated several times so pick the tale most important question to answer there.
Often, that question is research “What does this feel like?” Be sure to use your title in are humans naturally, your chorus! Fill in the lines around your title using some of the is case study research images from your list. Make sure your listeners understand your song by having the singer come right out and say what he or she really feels at of migration to the essay least once in the chorus. When you have a rough idea of your chorus lyric, move on to a verse. Verse lyrics tend to be more conversational, so keep it simple and what is case, just answer the question you picked in close, an open, honest way. ? Look for the melody that lives in your lyrics. Every time you open your mouth to speak, you start singing! Don’t believe me? Just try speaking without using any changes in pitch, without speaking faster or slower, louder or softer.
You can’t do it! You end up sounding like a robot. Although we usually think of is case study research, singing as something quite different from talking, we actually use a lot of melody when we talk. When we talk we use pitch, volume, phrasing, and rhythm – all the worst advisor elements of a song melody. The only what is case study, difference is in a song these elements are exaggerated and there’s more repetition. Masters? So if you have a few lyric lines, all you need to do is speak them to get a raw melody started. It’s the melody part of speech that communicates emotion. In fact, just by is case study research, changing the melody you can give the essay resurrection tale two same words an entirely different emotional meaning. Try this: say the phrase “Oh, no?” as if you are asking a simple question.
Now, say the same phrase — “Oh no!” — as if you are anxious and frightened. Notice the difference in the melody? In the what is case research question, the melody goes up at on a close shave the end. In the frightened version, the pitch starts higher and then the melody moves downward. Exaggerate the emotion in the second phrase and is case research, you’ll really hear it.
Now try saying “Oh no” with a sarcastic, disbelieving, ‘you’ve got to be kidding’ tone. It’s an entirely different melody from the other two. You can use this melodic element of on a close, speech to give your songs added emotional impact. If you’ve got a lyric that asks a question, try a rising motion on the end of the melody , just as if you were really asking a question. Is Case? Or, if your lyric questions are the of migration to the north essay kind that don’t really want an answer, try a descending melody on what is case study the end of the phrase. You’ll make the season of migration essay meaning clear and sound natural and believable to what is case, your listeners. GO AHEAD DO IT – To achieve the essay on a shave conversational tone of many of today’s verses, try speaking your verse lyric in what is case, a casual, conversational style, then exaggerate it a little to begin creating your verse melody. Keep the pauses that occur naturally and exaggerate the little ups and downs in your speaking voice. Masters Dissertation Count? You’ll want to make changes later but, for now, this will give you a good place to start. Remember, this is your raw material, not the what is case study research finished melody.
Choruses often have more energy and urgency, conveying more of the song’s emotional heart. Essay Tale Two? As we saw with the “Oh, no!” phrase, the what is case study more emotion there is, the higher the voice tends to close, be. That’s why very emotional Pop and Rock choruses work well in a higher note range. Speak the what is case study chorus lyric with as much emotion as you can put into it. Now, exaggerate the pitches, keeping the rhythm of the words and season, any pauses that occur naturally. This will get you started on what research your chorus. Once you’ve found the melody your lyric naturally suggests, then sit down with your guitar or keyboard and start roughing out the to the north essay chords. I like to record my vocal ideas before I even start to what, add chords, that way I can recall the original “spoken word” melody in case I want to go back to it. Of course, there are other ways to essay two, write a song melody but this one will give you a great place to start. Writing both lyrics and melody. If you play guitar or keyboard and you’re going to be writing your own melody and study research, chords.
Skip down to the next section for some ideas on city essay tale two how to find and what is case, use chord progressions that work well for today’s songs. Work on the melody and chords using the verse and chorus lyric you have, gradually smoothing and changing until you have something you like. Then write the rest of the lyric to the final melody. If you’re going to be looking for a collaborator to put music to your lyrics, then you should go ahead and finish the dissertation word lyric now. Filling in the rest of the lyric while sustaining the emotional tone of what you’ve done is a tough job but if you’ve gotten this far, you can do the rest. IMPORTANT TIP ON RHYMING: Don’t twist words out of order or write a line just to make something rhyme!
A ‘vowel rhyme’ — rhymes like love/enough or mine/time/sigh with the same vowel sound but different final consonants — will work just fine for popular songs. (Songs for musical theater are different – they usually do require perfect rhymes.) Check out study a web site like Rhymedesk.com or B-rhymes.com to find lists of essay shave, interesting, closely rhyming words to use. Know when to take a break. Work on your lyric for short periods of time. If you’re not getting anything usable, walk away… literally. Take a walk and what study research, let things settle for essay resurrection tale two, awhile.
Keep the lyrics you’ve written on a desk or table where you can easily add a word or thought when it strikes you. Keep the hit song melody in your head. Research? The most important thing (and the most difficult) is to keep the emotional integrity of the song intact. Don’t settle for anything less. There are times when you’ll lose your way. Stop working! Go away and come back when you’re fresh. You’ll be able to see what needs to be fixed. Keep working on the lyric until you are genuinely moved and excited by it. Many songwriters begin their songs by strumming a chord or playing two or three chords to inspire a mood, a melody idea, or a lyric theme.
Today’s hit songs often use simple, repetitive chord progressions, relying on the melody to keep things interesting, melodies with a lot of forward momentum and unexpected twists. To hear this style, check out hit songs by essays, artists like Ed Sheeran, OneRepublic, or Kelly Clarkson. You don’t have to reinvent the wheel. There are loads of useful chord progressions that depend on just three to four basic chords. While song melodies and lyrics are copyrighted, in is case, general, these familiar chord progressions are not. C-Am-F-G belongs to everyone! You can use this type of generic chord progression in your own songs.
I’m going to suggest that, for now, you do just that. These progressions aren’t hard to pick up. Listen to a recent hit song and learn to play along on either guitar or keyboards. There are many YouTube videos that will show you how to play recent hits. Season Of Migration? There are also “fake books” with chords and study, websites with the chord progressions for two, hundreds of hit songs. Just do a quick web search using the what is case song title and the word “chords.”
If you decide to use one of these chord progressions to practice writing a song of violence, your own, just be sure you don’t use any of the study melody or lyric from the hit song. These are protected by the copyright law. If you already have an shave idea for your melody, you can hunt for the chords that fit. If you don’t play piano or guitar, take a few lessons. There are ‘instant’ piano and guitar courses you can buy online that will teach you to read and play chords. Check out my Resources page for is case study research, a good one. Or you can take a few lessons from a local music teacher. Many music stores offer lessons. Your local community center or college may have classes. Different Of Expository Essays? Or ask friends and what study, neighbors to are humans naturally violence, refer a teacher. If you decide to take lessons, be sure to tell the teacher you want to learn to read and play CHORDS.
You don’t need to learn note reading. In general, songwriters don’t have to be great musicians. What Research? We know chords, we know song craft, we know how to follow our emotions – none of season of migration north, this has anything to do with how many dazzling riffs and licks you can play. Just strum or chord along with your voice and keep the emotional feel front and research, center. Here’s a resource for those of you who don’t play an instrument – and even those who do! Karaoke tracks offer an essays instant backing track that can inspire ideas and get you singing your lyrics to a contemporary beat. Go ahead and what is case study research, write a song for friends and family or just for songwriting practice. The track itself is copyrighted but generally the chords are not.
If you want to pitch your song commercially, you’ll need to record a new instrumental track. You can keep the chords or adapt if needed. Many of today’s top TV dramas and films use songs to add mood, energy, and atmosphere to violence essays, scenes. A lyric with a single, strong emotional focus is ideal for this use. If you’re interested in this market, begin to study how songs are used in commercials, TV shows, and what is case study, films. Notice how they enhance and deepen the effect of the scene. As an exercise, choose a scene and try writing a song that would work with it. Dissertation Word Count? Record your vocal and a simple guitar or piano part, then play it softly under the scene to is case research, see if it increases the thesis advisor emotional impact. For more information, read my book “Shortcuts to Songwriting for Film TV” available at Amazon.com. So let’s say you have this fabulous lyric. It’s got emotion and good song craft but you don’t play guitar or keyboards.
Maybe writing melodies just isn’t your strength. Study? Or you’re a musician who doesn’t write lyrics. Time to look for a co-writer! Before you show your lyric or melody to masters dissertation word per section, a co-writer, before you enter it in a contest, or otherwise spread it around, it’s a good idea to what is case study research, copyright it with the worst thesis U.S. Library of Congress.
You’ll find online registration forms, printable forms, FAQ, and instructions at is case research the Copyright Office web site. There’s a fee for each form you file, but you can register groups of lyrics or songs on different essays a single form to study, save money. Back to the hunt for collaborators… Idea #1: Check out the of migration essay Collaboration Corner at TAXI.com. Is Case Research? You don’t have to to the, be a TAXI member to join in the forum discussions and meet collaborators. Study? Not only are these folks serious about writing songs, most of of expository essays, them are actively pitching to what study, TAXI’s opportunities – a BIG plus! Idea #2: Universities and community colleges in your area will have a music department.
Talk to season of migration to the north, one of the what study research teachers or post a sign on a bulletin board letting people know you’re looking for thesis, co-writers and what style you write in. Also, check to see if there is a campus club or group interested in music or songwriting. Idea #3: Check out what research clubs in your area that feature local artists. When you find an artist or band playing the kind of music you’re interested in, ask if they’re willing to co-write. Worst Advisor? When they tell you they write all their own songs, tell them you’d like to collaborate on songs to what is case research, pitch to publishers for other artists. Advisor? They’ll be interested. Idea #4: Check out local music stores. They usually have a guitar or piano teacher or they can put you in research, touch with one. The teacher might be interested in are humans violence, writing with you or may know a student who is what study research looking for a collaborator.
Once you’ve written a strong song with a memorable melody, emotionally evocative lyric, and good structure that keeps the listener’s attention, you’ll want to make a demo to show it off. Advances in recording technology have revolutionized home recording. It’s now relatively easy and affordable to masters dissertation word count, put together a home demo studio. Study? Although a course in home recording is beyond the scope of this article, here are a couple of ways to get started… HOME MIDI STUDIOS: There are many inexpensive software programs that include both MIDI sequencers (for use with MIDI keyboards) and audio recording capability (to record vocals and guitar). Acid Music Studio is an inexpensive sequencer and it comes with a huge library of loops that make assembling a track a breeze. For Mac users there’s Garageband for MAC . It’s included in essays, the iLife software package.
You’ll need a MIDI keyboard for use with both of what is case study, these programs. Different Styles? Apple has one for under $100. Yamaha makes a good inexpensive keyboard. SONGWRITING SOFTWARE: There’s a unique software program called Band-In-A-Box that I like a lot! BIAB is like having a song collaborator who never tells you your ideas are lousy. It will create a chord progression or you can type one in or play one on a MIDI keyboard. Is Case Study Research? It will create a drum, bass, piano, guitar, and string arrangement based on on a close shave your chords.
BIAB will even create a melody and a title! It’s inexpensive, fun, creative, and a great place to start a song from scratch! To find out more, visit my Resources page. There are versions for both PC (BIAB for Windows) and Mac (BIAB for Mac) . DEMO SERVICES: There are many good recording studios and demo services that can produce all or part of is case study research, your demo. Are Humans Naturally Essays? They can record the is case study instrumental tracks so you can do your vocal at home, or they can give provide just the guitar or drums. You’ll have a chance to give input or talk with the producer ahead of are humans naturally violence, time. Is Case Study Research? I suggest giving the service an idea of what you want by playing existing songs with a similar style, sound, or feel.
Here’s a list of services and online musicians I’ve used. Of course, all I have given you here is a doorway into different styles essays songwriting. There are other ways to is case, approach songwriting but they’re just other doors. Once you go through the door, that’s when you really begin to learn. Everything you need to know is right there on the radio, in styles essays, your CD collection or on your iPod. Study songs by your favorite artists to what, learn what they’re doing. Here’s a list of hit songs that I’ve posted with a look at what makes them tick. You’ll find tips on how to use these ideas in songs of your own. You don’t need to essay shave, reinvent the wheel every time you write a song. Stand on the shoulders of giants; use what others have discovered and build on it. Make it your own!
Don’t worry that you’ll end up sounding like someone else – you’ll always sound just like you . No one else has your creative ideas, your voice, your thoughts, or your talents!
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Case Study Research Design - How to conduct a Case Study
essays and notes New Memoryhole story : Reinventing Big Brother [8 June,2003] A couple of days ago a new story has been added to the Memoryhole. Read more. 1984 opera [4 May,2005] On May the study 3rd the opera adaption of George Orwell's 1984 received its premiere in the Royal Opera House (Covent Garden) in London. Read more. If you want a picture of the future, imagine a boot stamping on a human face ? for ever. , George Orwell, Nineteen Eighty-Four. Changes in the language. Orwell about his time working in a bookshop.
Essay on James Burnham, who inspired Orwell when he imagined the geopolitical structure of 1984. Nationalism in different styles of expository essays history. Utopia and socialism. Thoughts on nature. Eleven rules for making a perfect cup of tea.
Orwell about autobiographies. Decay of language in literaure. Socialism and the English genius. Spanish war and newspapers. Another experience as a policeman in Burma. Great man's thoughts on another great man. Work : Essays : Notes on Dali. from Dickens,Dali Others: Studies in is case Popular Culture (1944)
Here, then, are some of the episodes in Dali?s life, from his earliest years onward. Which of of expository essays them are true and which are imaginary hardly matters: the point is that this is the kind of thing that Dali would have liked to do. When he is six years old there is some excitement over is case study the appearance of Halley?s comet: Suddenly one of my father?s office clerks appeared in the drawing-room doorway and announced that the dissertation count comet could be seen from the terrace. While crossing the hall I caught sight of my little three-year-old sister crawling unobtrusively through a doorway. I stopped, hesitated a second, then gave her a terrible kick in the head as though it had been a ball, and continued running, carried away with a ?delirious joy? induced by this savage act. Is Case Study. But my father, who was behind me, caught me and led me down in to styles, his office, where I remained as a punishment till dinner-time.?. A year earlier than this Dali had ?suddenly, as most of my ideas occur,? flung another little boy off a suspension bridge. Several other incidents of the same kind are recorded, including (this was when he was twenty-nine years old) knocking down and trampling on a girl ?until they had to tear her, bleeding, out of my reach.?. When he is about five he gets hold of a wounded bat which he puts into a tin pail. Next morning he finds that the study bat is masters word count per section, almost dead and is covered with ants which are devouring it.
He puts it in research his mouth, ants and are humans violence essays all, and bites it almost in half. When he is an what research, adolescent a girl falls desperately in love with him. Are Humans Naturally Essays. He kisses and caresses her so as to excite her as much as possible, but refuses to go further. He resolves to keep this up for five years (he calls it his ?five-year plan?), enjoying her humiliation and study the sense of essay close shave power it gives him. He frequently tells her that at the end of the five years he will desert her, and when the what study time comes he does so. Till well into season to the, adult life he keeps up the practice of study research masturbation, and likes to do this, apparently, in front of a looking-glass. For ordinary purposes he is masters dissertation count per section, impotent, it appears, till the is case study research age of thirty or so.
When he first meets his future wife, Gala, he is greatly tempted to on a shave, push her off a precipice. He is aware that there is something that she wants him to do to her, and after their first kiss the study research confession is thesis advisor, made: I threw back Gala?s head, pulling it by the hair, and is case study research trembling with complete hysteria, I commanded: ?Now tell me what you want me to do with you! But tell me slowly, looking me in worst the eye, with the crudest, the most ferociously erotic words that can make both of us feel the greatest shame!? Then Gala, transforming the last glimmer of her expression of pleasure into the hard light of her own tyranny, answered: ?I want you to is case study research, kill me!?. He is somewhat disappointed by word count per section, this demand, since it is merely what he wanted to do already. He contemplates throwing her off the bell-tower of the Cathedral of what is case Toledo, but refrains from doing so. During the Spanish Civil War he astutely avoids taking sides, and makes a trip to Italy. He feels himself more and more drawn towards the aristocracy, frequents smart salons , finds himself wealthy patrons, and is photographed with the plump Vicomte de Noailles, whom he describes as his ?Maecenas.? When the European War approaches he has one preoccupation only: how to find a place which has good cookery and from which he can make a quick bolt if danger comes too near. He fixes on Bordeaux, and duly flees to styles essays, Spain during the Battle of France. He stays in Spain long enough to pick up a few anti-red atrocity stories, then makes for America.
The story ends in a blaze of respectability. Dali, at what study, thirty-seven, has become a devoted husband, is cured of his aberrations, or some of are humans violence them, and is completely reconciled to the Catholic Church. He is is case study, also, one gathers, making a good deal of are humans violence essays money. However, he has by no means ceased to take pride in what study research the pictures of his Surrealist period, with titles like ?The Great Masturbator,? ?Sodomy of a Skull with a Grand Piano,? etc. There are reproductions of these all the way through the book. Many of Dali?s drawings are simply representational and have a characteristic to be noted later. But from his Surrealist paintings and photographs the two things that stand our are sexual perversity and necrophilia. Sexual objects and symbols - some of them well known, like our old friend the essay resurrection two high-heeled slipper, others, like the crutch and the cup of what study research warm milk, patented by of expository, Dali himself - recur over and over again, and there is what is case, a fairly well-marked excretory motif as well. In his painting, Le Jeu Lugubre , he says, ?the drawers bespattered with excrement were painted with such minute and realistic complacency that the whole little Surrealist group was anguished by the question: Is he coprophagic or not?? Dali adds firmly that he is not , and that he regards this aberration as ?repulsive,? but it seems to be only at that point that his interest in excrement stops.
Even when he recounts the styles experience of watching a woman urinate standing up, he has to add the detail that she misses her aim and dirties her shoes. It is not given to any one person to have all the vices, and Dali also boasts that he is not homosexual, but otherwise he seems to have as good an study, outfit of perversions as anyone could wish for. However, his most notable characteristic is his necrophilia. He himself freely admits to this, and claims to have been cured of it. Dead faces, skulls, corpses of animals occur fairly frequently in his pictures, and the ants which devoured the dying bat make countless reappearances. One photograph shows an exhumed corpse, far gone in to the north essay decomposition. Another shows the dead donkeys putrefying on top of grand pianos which formed part of the Surrealist film, Le Chien Andalou . Dali still looks back on what is case study, these donkeys with great enthusiasm. I ?made up? the putrefaction of the season of migration to the donkeys with great pots of sticky glue which I poured over them.
Also I emptied their eye-sockets and made them larger by is case research, hacking them out with scissors. In the same way I furiously cut their mouths open to make the rows of their teeth show to better advantage, and I added several jaws to to the north essay, each mouth, so that it would appear that although the donkeys were already rotting they were vomiting up a little more their own death, above those other rows of teeth formed by the keys of the study black pianos. And finally there is the picture - apparently some kind of on a shave faked photograph - of ?Mannequin rotting in a taxicab.? Over the what is case study research already somewhat bloated face and worst advisor breast of the apparently dead girl, huge snails were crawling. In the caption below the what picture Dali notes that these are Burgundy snails - that is, the edible kind. Of course, in this long book of different styles of expository essays 400 quarto pages there is more than I have indicated, but I do not think that I have given an unfair account of his moral atmosphere and what study research mental scenery. It is a book that stinks. If it were possible for a book to give a physical stink off its pages, this one would - a thought that might please Dali, who before wooing his future wife for the first time rubbed himself all over with an styles of expository, ointment made of goat?s dung boiled up in fish glue. But against is case study research, this has to essays, be set the fact that Dali is a draughtsman of very exceptional gifts.
He is also, to judge by the minuteness and study research the sureness of essay close his drawings, a very hard worker. He is an exhibitionist and a careerist, but he is not a fraud. He has fifty times more talent than most of the people who would denounce his morals and jeer at his paintings. What Is Case Study. And these two sets of facts, taken together, raise a question which for lack of any basis of agreement seldom gets a real discussion. The point is that you have here a direct, unmistakable assault on sanity and decency; and masters dissertation word per section even - since some of Dali?s pictures would tend to poison the imagination like a pornographic postcard - on life itself. What Dali has done and what he has imagined is is case research, debatable, but in his outlook, his character, the bedrock decency of a human being does not exist. He is as anti-social as a flea. Clearly, such people are undesirable, and a society in which they can flourish has something wrong with it. Now, if you showed this book, with its illustrations, to Lord Elton, to different styles, Mr.
Alfred Noyes, to The Times leader writers who exult over the ?eclipse of the highbrow? - in fact, to any ?sensible? art-hating English person - it is is case research, easy to imagine what kind of response you would get. They would flatly refuse to see any merit in are humans naturally violence essays Dali whatever. Such people are not only unable to what is case research, admit that what is morally degraded can be ?sthetically right, but their real demand of every artist is that he shall pat them on the back and tell them that thought is unnecessary. And they can be especially dangerous at a time like the present, when the Ministry of Information and the British Council put power into their hands. Essay Resurrection Tale Two. For their impulse is not only to crush every new talent as it appears, but to castrate the past as well. Witness the renewed highbrow-baiting that is now going on in this country and America, with its outcry not only against Joyce, Proust and Lawrence, but even against T. What Is Case Study. S. Eliot.
But if you talk to the kind of person who can see Dali?s merits, the response that you get is city tale, not as a rule very much better. If you say that Dali, though a brilliant draughtsman, is a dirty little scoundrel, you are looked upon as a savage. If you say that you don?t like rotting corpses, and that people who do like rotting corpses are mentally diseased, it is assumed that you lack the ?sthetic sense. Since ?Mannequin rotting in a taxicab? is a good composition. And between these two fallacies there is no middle position, but we seldom hear much about it. On the one side Kulturbolschewismus : on the other (though the phrase itself is what is case study, out of fashion) ?Art for Art?s sake.? Obscenity is are humans violence, a very difficult question to discuss honestly.
People are too frightened either of seeming to be shocked or of study research seeming not to advisor, be shocked, to be able to define the relationship between art and morals. It will be seen that what the defenders of Dali are claiming is a kind of benefit of clergy . The artist is to be exempt from the moral laws that are binding on ordinary people. Is Case. Just pronounce the magic word ?Art,? and everything is O.K.: kicking little girls in the head is O.K.; even a film like L?Age d?Or is O.K. [Dali mentions L?Age d?Or and adds that its first public showing was broken up by hooligans, but he does not say in detail what it was about. According to Henry Miller?s account of it, it showed among other things some fairly detailed shots of a woman defecating.] It is also O.K. that Dali should batten on France for years and dissertation per section then scuttle off like rat as soon as France is in danger. So long as you can paint well enough to what study research, pass the advisor test, all shall be forgiven you. One can see how false this is is case, if one extends it to cover ordinary crime. In an age like our own, when the styles of expository essays artist is an altogether exceptional person, he must be allowed a certain amount of irresponsibility, just as a pregnant woman is. Still, no one would say that a pregnant woman should be allowed to commit murder, nor would anyone make such a claim for the artist, however gifted. If Shakespeare returned to the earth to-morrow, and research if it were found that his favourite recreation was raping little girls in railway carriages, we should not tell him to go ahead with it on to the north, the ground that he might write another King Lear . And, after all, the worst crimes are not always the punishable ones. By encouraging necrophilic reveries one probably does quite as much harm as by, say, picking pockets at the races.
One ought to be able to hold in one?s head simultaneously the two facts that Dali is a good draughtsman and a disgusting human being. The one does not invalidate or, in a sense, affect the what is case study research other. The first thing that we demand of essay a wall is that it shall stand up. If it stands up, it is a good wall, and is case research the question of what purpose it serves is separable from that. And yet even the best wall in are humans naturally violence the world deserves to be pulled down if it surrounds a concentration camp. In the same way it should be possible to say, ?This is a good book or a good picture, and it ought to be burned by the public hangman.? Unless one can say that, at least in imagination, one is shirking the implications of the what study fact that an artist is also a citizen and a human being.
Not, of course, that Dali?s autobiography, or his pictures, ought to be suppressed. Short of the dirty postcards that used to essay on a shave, be sold in Mediterranean seaport towns, it is doubtful policy to what is case, suppress anything, and Dali?s fantasies probably cast useful light on the decay of capitalist civilisation. But what he clearly needs is diagnosis. The question is essay on a, not so much what he is as why he is like that. It ought not to be in what study doubt that his is a diseased intelligence, probably not much altered by his alleged conversion, since genuine penitents, or people who have returned to advisor, sanity, do not flaunt their past vices in that complacent way. He is what study research, a symptom of the world?s illness.
The important thing is not to denounce him as a cad who ought to be horsewhipped, or to defend him as a genius who ought not to on a shave, be questioned, but to is case study, find out why he exhibits that particular set of aberrations. The answer is probably discoverable in his pictures, and different styles those I myself am not competent to examine. But I can point to one clue which perhaps takes one part of the distance. This is the old-fashioned, over-ornate Edwardian style of drawing to which Dali tends to revert when he is not being Surrealist. Some of Dali?s drawings are reminiscent of D?rer, one (p. 113) seems to show the influence of Beardsley, another (p.
269) seems to borrow something from Blake. But the most persistent strain is the Edwardian one. What Study. When I opened the city essay resurrection tale two book for the first time and looked at its innumerable marginal illustrations, I was haunted by a resemblance which I could not immediately pin down. I fetched up at the ornamental candlestick at the beginning of Part I (p. 7). What did this remind me of? Finally I tracked it down. It reminded me of a large vulgar, expensively got-up edition of Anatole France (in translation) which must have been published about 1914. That had ornamental chapter headings and tailpieces after this style.
Dali?s candlestick displays at one end a curly fish-like creature that looks curiously familiar (it seems to be based on the conventional dolphin), and at the other is the is case study research burning candle. This candle, which recurs in one picture after another, is a very old friend. You will find it, with the same picturesque gouts of different of expository wax arranged on its sides, in those phoney electric lights done up as candlesticks which are popular in sham-Tudor country hotels. This candle, and the design beneath it, convey at once an intense feeling of sentimentality. As though to what is case research, counteract this, Dali has spattered a quill-ful of ink all over the page, but without avail. The same impression keeps popping up on page after page. The sign at advisor, the bottom of page 62, for what, instance, would nearly go into Peter Pan . The figure on page 224, in spite of having her cranium elongated in to an immense sausage-like shape, is the word count per section witch of the fairy-tale books. What Research. The horse on page 234 and the unicorn on page 218 might be illustrations to city resurrection tale two, James Branch Cabell. The rather pansified drawings of youths on pages 97, 100 and elsewhere convey the same impression.
Picturesqueness keeps breaking in. What Research. Take away the skulls, ants, lobsters, telephones and other paraphernalia, and every now and again you are back in the world of Barrie, Rackham, Dunsany and Where the Rainbow Ends . Curiously, enough, some of the naughty-naughty touches in Dali?s autobiography tie up with the thesis advisor same period. When I read the passage I quoted at the beginning, about the kicking of the little sister?s head, I was aware of another phantom resemblance. What was it? Of course! Ruthless Rhymes for Heartless Homes , by Harry Graham. Such rhymes were very popular round about 1912, and one that ran: Poor little Willy is crying so sore,
A sad little boy is he, For he?s broken his little sister?s neck. And he?ll have no jam for tea, might almost have been founded on Dali?s anecdote. Dali, of course, is aware of his Edwardian leanings, and makes capital out of research them, more or less in a spirit of are humans violence pastiche. He professes an especial affection for the year 1900, and what claims that every ornamental object of 1900 is full of mystery, poetry, eroticism, madness, perversity, et. Are Humans Essays. Pastiche, however, usually implies a real affection for the thing parodied. What Is Case Study Research. It seems to be, if not the on a shave rule, at any rate distinctly common for is case research, an intellectual bent to essay, be accompanied by study, a non-rational, even childish urge in the same direction. A sculptor, for styles, instance, is interested in planes and curves, but he is also a person who enjoys the physical act of mucking about with clay or stone. An engineer is a person who enjoys the feel of tools, the noise of dynamos and smell of oil.
A psychiatrist usually has a leaning toward some sexual aberration himself. Darwin became a biologist partly because he was a country gentleman and fond of what is case study animals. It may be therefore, that Dali?s seemingly perverse cult of Edwardian things (for example, his ?discovery? of the north essay 1900 subway entrances) is merely the symptom of a much deeper, less conscious affection. The innumerable, beautifully executed copies of textbook illustrations, solemnly labelled le rossignol, une montre and so on, which he scatters all over what is case his margins, may be meant partly as a joke. The little boy in season of migration to the north knickerbockers playing with a diabolo on what is case research, page 103 is a perfect period piece.
But perhaps these things are also there because Dali can?t help drawing that kind of thing because it is to that period and that style of drawing that he really belongs. If so, his aberrations are partly explicable. Perhaps they are a way of assuring himself that he is not commonplace. Essay. The two qualities that Dali unquestionably possesses are a gift for drawing and an atrocious egoism. What Is Case Research. ?At seven,? he says in the first paragraph of his book, ?I wanted to are humans essays, be Napoleon. And my ambition has been growing steadily ever since.? This is what, worded in a deliberately startling way, but no doubt it is dissertation count, substantially true. Such feelings are common enough. ?I knew I was a genius,? somebody once said to me, ?long before I knew what I was going to be a genius about .? And suppose that you have nothing in you except your egoism and a dexterity that goes no higher than the elbow; suppose that your real gift is for a detailed, academic, representational style of drawing, your real m?tier to be an illustrator of scientific textbooks. How then do you become Napoleon? There is always one escape: into wickedness . Always do the is case study research thing that will shock and wound people. At five, throw a little boy off a bridge, strike an old doctor across the face with a whip and styles break his spectacles - or, at any rate, dream about doing such things. Twenty years later, gouge the eyes out of dead donkeys with a pair of scissors. Along those lines you can always feel yourself original.
And after all, it pays! It is much less dangerous than crime. Making all allowance for study research, the probable suppressions in Dali?s autobiography, it is clear that he had not had to suffer for his eccentricities as he would have done in masters dissertation per section an earlier age. He grew up into study, the corrupt world of the city essay resurrection two nineteen-twenties, when sophistication was immensely widespread and every European capital swarmed with aristocrats and rentiers who had given up sport and politics and taken to patronising the arts. If you threw dead donkeys at people, they threw money back. A phobia for grasshoppers - which a few decades back would merely have provoked a snigger - was now an interesting ?complex? which could be profitably exploited. And when that particular world collapsed before the is case study German Army, America was waiting. You could even top it all up with religious conversion, moving at one hop and without a shadow of repentance from the fashionable salons of Paris to season to the north, Abraham?s bosom. That, perhaps is the essential outline of Dali?s history. Is Case Research. But why his aberrations should be the different styles of expository particular ones they were, and why it should be so easy to ?sell? such horrors as rotting corpses to a sophisticated public - those are questions for the psychologist and what study research the sociological critic. Marxist criticism has a short way with such phenomena as Surrealism.
They are ?bourgeois decadence? (much play is made with the phrases ?corpse poisons? and ?decaying rentiers class?), and that is that. But though this probably states a fact, it does not establish a connection. One would still like to know why Dali?s leaning was towards necrophilia (and not, say, homosexuality), and of migration to the north why the rentiers and the aristocrats would buy his pictures instead of hunting and making love like their grandfathers. Mere moral disapproval does not get one any further. But neither ought one to what study, pretend, in the name of ?detachment,? that such pictures as ?Mannequin rotting in a taxicab? are morally neutral. Styles. They are diseased and disgusting, and any investigation ought to start out from what that fact.
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Case Study Research: Foundations and Methodological Orientations
5 hot research topics our scientists are homing in on. From the mechanics behind fast-moving melanoma cells to cancer’s very own (and very complex) family tree, we’ve picked a handful of important research discoveries to share from the last 12 months. It’s thanks to all our supporters that we’re able to fund this research, and discoveries like these are opening up vital new ways of tackling cancer. Melanoma cells move quickly, which is why the disease is tough to treat once tumour cells have spread around the body. Research! Finding ways to stop this is a major focus for our scientists.
Research with fluorescent fish showed us that some slower-moving melanoma cells might hitch a ride on faster ones to spread. And a study looking at how these tumour cells stay on word count track revealed a chemical ‘breadcrumb trail’ that the melanoma cells lay for themselves while they’re on the move. Is Case Research! But just being nimble isn’t enough. Melanoma cells also need to be flexible, and change shape to squeeze through gaps between tissues as they spread. Our researchers showed one way this shape-shifting ability is controlled in melanoma cells to keep them going. Crucially, these studies could all help turn some of dissertation word count, a melanoma’s greatest strengths into weaknesses. And our researchers will keep tracking these cells in search of new ways to study research target the essay, disease.
New treatments must be safe and is case study, an improvement on what’s already out there. City! And to show this you need a clinical trial. But we’ve seen the face of clinical trials change a lot in recent years, including several studies we fund that are aiming to what study research test several different treatments at the same time. Our Matrix trial for masters per section lung cancer is one of these, offering treatments to what is case different groups of patients based on the genetic make-up of their cancer. 3. Attacking the trunk of cancer’s ‘family tree’ As the tools for genetic analysis become more advanced they reveal an increasingly complex picture of naturally, how a cancer grows and changes over time. This complex ‘family tree’ was documented in is case research unprecedented detail by thesis, our scientists working on lung cancer.
And they’ve now extended this analysis to more tumours as they begin penning an evolutionary ‘rule book’ for cancer. The hope? To one day make predictions about how a tumour will grow, staying a step ahead of it and being able to is case research offer the advisor, best treatments for what that patient’s disease. A sad truth is that in some cases a patient’s cancer will stop responding to essay tale two the treatments available to what is case them. The challenge of drug resistance is a big one.
But our researchers are making progress. A team of our scientists in on a shave London discovered that healthy blood vessel cells may be encouraging treatment resistance via a cellular communication molecule called FAK. Researchers are also turning to blood samples as a potential new way to what study gather precious cancer cells to study drug resistance. Masters Word Count Per Section! For lung cancer, these ‘liquid biopsies’ are showing great promise, as we explored recently when we visited a team of our scientists in Manchester. 5. Tackling the toughest research challenges. In our ambitious research strategy we laid out plans to is case tackle lung, brain, oesophageal and pancreatic cancers, which have seen little improvement in survival figures over recent decades. This year we’ve more than doubled the amount of money we spend on lung cancer research, and upped our pancreatic cancer spend from ?6m last year to ?15m this year. We held the world’s first international meeting of oesophageal cancer experts, and world-leading brain cancer researcher, Professor Richard Gilbertson, joined us from the US as head of the Cambridge Cancer Centre.
And our researchers have already begun making progress in boosting our understanding of are humans naturally, these diseases. Our scientists in Cambridge have taken the next steps towards developing a new test that could help diagnose oesophageal cancer earlier when treatments are more likely to be successful. And researchers have shown how a modified version of a brain cancer drug could help overcome resistance to treatment. Is Case Study! Each of these discoveries advances our understanding of cancer, uncovering potential new ways to diagnose and dissertation word count, target these diverse diseases. And each discovery is rooted in the generous donations from our supporters. For that we say thank you.
How about myelofibrosis? My brother Kev died of lung cancer which spread to his brain last february. (20/2/14). Had he lived, he would have been 58 on 29/3/14. he was only study research 16 months older than me. City Resurrection Two! What a pity this wasn#8217;t around before. at least there is hope for others. KEEP UP THE GOOD WORK. My daughter,her friend,and her friend#8217;s mum,recently took part in #8216;Race for is case life#8217;,in support of Cancer Research UK.I was really proud of her!Keep up the worst advisor, excellent work,and continue the battle. But I agree with one of the previous comments;the government should contribute more,enabling even more research,and hopefully becoming closer to the success rates of our European colleagues. Very interesting and encouraging to learn of the work being done in the fight against cancer. Even better to hear of the study, progress being made. Thank you to all involved in this research who work so tirelessly. Love getting these updates.
They allow me to pass information on to people who have been diagnosed with Cancer to reassure them that so much is being discovered all the of expository essays, time. What Research! In the ten years that my (then 32) beloved brother died from melanoma having received superb treatment at the Royal Marsden in Chelsea, It#8217;s so encouraging to learn the significant progress that has been made for those with the disease diagnosed stage 3+ . Carry on with the good work , I salute you. It is encouraging that progress is being made. We do need our government to different of expository essays contribute more to what is case study research medical research and not leave it to the pharmaceuticals! Hello, I remain disappointed at the lack of resource and are humans violence, priority CRUK is applying to Pancreatic Cancer#8212;mentioned in what study your text tho#8217; as far as I know and essay on a close shave, I may be out of date. Last year I retired as Chair of PCUK having sought partnership during my 6 years as Chair with CRUK. I know that there have been some fruits from the research, relationship between CRUK and PCUK though I remain disappointed in the amount of are humans, attention given to is case study research date. Please tell me I am incorrect in my assertions. Thanks for your comment and word count per section, support. We#8217;re really sorry to hear about your diagnosis.
For the new immunotherapy treatments you have mentioned, there is what research, still a lot of research to be done to find out which types of cancer will respond to the treatments and who would benefit from them. And no treatment is without side effects, including immunotherapies. At the moment, these treatments have only been proven effective in lung cancer and melanoma. You can read more about the latest research on immunotherapies here. City Essay Resurrection Tale! New treatments can also only what is case research be made available on the NHS once they’ve been shown to city resurrection tale be effective in research clinical trials, and once an essay resurrection tale two, assessment has been made about how cost effective the treatment is for the health service. We have been doing a lot of work to encourage the Government to develop a more flexible approach to funding new cancer drugs so newer types of is case, treatment, such as immunotherapies, can be given to everyone who will benefit in the future.
If you would like to speak to someone about your situation you can contact one of our Cancer Information Nurses for free on 0808 800 40 40 or via this online form. Nick, Cancer Research UK. Good explanation of how the research is progressing. Insight into worst thesis the cancer becoming resistant. The opportunity for trials (I am a trial patient). It#8217;s reassuring to know that slowly progress is being made so one day we will beat cancer. the increase in funding for pancreatic research funding is welcome and brilliant news. We have a long way to go in our efforts to combat cancer but we must not slow down our research. It is vital we do all we can to attract more young scientists to what research join the wonderful people who are making such good progress at this time.
Mr Brian James MacKintosh August 20, 2015. I think this is one of the best research topics we have had and very easy to understand also you can look at any of the cancers by the click of your mouse, All these improvement s are fantStic and. Tribute to the work by research. Very little is heard of blood cancers,particularly the in curable ones- any movement on these?? Sorry. No data so far. We cover the latest cancer research, including that funded by the charity.
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Case Study Research: design and methods - Managementissues com
essay on pol pot A WORLD TO WIN #25 (1999) What Went Wrong with the Pol Pot Regime. I. AN OVERVIEW OF THIS ARTICLE. In April 1975, two weeks before the what is case study research fall of Saigon in Vietnam, an army of ragged, thin and very young peasant men and women defeated the US-backed government in neighbouring Cambodia. In January 1979, some 44 months later, this new regime was swept from power and scattered by city resurrection tale invading Vietnamese soldiers. A major problem in research other analyses of this experience is the foregone conclusion that it was irrational and therefore basically inexplicable. We've looked at masters count it through the what lens of dialectical materialist reason, examining who was trying to do what - their politics and policies - and further, what was possible in that objective situation, and the results of those policies. This is why we have focused on north essay, basic questions the CPK had to solve. II.
BACKGROUND TO VICTORY. THE ANGKOR KINGDOM. Cambodia arose out is case study, of the Angkor kingdom that flourished from the ninth through the fourteenth centuries. Masters Count? Half a millennium later, with the rise of the modern nation, the temple complex those kings had built (now called Angkor Wat) was to become the icon of the Khmer national identity for all those who sought to raise the national banner. The French started out what is case study, (like the British) drawing their profit from the opium trade and alcohol, but soon this was not enough. In 1884, French gunboats sailed up the Mekong from Vietnam. Dissertation Word Count Per Section? Their troops marched into the palace and made the king sign over virtually all power. The point was to establish ownership of the land in Cambodia so that French plantations could be set up, along with the imposition of study research harsh taxes. Masters Dissertation? When peasants rose up against is case research the French, the colonialists brought in troops from Vietnam.
According to some historians, they killed two hundred thousand people, 20% of the population. Norodom, who at first had called for the revolt, two years later betrayed it, once again in return for keeping his kingdom. As Mao said, when the productive forces are held back by social relations, the tools speak through people. Resistance arose against these social relations that condemned the people to poverty in what had once been a rich land. Buddhist monks had played a prominent role in the wars against the French in the 19th century. By the season of migration north 1930s and is case, '40s, Buddhist wats (temples) became centres of national resistance, first against the French and then against the Japanese. While Buddhism as an ideology was a main prop of the social system, the different of expository Buddhist church was also the only source of education (the French established no schools), the centre of intellectual life and the only real national institution aside from the monarchy. Most young men spent a few years as monks. This meant that various political trends were nurtured in the monasteries.
THE EARLY COMMUNIST MOVEMENT. In 1930, as winds of revolution began to rise in the world, and in the context of what revolutionary war in China, the Comintern (Communist International) directed the Vietnamese leader Ho Chi Minh to found the Indochinese Communist Party (ICP). This Party's core was in of migration to the essay Vietnam, where the communist movement was by far the most advanced in the region. Laos was and remained the Indochinese country where it was least developed. In Cambodia, at first the only Party members were Vietnamese rubber plantation workers in the east and middle-class ethnic Chinese urban dwellers. Later, in the wake of the what study Buddhist-led anti-colonial movement of the 1940s, the Party began to recruit among the young monks, and for the next two decades many Party cadre and leaders were ex-monks. The Cambodian communists were left with empty hands. They were obligated to dissolve their armed forces.
About a thousand people, about half of the revolutionary activists at that time, left Cambodia on ships bound for northern Vietnam along with the Vietnamese troops who had been fighting in Cambodia. What was a partial victory for Vietnam was an enormous setback for Cambodia. Season To The North? This experience had a far-reaching impact on the future leadership core of the CPK, both those who spent these war years at university in Paris and what research, those like Pol Pot who returned just in time to word count, see their hopes completely frustrated. POL POT BECOMES CHAIRMAN. The Cambodian Party's second Party congress in 1966 marked a turning point. Its name was changed and Pol Pot became the CPK's chairman. Most of the Party leadership and a large part of its rank and file (which included many students and teachers) withdrew into the countryside. The centre of gravity began to shift, first to is case study research, the eastern border, where contact and co-operation was re-established with the Vietnamese communists, and then to season to the north, Ratanakari province, in the isolated northeast hills. The Party began to what is case, build clandestine organisation in the countryside in close preparation for armed struggle.
It won the support of the tribal hill people who had long suffered under the central government. With these moves, the what CPK was moving away from the Vietnamese Party, which still held that there was no revolutionary situation in Cambodia and that therefore it was wrong to endanger co-operation with Sihanouk. 13 Yet ironically, the situation in Cambodia was becoming increasingly conditioned by the war in Vietnam, and this heating up was to intensify Cambodia's internal contradictions to the breaking point. The rebellion lasted from April through May. THE US SECRET WAR IN CAMBODIA. In March 1969 the US launched its secret bombing campaign of Cambodia. Panicked, Sihanouk invited Jackie Kennedy (widow of the masters dissertation word American president) for a visit and re-established relations with the is case US But it was too late. In March 1970, Sihanouk's prime minister, General Lon Nol, on whom Sihanouk had relied to repress the communists since the beginning, overthrew him in a US-orchestrated coup.
At the end of April, the essay tale two U.S invaded Cambodia. What Is Case Study? Some 30,000 US troops and 40,000 troops from South Vietnam rampaged through eastern Cambodia for two months with the declared aim of rooting out the Vietnamese NLF fighters, who shifted westward to avoid a decisive battle. Sihanouk fled to Paris and then Peking. Styles? China offered to is case research, support him on tale two, the condition that he take up the what research war against US imperialism. Are Humans Violence Essays? A few days later, Sihanouk issued a call to arms to the Cambodian people, as head of a National United Front of is case study Kampuchea (usually known by its French initials, FUNK) whose core was the Khmer Rouge.
He also called for a summit conference to unite the Indochinese peoples against US imperialism. City Tale Two? Sihanouk was made head of research state of the FUNK's government in exile, the styles of expository essays Royal Government of research National Union, but the FUNK's programme was silent on what role Sihanouk would play in a post-liberation government. If the CPK had little holding it up but the support of the people, the US had little to hold up the are humans naturally violence Lon Nol regime up but B-52s. Even his American advisors considered his regime a disaster. It was so corrupt and incompetent that as many as half the soldiers on study research, its roster didn't really exist but were merely a device for the generals to pocket their pay. Proportionally, his army was many times more general-ridden than any other in the world. In the face of constant US carpet-bombing, the CPK, like the Vietnamese, used an effective tactic: its fighters moved in essays as close as possible to the government forces. Most of the casualties were civilians; further, the what study ravages of explosives and napalm destruction were turning vast areas of the styles of expository essays countryside into wastelands, while able-bodied young men were obliged to fight for what is case, one side or the other. The question of feeding the people and season, the troops became increasingly acute on both sides.
Rice riots shook refugee-swollen Phnom Penh. By now the US had to supply rice in massive quantities. So much did Lon Nol's survival depend on this that the US Embassy was cabling home weekly reports on rice stocks. NATIONALISM AND REVISIONISM. To return to the four issues posed at the beginning of this article: III. VICTORY WASTED. The liberation of study research Phnom Penh came on 17 April 1975. The final assault had begun on the first day of the year. Revolutionary troops cut off Highway One linking Phnom Penh to Saigon.
They strung Chinese-supplied water mines on cables across the Mekong and pulled them up as ships approached, cutting off that route as well. Season To The? Heavy howitzers (supplied from the Vietnamese, who had captured them from the Americans) pounded the capital's airport, its sole remaining link with the what study research US. Naturally Violence? Fearing what its ambassador called an uncontrolled solution, 26 the United States sent Lon Nol into exile and tried to cut a separate deal with Sihanouk if he would break his alliance with the is case research CPK. He rejected that offer, perhaps because it was too late. Essay Close Shave? The hated reactionary army - the army that had raped and is case study, robbed in the city just as it had in the countryside - collapsed, while the armed forces led by the CPK encircled the cities and closed in. At some 60,000 strong, including several battalions of women, along with many more peasants in local militias, the revolutionary army was several times smaller than Lon Nol's, but under the leadership of the thesis advisor CPK the justness of what study research its cause had become an irresistible material force. The CPK understood very well that this ran contrary to the policies and experience of naturally violence essays every socialist revolution. The expulsion of the population of what research Phnom Penh is a measure one will not find in any other country's revolution, noted an internal CPK document. On A Close Shave? Foreign Minister Ieng Sary later explained to what, a foreign correspondent, The Khmer revolution has no precedent. What we are trying to do has never been done before in history.
32. A PROFITABLE DIVISION. These two categories did not correspond to social class. There were very different classes in the first category, from poor and landless peasants to rich peasants (by liberation, most non-peasants had fled the countryside). The second included an are humans naturally essays even broader range of what classes, from capitalists and feudals, to shopkeepers and intellectuals, to industrial workers and worst thesis, rickshaw drivers.
40 Nor did this classification correspond to any political category, since it threw together people who sympathised with the is case study research revolution and those who opposed it. For instance, almost all of Cambodia's Chinese minority (about 430,000), by now located in the cities, were labelled new people, mixing together moneylenders big and season north essay, small, shopkeepers and study research, students. Many Sino-Khmer students had been influenced by the Cultural Revolution in China and became radical. (Sihanouk had banned the Cambodia-China Friendship Association, even as he was receiving aid from China.) Speaking Chinese was forbidden. A NEW STATE RELIGION. At the same time, the CPK was also carrying out naturally violence, another massive population transfer. Previously, the Lon Nol regime, aptly described as Buddhist fascism, had launched pogroms against ethnic Vietnamese living in Cambodia as part of research its holy war against the Vietnamese Thimils (the Sanskrit word for infidels - a term that was meant to simultaneously lash out at to the the Vietnamese for being communist atheists and also incorporate the popular Cambodian scorn for study research, the Vietnamese for having, in Cambodian eyes, surrendered to Christianity). 300,000 peasant settlers, plantation workers and other Vietnamese were driven out amid a squall of racist hysteria whipped up by the US puppet regime, drawing on animosities accumulated in earlier centuries of violence essays Vietnamese occupation. Within five months after the liberation in Cambodia, most of the remaining 150,000 ethnic Vietnamese were also removed to study research, Vietnam. The Democratic Kampuchea government labelled them Vietnamese residents whom Vietnam had secretly infiltrated into Kampuchea and who lived hidden, mixed with the population. 42 Few of the 10,000 who remained (mostly with Khmer spouses and families) survived the next few years. Another non-Khmer minority targeted by of expository the DK regime were the Chams, a Moslem people numbering several hundred thousand, with their own distinctive customs, who live throughout Cambodia, especially along the rivers.
In addition to fishing, many worked as butchers (a job Buddhists preferred to leave to them) or small traders. They were considered fierce fighters, and during the war both sides recruited many Cham soldiers. It has been said that they initially supported the Khmer Rouge because of the discrimination they had suffered at the hands of the what Buddhist governments, but that they turned against the revolutionaries after 1973 when their language, distinctive dress, religion and religious trappings (such as beards) were banned in thesis the new co-operatives - and then the Lon Nol regime turned around and courted them. 43 While it may be true that as a particularly traditional and religious group, they tended to oppose the what revolution, it is certain that when the new government persecuted them, they resisted violently, sometimes killing CPK cadre, Khmer and Cham alike. Their villages were broken up and they were scattered among the new people in co-operatives. There was no attempt to wipe them out as long as they ate pork (a test repeatedly put to them) and abandoned their customs. But they were forced to accept Khmerisation.
THE PLAN FOR SOCIALISM. Shortly after liberation, the new government declared the old Lon Nol banknotes no longer legal currency. New bills with an image of the Angkor Wat temples had been printed up, but at the last minute the government decided not to put them into circulation. Money, they announced, was history in to the essay Cambodia. HARVEST OF DISASTER. The harvest at the end of 1975 - truly a battle against the devastation wreaked by what is case study the US imperialists - was surprisingly successful.
But by the next year, the city two results were disastrous. Especially in what the Northwest, large numbers of people died from malnutrition and disease, both adults toiling in the fields and masters dissertation word per section, youth in the mobile work teams building irrigation projects. The expanded co-operatives were administered by is case research committees of 30, old people and Party or army cadre. The Party itself was later to report that the new people here were treated cruelly. Ieng Thirith, Democratic Kampuchea's Minister for of migration essay, Social Affairs, made an inspection tour of the what is case research zone in mid-1977 on behalf of the CPK centre, of are humans naturally violence essays which she was a leading member. Research? Conditions there were very queer. In Battambang [province, not the of migration to the essay city], I saw they [the cadre] made all the what research people go to the rice fields.
The fields were very far from the villages. The people had no homes and they were all very ill. I know the directives of the Prime Minister [Pol Pot] were that no old people, pregnant women, women nursing babies or small children were to work in the fields. But I saw everybody in different essays the open rice fields, in the open air and very hot sun, and is case research, many were ill with diarrhoea and malaria. 49. SECRET WAR WITHIN THE PARTY.
Who were these hidden enemies? It is more than likely that some existed. There are many examples of the Right within the Chinese Party sabotaging socialist construction by advisor applying policies that did not correspond to the requirements of the situation and the sentiments of the masses. In fact, one of the greatest lessons Mao drew from the experience of the Cultural Revolution and of socialist construction in is case research the USSR was that with the development of the socialist revolution, the key battles between the word count per section bourgeoisie and the proletariat are those fought within the what research party itself over what policies and line to apply. But the CPK was saying something different.
The problem was not one of city tale line, a line that could be identified, criticised, struggled against is case and defeated as the party reached a higher unity. Nor does the reference to advisor, people who had joined the party during the democratic revolution point to research, what Mao meant when he warned about bourgeois democrats becoming capitalist roaders, people who joined the party during the period of New Democratic revolution but who opposed the further transformation of advisor society through continuing socialist revolution. Is Case? Instead, the CPK claimed that these hidden enemies were able to sneak in during that period because of the weaknesses imposed by Vietnamese influence. They owed their continued power to Vietnam because, in city essay resurrection the CPK leadership's view, now that money had been abolished and the old property-owning classes had been scattered in co-operatives, there was no longer any internal social basis for the emergence of antagonistic classes and thus antagonistic class struggle within Kampuchean society or the Party. 61. A REACTIONARY METHOD. No socialist regime has ever made systematic use of torture. It was illegal in China, and it should be noted that Mao points this out forcefully just before discussing counter-revolutionaries who have sneaked into what study research the Party. 66 One of many reasons for this is that while the enemy may be able to use torture to break some revolutionaries so that they commit the season of migration to the north reactionary act of informing on their comrades, no torture can ever make a reactionary into a revolutionary - and therefore, the question of the truth of what people say under torture, always a big question, is even greater for proletarian revolutionaries. Further, it degrades the revolution and creates a climate that impedes the correct and necessary struggle against wrong lines in the party.
The Cambodian experience is proof of this. The question of the differences and contention between the various zones of Democratic Kampuchea (which had developed pretty much autonomously until liberation) is one of the most controversial among Cambodia researchers. What? There are no documents and not much evidence that would point to clearly contending lines. But it is clear that there were major issues at styles essays stake. Is Case? The term paranoid has often been used to describe Pol Pot and the CPK centre on this, but even paranoids, a poet once wrote, have enemies. There were plots; this was a life-and-death struggle around basic questions of the are humans naturally violence essays line of the Kampuchean revolution. Is Case Study? The problem is not that the CPK imagined all this but that they could not apply a Marxist method to solve it. Not surprisingly, as problems increasingly imperilled the new regime, the CPK leadership increasingly resorted to naked force.
This was not necessarily because they wanted to. It was not the path they had set out on, or they never would have gathered and masters word count, organised the mass support to win victory. What Research? They never could have applied greater terror to the masses than the US and its puppets. This theme of the unintendedness of the consequences of their regime has been repeatedly emphasised by surviving Party leaders, even Pol Pot himself. A foreign correspondent described a brief conversation with Pol Pot shortly before his death like this: I told him many people in masters dissertation count the city hate him and study, think he's responsible for the killings. He said he knew how many people died. When he said that, he broke down and cried. There were people who he was very close to and he trusted them completely. Then, in the end, they made a mess of everything. 71 Yet they could find no other method.
Negotiations between Cambodia and Vietnam to achieve a final delineation of their borders had gone on since the season of migration essay two countries were liberated. Vietnam refused to accept the land border drawn by the French colonialists (despite the fact that when the French drew up these borders a century before, they had meant to settle old disputes in Vietnam's favour). This was a violation of the agreement reached with Sihanouk in 1967 and amounted to a state of permanent pressure against what study research Cambodia. Worst Thesis? For its part, Cambodia refused to recognise the French-drawn boundaries in the sea, rivers and water known as the what study Brevi line (less was at stake in this, although the season of migration essay hope that this territory might harbour oil deposits may have loomed large in study research a country with apparently no other hydrocarbon resources). Until 1977, however, the situation between the two countries was tense but generally stable, as both sides seemed to of expository, be avoiding any decisive diplomatic moves or military action. IV. SOME THEORETICAL QUESTIONS. ON PRIVATE PROPERTY AND EQUALITY. To be provocative, let's recall what Marx and what research, Engels wrote in different essays the Communist Manifesto : In a sense, the theory of the Communists may be summed up in what research the single sentence: Abolition of private property. 76. There are two aspects to what was wrong with their understanding, both inextricably interrelated.
One is a wrong conception of private property and its contradictory nature and role in a country like Cambodia - the question of New Democratic revolution. The other is a wrong conception about what it means to negate capitalism through socialism. Of Migration To The Essay? In both aspects, CPK line and policy was, despite its occasional Marxist terminology, profoundly anti-Marxist. NEW DEMOCRATIC REVOLUTION. In countries of this kind, as the Declaration of RIM succinctly puts it, The target of the revolution. is foreign imperialism and the comprador-bureaucrat bourgeoisie and study, feudals, which are classes closely linked to and dependent on imperialism. In these countries, the revolution will pass through two stages: a first, new democratic revolution which leads directly to the second, socialist revolution. The character, target and tasks of the first stage of the revolution enables and requires the proletariat to are humans naturally violence, form a broad united front of all classes and strata that can be won to support the new democratic programme. It must do so, however, on the basis of developing and strengthening the independent forces of the proletariat, including in appropriate conditions its own armed forces and establishing the hegemony of the proletariat among other sections of the is case study research revolutionary masses, especially the are humans essays poor peasants. The cornerstone of this alliance is the worker-peasant alliance and the carrying out of the agrarian revolution (i.e., the research struggle against essay two semi-feudal exploitation in is case the countryside and/or the fulfilment of the slogan 'land to the tiller') occupies a central part of the new democratic programme.
77. China's agricultural co-operatives were one of the basic building blocks of socialism. But the formation of high-level agricultural co-operatives (the people's communes) was the culmination of worst thesis advisor a process that began with the New Democratic revolution. Immediately following the nation-wide seizure of power (and even before, in some liberated areas), the peasants were led to seize the land. Without that ownership in their hands (of women as well as men), there could be no guarantee that they were really free of feudal bondage. Otherwise, they would have felt that nothing had changed, and in fact there would have been a tendency for feudal relations to reappear in new forms. As Mao pointed out, the New Democratic revolution had opened the door to capitalism. But at the same time, it opened the door even wider to socialism. The peasants could see the advantages of pooling their land and labour, and they could also see that the polarisation between rich and poor that inevitably accompanies capitalist development in agriculture means that socialism is the only way out for is case research, the vast majority.
With little time wasted, they were organised to form mutual aid teams and small, lower-level co-operatives in city resurrection tale two which land was farmed collectively but people received a share of the is case study research harvest in essay on a proportion to the land, animals and tools they had provided. (This was done extensively in the liberated areas of Cambodia until 1973 and in some places after that, and was very popular with the peasants.) Then, in the mid-1950s, the Chinese Party began to is case research, call on the peasants, with the same principles of voluntary co-operation and mutual benefit, to unite further on the basis of these small, semi-socialist co-operatives and organise large agricultural producers' co-operatives which are fully socialist in shave nature. [In other words, where people were paid according to their work in production and not according to how much land or capital they had brought in.] These steps make it possible for the peasants to gradually raise their socialist consciousness, through their personal experience and gradually change their mode of life, thus lessening any feeling of an abrupt change. These steps can generally avoid any drop in crop yields during, say, the first year or two; indeed, they must ensure a year-by-year increase, and this can be done. 80. WHAT IS A SOCIALIST ECONOMY? The CPK was no less wrong about socialism than about New Democracy.
It wrongly held that all public property is automatically socialist. Marx identified socialist public property not with state ownership but social ownership. In other words, state ownership, too, can be (and certainly was in pre-liberation Cambodia) a form of private ownership in the Marxist sense, a form in which the surplus produced by the labourers is appropriated by a handful of people for their own interests while the labourer lives merely to increase capital, and is allowed to is case study, live only in essay so far as the interests of the what ruling class require. There is another universally significant political lesson to be drawn from the Cambodian experience. Naturally Violence? Every country in the world is an enormous ball of contradictions in which the what study research contradiction between socialised production (represented by the proletariat) and private appropriation (represented by essay on a the bourgeoisie) drives and/or intersects with a myriad of others. The class that really has nothing to lose is no less a minority in the imperialist countries than in the predominantly peasant ones. And yet by taking the interests and what is case study, standpoint of the international proletarian revolution, the party has to rely on city essay resurrection two, the poorest in is case society to unite the broadest number of people possible at any given moment to fight and ultimately overthrow the source of the resurrection tale ills that plague the vast majority, in that country and in the whole world. This means that the communists must unite with the class feelings of the what is case most exploited and work to transform them into the liberating outlook of Marxism-Leninism-Maoism. Communists everywhere are grappling with this. This brings us back to the question of the party. Essay Resurrection Tale? A party whose existence, line, policies and ideology is secret from the masses can only build a socialism whose secret is that it is capitalism.
As it was, for the people of the world and the Cambodian people alike, the what country's liberation was truly a victory wasted. Once the Pol Pot regime was overthrown, the US had no problem supporting its remaining army. In the different styles essays late 1970s and research, early 1980s, international aid directed by the US helped sustain the thousands of fighters in the jungles of the western Cambodian border region and in refugee camps in Thailand. 97 For a decade, the worst thesis advisor US and its ever-subservient United Nations recognised the FUNK (the CPK's united front, of which Sihanouk was still the is case research formal head) as the legal government of Cambodia. 1 This is thesis why the US Congress and the Clinton administration appropriated millions of dollars for Cambodian genocide studies at a time when they were slashing research funding in general. One of the highest estimates for what is case, the number of dead was formulated by Ben Kiernan, a leading scholar in the field who once supported Vietnam and is now head of the US government-financed Yale University Cambodian Genocide Program. He subtracted certain estimates for the population of Cambodia in 1979 from those for on a close, its 1975 population and came up with the figure of 1.5 million people dead of starvation, disease and execution during the Democratic Kampuchea government.
But these figures are highly problematic. Those were war years and such figures were not obtained by counting heads; further, the what is case study pro-US pre-1975 Cambodian government and the pro-Vietnamese post-1979 government had their reasons to exaggerate upward (in the first case) and downward (in the second). Are Humans Naturally Violence Essays? Even DK government figures given at various times are mutually inconsistent. Kiernan arbitrarily decided to accept the unsubstantiated (and unpublished) figures of a private researcher. Michael Vickery, who used CIA statistics, put the number of is case study research dead of all causes at dissertation word 800,000. See Ben Kiernan, The Pol Pot Regime (Yale University Press, 1996), p. 457; Vickery's claims are also cited and discussed here. What Is Case Study Research? In a 1997 interview, CPK leader Ta Mok told the Far Eastern Economic Review (23 October 1997), It is clear that Pol Pot has committed crimes against different humanity. I don't agree with the American figure that millions died. What Study? But hundreds of thousands, yes. Chandler, The Tragedy of Cambodian History (Yale University Press, 1991), p. 48.
12 Typically, Sihanouk put nationalised US businesses into the hands of his cronies. Cambodia's gold reserves were moved from the masters word per section US to France and French President de Gaulle invited for an enthusiastic state visit. 34 While principally relying on its own forces, Cambodia received important aid from China during the war and after it as well. (The first shipload of food supplies from China arrived less than a week after liberation. By mid-September, China offered $1 billion in interest-free economic aid, including a $20 million outright gift - the most aid China ever gave any one country. Statistics from China Quarterly , quoted in Kiernan, PPR , p. 129. 37 Sharpen the Consciousness of the Proletarian Class to Be as Keen and what research, Strong as Possible, Tung Padevat , in Jackson, pp. 271-9. 45 Examine the Control, cited in Kiernan, PPR, pp.
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