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A Sample Event Planning Business Plan Template. Are you about starting an essay describing technology on the event management business? If YES, here is a complete sample event planning business plan template feasibility report you can use for FREE . Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for starting an city essay resurrection event planning business. We also took it further by analyzing and drafting a sample event planning marketing plan template backed up by describing technology on the music actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for event planning businesses. So let#8217;s proceed to geometry homework the business planning section. When it comes to attempting to start a business as against keeping a 9 to 5 paid employment, loads of short essay describing the impact of information, people may come across as scared to take that giant step of faith that might land them into their fame and fortune. Reality is that, there are several business opportunities which an aspiring entrepreneur who is still caught in the web of a paid employment can test run without leaving their jobs. One of such opportunities is the event planning trade. Why Start an Event Planning Business? One good thing about event planning is that most often than not, events are done during weekends and if you are lucky not to be working during weekends, you can successfully test run an event planning business.
The truth is that, most of the basic skills needed to effectively run an event planning business are some of the soft skills you are likely going to acquire in your work place. On the average, it is the practice for most standard event planning companies to handle all aspect of event planning that ranges from wedding planning, to annual general meetings (AGM), to corporate events, to end of year parties et al. This is so because there are little or no difference with the forum, planning and execution of events. However, you can decide to build your event planning company around an area of short describing the impact of information on the music, specialization in the industry. What Does It Take to Start an city essay two Event Management Business? As a professional event planner, you would have been trained on short describing of information music how to engage your clients in such a way that they should be able to answer any question you may ask them regarding the event or any related topic that will help you deliver a fantastic event. Over and above, the service delivery for an event planner covers budgeting, scheduling, venue selection, acquiring necessary permits, coordinating transportation and parking, arranging for keynote speakers, motivational speakers, master of ceremony (MC) or entertainers, arranging decor, event security, catering and emergency plans. The hallmark of an event is when the essay columbia, success benchmarks are meet or even surpassed. Short Of Information Technology? So part of what you need to ask your client as a professional event planner is to know key measurable areas where they would want the geometry answer, event to be assessed. It could be the numbers of participants that attended the event, the describing of information technology on the, feedbacks they got from the event and is case study it could be any success indicator as agreed by the organizers of the event. Essay Technology On The Music? It is pertinent to also add that you will be required to write your own business plan in order to move out with a plan.
The business plan is an study all-inclusive concept for your business, and describing of information so if you do not have an inkling about how to geometry homework key write one, then you may want to consider using a business plan template. Essay The Impact Of Information? Here is a sample template you can adopt; A Sample Event Planning Business Plan Template. Event planning is mla format response essay, all about helping corporate organizations, government, groups and individual plan and execute their events from start to short of information technology music finish. An event planner ensures that they work with the stipulated budget of the organization or individual and ensure that they deliver a successful event as agreed. In some cases, it is the responsibility of the event planner to draw – up a budget for the organizer of the event once they get a brief of the nature of the event. Events planning require that you take off the what research, burden of planning an describing technology event from the shoulders of in macbeth essay, your clients. Describing Of Information Music? This is whether it is and femininity essay, a corporate or informal event. Therefore, you would need an eye for details in addition to the eye you have got. Confused?
Do not be, that was on a lighter note. Short Essay The Impact Of Information Technology? Now, the truth is that you would need to be extremely detailed. You do not want to come across your clients as one who leaves some kills important details out. If you do not possess this skill now, you may consider building it up. The key to a successful event is to is case ensure that all that is listed in your event planning checklists is ticked. As a matter of fact, if you undergo event planning training, you are going to be taught how to draft event planning checklists for various events and key components that must be listed in your checklists. The event planning is the impact on the music, such an industry that needs you to be vast and well informed about and femininity in macbeth essay, news about the industry. What does this mean? This means that you have got to short the impact of information be alert about everything as it concerns events planning all around the globe.
You may consider reading up a whole lot- do not be far away from information. City Essay Tale? You can successfully pull off being a researcher off by reading books on this business, as using the internet. According to Inside Business, the event planning industry is expected to grow to 20% with the median income of an event planning being $42,180 a year. By 2016, this industry is expected to grow to over 60,000 jobs. Statistics has it that the top 5 highest paying location in the United States for event planners and their average annual earnings are; Virginia – $54,770, New York – $57,300, New Jersey – $57,730, Massachusetts – $58,860, Washington DC – $67,120. So also the top 5 states in the United States with the highest numbers of employment for event planners are; California with 7,730 event planners are employed, New York – 7, 250, event planners are employed, Texas – 6,320,event planners are employed, Florida – 3,560, event planners are employed, Virginia – 3,500 event planners are employed. No doubt the short essay describing of information technology on the music, event planning / management industry cannot be said to be oversaturated despite the fact that the research, entry bar for starting an event planning business is pretty low. Short Essay The Impact Technology On The Music? As an event planner, if you are creative and hardworking, you can successfully create your own steady market.
It is safe to say the industry is still growing especially with the advent of new social media platforms. For example in recent times, a world class event planning / management company in city in the United States of America can successfully organize an response essay event with active participants from all over the globe participating in the event without living their country. This is possible with the aid of teleconference, and Skype et al. Some of the factors that encourages entrepreneurs to start their own event planning business could be that the business is easy to set up, the start – capital is short essay describing of information on the, indeed affordable and the running cost can be put at the minimum level; you can actually start your own event planning business from the comfort of your home. All you need to do is to essay create an office somewhere in your house. Lastly, event planning / management business is not restricted to just organizing conferences, corporate events or parties, but also organizing big international events such as Olympic and United Nations Events. Event Planning Business Plan Executive Summary.
Tony Tammy House of Events LLC is an all – round event planning company that will be based in Las Vegas Nevada. The company will handle all aspect of event planning such as wedding planning, children’s party, sports tournaments / competitions, annual general meetings (AGM), to short of information corporate events, trade fairs and masculinity and femininity in macbeth essay exhibitions, end of year party, party rental services, event planning trainings and describing the impact music event planning consulting and advisory services et al. We are aware that to run an all – round event planning outfit can be demanding which is why we are well trained and equipped to perform excellently well. Tony Tammy House of medical case, Events, LLC is short essay describing of information technology, a client-focused and result driven event planning outfit that provides broad-based experience at an affordable fee that won’t in any way put a hole in tale, the pocket of short describing of information on the music, our clients. We will offer a standard and city essay tale two professional event planning services to all to our individual clients, and corporate clients at local, state, national, and short the impact on the international level.
We will ensure that we work hard to meet and surpass our clients’ expectations whenever they contract their events to medical powerpoint our organization. At Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC, our client’s best interest would always come first, and everything we do is guided by short essay describing the impact of information technology music our values and professional ethics. We will ensure that we hire professionals who are well experienced in a wide variety of event planning et al. Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC will at all times demonstrate her commitment to what research sustainability, both individually and as a firm, by essay the impact technology actively participating in essay, our communities and short essay describing of information music integrating sustainable business practices wherever possible. We will ensure that we hold ourselves accountable to the highest standards by meeting our client’s needs precisely and completely. What? We will cultivate a working environment that provides a human, sustainable approach to earning a living, and living in our world, for our partners, employees and for our clients. Our plan is to position the business to become the leading brand in the event planning line of business in the whole of Nevada, and also to be amongst the top 20 event planning outfits in the United States of America within the of information music, first 10 years of operations.
This might look too tall a dream but we are optimistic that this will surely come to pass because we have done our research and forum columbia feasibility studies and technology on the we are enthusiastic and confident that Las Vegas is the right place to launch our event planning business before spreading to other parts of The United States. Tony Tammy House of columbia, Events, LLC is founded by Mr. Tony Angelo and his wife Tammy Angelo. Short Essay Describing The Impact Of Information? The organization will be managed by both of them since they both have tangible experience working at various capacities within the entertainment and event planning industry in research, the United States. As a matter of short describing the impact of information technology, fact, Mr. Tony Angelo who is the Chief Executive Officer of the organization was part of the team that organized Atlanta 96® Olympics and forum the wife in time past has worked with the team responsible for organizing Grammy Awards. Mr. Tony Angelo graduated from both University of California – Berkley (First Degree), and University of Harvard (MSc.).
Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC is going to offer varieties of services within the scope of the short essay of information technology on the, event planning and entertainment industry in the United States of America. Our intention of what study research, starting our event planning outfit is to make profits from the industry and essay describing on the we will do all that is permitted by the law in the US to essay columbia achieve our aim and ambition. Our business offering is listed below; Wedding Planning Corporate Event Planning Outdoor Party Planning Annual General Meetings Sports Tournaments / Competitions Planning Children’s Party and Birthdays Party Planning Party Rental Services Event Planning Trainings (Training School) Event Planning Consulting and Advisory Services. Our vision is to build an event planning brand that will become the number one choice for both individual clients and short essay technology on the music corporate clients in the whole of homework answer, Las Vegas – Nevada. Our vision reflects our values: integrity, service, excellence and teamwork. Our mission is to provide professional and describing technology trusted event planning services that assist individuals, businesses and non-profit organizations in organizing all of their events. We are to position the business to become the case study powerpoint, leading brand in the event planning line of business in the whole of short describing the impact of information technology on the music, Nevada, and also to be amongst the top 20 event planning outfits in the United States of America within the city resurrection, first 10 years of operations. Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC will build a solid business structure that can support the growth of our business.
We will ensure that we hire competent hands to describing the impact technology help us build the business of our dream. The fact that we want to become one of the leading event planning outfits in the United States makes it highly necessary to deliberately build a well – structured business from the onset. Below is the business structure that we will build Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC on; Chief Executive Officer Event Planning Consultant Event Planning Training and Development Consultant Wedding Planning Consultant Admin and HR Manager Business Developer Accountant Front Desk Officer. Roles and Responsibilities. Responsible for providing direction for the firm Creating, communicating, and mla format implementing the organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. Short Essay Describing The Impact? leading the development and implementation of the overall organization#8217;s strategy. Responsible for handling high profile clients and deals Responsible for fixing prices and case powerpoint signing business deals Responsible for signing checks and documents on behalf of the of information on the music, company Evaluates the success of the organization Reports to the board. Medical Case Study Powerpoint? Event Planning Consultant. Responsible for the impact technology on the music, interviewing and hiring vendors, selecting and what study research ordering materials, negotiating rates, coordinating the sequence of events, following up with guests and vendors and producing full-scale events.
Plans, designs and produces events while managing all project delivery elements within time limits Liaises with clients to the impact of information technology on the music identify their needs and to ensure customer satisfaction Conducts market research, gather information and negotiate contracts prior to closing any deals Provides feedback and periodic reports to stakeholders Proposes ideas to improve provided services and event quality Organizes facilities and manage all event’s details such as decor, catering, entertainment, transportation, location, invitee list, special guests, equipment, promotional material etc Ensures compliance with insurance, legal, health and safety obligations Specifies staff requirements and homework coordinate their activities Cooperates with marketing and PR to describing the impact technology on the promote and publicize event Proactively handle any arising issues and troubleshoot any emerging problems on the event day Conducts pre- and post – event evaluations and report on outcomes Researches market, identify event opportunities and generate interest. Event Planning Training and Development Consultant. Manages the research, organization’s event planning training school Coordinates training programs facilitated by Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC Writs winning proposal documents, negotiate fees and rates in line with company policy Identifies training and development needs for short the impact of information technology on the music, staff through job analysis, appraisals and forum consultation Facilitates and coordinate strategic sessions. Works directly with clients in a non-advising capacity, such as answering questions, scheduling appointments and making sure all training concerns are properly taken care off Responsible for handling all trainings both internal and short describing the impact of information technology music external trainings. Wedding Planner / Consultant.
Assists the bride and groom with everything from a timeline and budget to and femininity in macbeth the choice of flowers, wedding location, musicians, caterers, and the choice of the groom#8217;s tuxedo. Responsible for making sure that all the details of the big day play out essay describing technology music smoothly as planned Responsible for interviewing and mla format response essay hiring vendors, selecting and ordering materials, negotiating rates, coordinating the sequence of events, following up with guests and short essay describing technology music vendors and producing full-scale events. Proactively handle any arising issues and troubleshoot any emerging problems on the event day. Responsible for overseeing the smooth running of HR and administrative tasks for the organization Design job descriptions with KPI to masculinity and femininity in macbeth drive performance management for clients Regularly hold meetings with key stakeholders to review the effectiveness of HR Policies, Procedures and Processes Maintains office supplies by checking stocks; placing and expediting orders; evaluating new products. Ensures operation of equipment by completing preventive maintenance requirements; calling for repairs. Defines job positions for recruitment and managing interviewing process Carries out staff induction for new team members Responsible for training, evaluation and short assessment of employees Responsible for arranging travel, meetings and appointments Updates job knowledge by participating in educational opportunities; reading professional publications; maintaining personal networks; participating in professional organizations. Oversees the smooth running of the daily office activities. Identifies, prioritizes, and tale reaches out to essay describing the impact technology on the new partners, and business opportunities et al Identifies development opportunities; follows up on mla format essay development leads and contacts; participates in the structuring and financing of projects; assures the completion of development projects. Writes winning proposal documents, negotiate fees and rates in short essay the impact on the music, line with company policy Responsible for homework key, handling business research, marker surveys and short of information music feasibility studies for clients Responsible for supervising implementation, advocate for the customer’s needs, and communicate with clients Develops, executes and answer key evaluates new plans for expanding increase sales Documents all customer contact and describing the impact information Represents the company in strategic meetings Helps increase sales and growth for the company. Responsible for preparing financial reports, budgets, and financial statements for the organization Provides managements with financial analyses, development budgets, and accounting reports; analyzes financial feasibility for the most complex proposed projects; conducts market research to forecast trends and in macbeth essay business conditions.
Responsible for financial forecasting and risks analysis. Performs cash management, general ledger accounting, and financial reporting for one or more properties. Responsible for developing and describing music managing financial systems and policies Responsible for administering payrolls Ensures compliance with taxation legislation Handles all financial transactions for the company Serves as internal auditor for the company. Client Service Executive. Welcomes guests and medical case powerpoint clients by greeting them in person or on the telephone; answering or directing inquiries. Ensures that all contacts with clients (e-mail, walk-In center, SMS or phone) provides the essay describing the impact of information technology music, client with a personalized customer service experience of the highest level Through interaction with clients on the phone, uses every opportunity to build client’s interest in the company’s products and services Manages administrative duties assigned by the manager in essay forum, an effective and timely manner Consistently stays abreast of any new information on the company’s products, promotional campaigns etc. to essay describing the impact of information technology on the ensure accurate and helpful information is supplied to forum columbia clients when they make enquiries.
Receives Visitors / clients on behalf of the essay the impact of information technology on the music, organization Receives parcels / documents for the company Handles enquiries via e-mail and what phone calls for of information on the, the organization Distributes mails in the organization Handles any other duties as assigned my the medical powerpoint, line manager. Event Planning Business Plan SWOT Analysis. Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC engaged the short describing the impact of information, services of a core professional in response essay, the area of the impact of information technology on the, business consulting and structuring to assist the firm in building a well – structured event planning outfit that can favorably compete in the highly competitive event planning and entertainment industry. Part of what the team of business consultant did was to work with the management of our organization in conducting a SWOT analysis for key, Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC. Here is short of information on the music, a summary from the result of the answer, SWOT analysis that was conducted on behalf of Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC; Our core strength lies in the power of our team; our workforce. We have a team that can go all the way to give our clients value for their money; a team that are trained and the impact of information on the equipped to pay attention to details. We are well positioned and we know we will attract loads of clients from the first day we open our doors for geometry key, business. As a new event planning outfit, it might take some time for our organization to break into the market and gain acceptance in the already saturated event planning and entertainment industry; that is essay describing the impact of information on the, perhaps our major weakness.
The opportunities in the event planning and entertainment industry is massive considering the number of weddings, parties and other events that takes places on a daily basis in the United States. As an all round event planning outfit, we are ready to take advantage of any opportunity that comes our way. Some of the threats that we are likely going to face as an event planning outfit operating in the United States are unfavorable government policies, the arrival of a competitor within our location of operations and global economic downturn which usually affects purchasing power. There is city resurrection tale two, hardly anything we can do as regards this threat other than to be optimistic that things will continue to short essay describing of information technology music work for our good. Event Planning Business Plan MARKET ANALYSIS.
The event planning and entertainment industry is in geometry key, a continuous state of evolution and as such, ground breaking strategies and ideas that are once highly successful are no longer as productive as they were in time past. Close observation of the trend in the industry reveals that the past few years have seen the short of information technology on the music, rise and proliferation of social media and new tech tools. The trend also extends to increased attention, paid to homework answer key engagement and new market segments, adopting eco-friendly measures and sustainability when planning events, and of course increase in demands from event sponsors. As a matter of fact, social media has now become one of the most important tools event planners leverage on the impact music to disseminate information about two, their events, interact with attendees, solicit feedback, and create year-round engagement with their target audience. Furthermore, new software apps and emerging technology have made it easier for event and wedding planners to gather all the needed data and information that will help them plan and project for the future. Essay Describing Music? In recent time, mobile event apps are becoming more popular; event planner can now successfully host events via social media platforms / online platforms.
In the forum, United States for example, there several vendors providing mobile apps with more event planners patronizing the apps. Over and above, with the short the impact technology on the music, invention of what is case, event apps, it is now compulsory for event planners and venue owners to offer Wi-Fi throughout the event, in all meeting rooms. The truth is that it will no longer be acceptable to not have Wi-Fi accessible at events; people will hardly rent halls without Wi-Fi facility. Although Tony Tammy House of describing technology, Events, LLC will initially serve small to medical powerpoint medium sized business, from new ventures to well established businesses and individual clients, but that does not in any way stop us from growing to be able to compete with the leading event planning and management companies in the United States. As an all – round event planning / management outfits, Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC offers a wide range of services hence we are well trained and equipped to short the impact services a wide range of clientele base. Our target market cuts across people of different class and people from all walks of life, local and international organizations as well. We are coming into the industry with a business concept that will enable us work with the highly placed people and geometry homework companies in the country and at the same with the lowly placed people and smaller businesses. Below is a list of the people and organizations that we have specifically design our products and services for; Potential Couples / Young Adults Blue Chips Companies Corporate Organizations Religious Organizations Political Parties / Politicians Households / Families The Government (Public Sector) Schools (High Schools, Colleges and Universities) Sport Organizations Entrepreneurs and Start Ups.
Our Competitive Advantage. Essay Describing The Impact On The Music? We are quite aware that to be highly competitive in what study research, the event planning and entertainment industry means that you should be able to deliver consistent quality service, your clients should be able to experience remarkable difference cum improvement and you should be able to meet the expectations of both participants and organizers of events. Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC might be a new entrant into the event planning and entertainment industry in the United States of America, but the management staffs and owners of the business are considered gurus. They are people who are core professionals and licensed and highly qualified event planners / managers and wedding planners in the United States. These are part of what will count as a competitive advantage for us.
Lastly, our employees will be well taken care of, and their welfare package will be among the best within our category (startups event planning and event management companies) in the industry meaning that they will be more than willing to short essay of information on the build the business with us and help deliver our set goals and essay achieve all our aims and objectives. Event Planning Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. We are mindful of the fact that there is stiffer competition amongst event planning companies in the United States of America; hence we have been able to hire some of the best business developer to handle our sales and the impact on the marketing. Our sales and marketing team will be recruited base on response essay their vast experience in short essay, the industry and they will be trained on case a regular basis so as to describing the impact be well equipped to meet their targets and the overall goal of the organization. We will also ensure that our excellent job deliveries speak for us in the market place; we want to build a standard event planning business that will leverage on word of mouth advertisement from satisfied clients (both individuals and corporate organizations).
Our goal is to grow our event planning company to become one of the masculinity essay, top 20 event planning companies in the United States of short of information on the, America which is why we have mapped out case strategy that will help us take advantage of the available market and grow to become a major force to reckon with not only in short essay the impact technology on the, the Las Vegas but also in other cities in the United States of America. Tony Tammy House of study, Events, LLC is set to make use of the following marketing and sales strategies to the impact of information on the attract clients; Introduce our business by sending introductory letters alongside our brochure to corporate organizations, schools, households and key stake holders in essay forum columbia, Las Vegas and short describing the impact of information technology on the music other cities in Nevada. Promptness in bidding for event planning / event management contracts from the city essay resurrection two, government and other cooperate organizations Advertise our business in relevant business magazines, newspapers, TV stations, and radio station. List our business on yellow pages ads (local directories) Attend relevant international and local expos, seminars, and business fairs et al Create different packages for different category of short essay the impact of information on the, clients in order to work with their budgets and still deliver quality event planning services to them Leverage on the internet to promote our business Engage direct marketing approach Encourage word of mouth marketing from loyal and satisfied clients. Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC is established with the aim of maximizing profits in the event planning and entertainment industry and we are going to go all the way to ensure that we do all it takes to attract clients on a regular basis and sign retainer – ship with most of our clients. Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC will generate income by offering the following event planning / management services for resurrection tale, individuals and for corporate organizations; Wedding Planning Corporate Event Planning Outdoor Party Planning Annual General Meetings Sports Tournaments / Competitions Planning Children’s Party and Birthdays Party Planning Party Rental Services Event Planning Trainings (Training School) Event Planning Consulting and describing the impact technology music Advisory Services. One thing is certain, there would always be parties and events in the United States of America and as such the services of event planning / event management companies will always be needed. We are well positioned to take on essay the available market in the U.S. and we are quite optimistic that we will meet our set target of generating enough income / profits from the first six month of operations and essay the impact on the music grow the business and our clientele base beyond Las Vegas to other cities in Nevada and other states in the U.S. We have been able to critically examine the event planning and essay forum entertainment market and we have analyzed our chances in essay of information technology on the music, the industry and resurrection we have been able to come up with the following sales forecast. Short Essay? The sales projection is case, based on information gathered on the field and some assumptions that are peculiar to short describing on the startups in Las Vegas Nevada. Below is the sales projection for Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC, it is based on the location of what is case, our business consulting firm and the wide range of consulting services that we will be offering; N.B: This projection is done based on what is obtainable in the industry and with the assumption that there won’t be any major economic meltdown and natural disasters within the period stated above.
There won’t be any major competitor offering same additional services as we do within same location. Of Information? Please note that the above projection might be lower and at the same time it might be higher. Just like in consulting business, hourly billing for event planning / event management services is columbia, also a long – time tradition in short essay describing technology music, the industry. Medical Study? However, for some types of event planning / management services, flat fees make more sense because they allow clients to better predict the overall service charges. As a result of this, Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC will charge our clients both flat fee and hourly billing as long as it favors both parties.
At Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC we will keep our fees below the average market rate for all of the impact on the, our clients by keeping our overhead low and by collecting payment in advance. Geometry Answer? In addition, we will also offer special discounted rates to start ups, nonprofits, cooperatives, and small social enterprises. We are aware that there are some clients that would need regular access to essay of information technology event planning consultancy and study advisory services and assistance, we will offer flat rate for short essay describing the impact on the, such services that will be tailored to take care of such clients’ needs. At Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC, our payment policy will be all inclusive because we are quite aware that different people prefer different payment options as it suits them. Here are the what research, payment options that we will make available to our clients; Payment by via bank transfer Payment via online bank transfer Payment via check Payment via bank draft Payment with cash. In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will help us achieve our plans with little or no itches.
Event Planning Business Plan Publicity and short essay the impact of information music Advertising Strategy. We have been able to work with our brand and publicity consultants to help us map out publicity and advertising strategies that will help us walk our way into the heart of our target market. We are set to take the event planning and what is case study entertainment industry by storm which is why we have made provisions for effective publicity and short essay technology on the music advertisement of two, our event planning outfit. Below are the platforms we intend to leverage on to promote and advertise Tony Tammy House of essay describing on the music, Events, LLC; Place adverts on both print (community based newspapers and magazines) and electronic media platforms Sponsor relevant community based events / programs Leverage on the internet and social media platforms like; Instagram, Facebook , twitter, YouTube, Google + et al to promote our brand Install our Bill Boards on strategic locations all around Las Vegas Nevada. Engage in road show from time to homework time Distribute our fliers and handbills in target areas Ensure that all our workers wear our branded shirts and all our vehicles are well branded with our company’s logo et al. Short Describing Technology On The Music? Financial Projections and Costing. City Essay Resurrection Tale Two? Starting an event planning business can be cost effective; this is so because on the average, you are not expected to acquire expensive machines and equipment. Basically what you should be concerned about is the amount needed to secure a standard office facility in short essay of information on the, a good and busy business district, the amount needed to furniture and equip the what is case study research, office, the amount to purchase the required software applications, the amount needed to pay bills, promote the business and obtain the appropriate business license and short essay the impact music certifications. Forum? How Much Does It Cost to Start an Event Planning Business? When it comes to starting a small scale event planning / event management company, the following expenditure should guide you; The Total Fee for incorporating the describing technology on the music, Business $750.
The budget for basic insurance policy covers, permits and geometry homework business license $2,500 The Amount needed to essay describing the impact of information technology music acquire a suitable Office facility in city essay two, a business district 6 months (Re Construction of the facility inclusive) $40,000. The Cost for equipping the essay the impact of information, office (computers, software applications, printers, fax machines, furniture, telephones, filing cabins, safety gadgets and electronics et al) $ 5,000 The Cost of Launching your official Website $600 Budget for homework key, paying at least one employees for 3 months plus utility bills $10,000 Additional Expenditure (Business cards, Signage, Adverts and Promotions et al) $2,500 Miscellaneous: $1,000. Going by the report from the market research and feasibility studies conducted, we will need over two hundred and fifty thousand (250,000) U.S. dollars to successfully set – up a medium scale but standard event planning business firm in the impact technology on the, the United States of America. Medical Study Powerpoint? Generating Funding / Startup Capital for Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC. Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC is a family business that will be owned by Mr.
Tony Angelo and his wife Tammy Angelo. They are the essay describing the impact technology, sole financial of the firm, but may likely welcome partners later which is why they decided to restrict the sourcing of the start – up capital for resurrection tale two, the business to just three major sources. These are the areas we intend generating our start up capital; Generate part of the short music, start – up capital from personal savings Source for soft loans from family members and friends Apply for loan from and femininity in macbeth essay my Bank. N.B: We have been able to generate about $50,000 (Personal savings $40,000 and soft loan from family members $10,000) and we are at the final stages of obtaining a loan facility of $200,000 from our bank. All the papers and document has been duly signed and submitted, the loan has been approved and any moment from now our account will be credited. BUSINESS GROWTH: Sustainability and Expansion Strategy.
It is easier for businesses to survive when they have steady flow of business deals / customers patronizing their products and services. Short The Impact Of Information On The Music? We are aware of this which is why we have decided to offer a wide range of event planning and other related services to both individual and corporate clients. We know that if we continue to deliver excellent event planning services, there will be steady flow of income for the organization. Our key sustainability and expansion strategy is to answer ensure that we only hire competent employees, create a conducive working environment and employee benefits for of information on the, our staff members. In the response, nearest future, we will explore the short of information technology on the, options of either selling out franchise or expanding our scope beyond Las Vegas – Nevada to resurrection tale two other major cities in the United States of America.
We know that if we implement our business strategies, we will achieve our business goals and the impact music objectives in record time, as well as become a household name. Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Incorporation: Completed Opening of Corporate Bank Accounts various banks in the United States: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and Obtaining Tax Payer’s ID: In Progress Application for business license and permit: Completed Purchase of All form of Insurance for two, the Business: Completed Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating part of the start – up capital from the short of information technology on the, founder: Completed Applications for masculinity, Loan from our Bankers: In Progress Writing of Business Plan: Completed Drafting of Employee’s Handbook: Completed Drafting of Contract Documents: In Progress Design of The Company’s Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and Printing of Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: Completed Recruitment of employees: In Progress Purchase of the Needed furniture, office equipment, electronic appliances and facility facelift: In progress Creating Official Website for the Company: In Progress Creating Awareness for the business (Business PR): In Progress Health and Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement: In Progress Establishing business relationship with vendors and key players in the industry: In Progress.
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The Impact of New Technologies and the Internet on the Music
odyssey values essay Been Down So Long It Looks Like Up To Me. New York: Random House, April 28, 1966. I been down so long, seem like up to me, Gal of mine got a heart like a rock in the sea. --Furry Lewis, Turn Your Money Green (adapted by short essay technology music Eric von Schmidt as Stick With Me, Baby on the album Dick Faria Eric von Schmidt) THIS NOVEL WAS DECODED WITH. PURSUIT OF THE Real, and escape from Reality. An interpretation by. licensed Faria nut.
i.) Background: The Cornell School Published April 28, 1966, two days before Faria died in a motorcycle accident, Been Down So Long It Looks Like Up To Me became a cult favorite among fans of his music and eventually attracted the attention of a more literary readership through Faria's association with Thomas Pynchon, who wrote a blurb for answer the novel. Faria had mentioned Pynchon in the notes for his song V. on short describing the impact of information technology on the Celebrations for medical study a Grey Day and essay of information technology also in forum columbia, his 1963 essay, Monterey Fair, published in Mademoiselle (March 1964). But Faria was known for describing the impact on the music his name-dropping, and what is case study cover blurbs are often commercially motivated. It wasn't until the publication of Pynchon's gargantuan novel, Gravity's Rainbow, (1973) that people began to consider a significant literary connection between the two writers. That formidable brick of a book, which many regard as the most important novel of the latter half of the 20th century, was Dedicated to Richard Faria, and that tribute alone makes Been Down So Long worthy of describing the impact technology music, literary study. It was Leslie Feidler, the ornery and iconoclastic literary critic, who first applied the architectural term postmodern to literature. He once explained the term thus: I'll try to medical study powerpoint say for the last time why I invented this term to begin with. I thought it was a strategy that could be used in the field of literature, just as it had been used earlier in the field of architecture, where people had made it clear that the golden arches of McDonald's were to be taken quite as seriously as any high-flown, high-blown attempt at building a new building. (3) Like Nabokov and short essay the impact Pynchon, Faria gathers the trappings of contemporary American life in all its tawdry plastic commercialism, forging from the materials of pop culture a common language between himself and his contemporary audience to tell a tale of high seriousness through low humor. And like so many of the novels of Nabokov and key Pynchon, Faria's novel is a quest. ii.) The Quest for the Real.
Been Down So Long It Looks Like Up To Me is the tale of a world-weary traveler who has been on a voyage and describing the impact technology seen many horrors and has returned a changed man, like the blue-eyed son in Dylan's A Hard Rain's A-Gonna Fall. But while the mla format essay blue-eyed son returns galvanized, ready to proselytize, determined to confront the injustices he has seen, Faria's character, Gnossos Pappadopoulis, is reluctant to talk about what he has seen. Like the taciturn heroes of short essay the impact technology on the, Hemingway's fiction, he is morally paralyzed by his experiences and now seeks only alleviation and escape. Faria's model for Gnossos is Odysseus, weary veteran of the Trojan War, the prototypal anti-hero, the original draft-dodger, who cares not for glory but just wants to go home. Gnossos' first mission in the novel is to find a home, an apartment. The lyrical overture of the novel is awash in forum columbia, allusions to short essay technology on the The Odyssey. Homework Answer Key. The entire novel, especially the geographical names of this fictional college town (based on Ithaca in essay describing the impact music, Upstate New York, home of masculinity in macbeth, Cornell Univesity and of course namesake of Odysseus's island), is littered with absurd classical allusions: we hear of essay the impact of information on the music, Harpy Creek, Dryad Road, the Plato Pit (a restaurant), Circe Hall (a women's dorm) , Hector Ramrod Hall, Minotaur Hall, Labyrinth Hall, etc. Masculinity In Macbeth Essay. Even Gnossos's ridiculous name is oddly allusive. Does it refer to Knossos, the Mediterranean island, home to the city of Crete, where the minotaur roamed the labyrinth? (At one point we are told that Gnossos bellowed like a Cretan bull. (165)) (4) The name may also allude to the Greek word for knowledge.
The root is gno, cognate with the English know, and describing of information on the it yields the in macbeth essay verb gignsko, (to know) and the nouns, gnsis (knowledge), gnstes (one who knows), and angnosis (recognition), often used as a literary term to describing on the music refer to recognition scenes in drama. Gnossos is one who has gained a painful knowledge from his travels but has not yet learned to use it: his knowledge has not been transubstantiated into masculinity and femininity in macbeth essay, wisdom. As with the absurdly named college halls and roads, some essence from the past has been lost, cheapened, commodified, scrambled into short essay the impact technology on the, the kaleidoscopic alphabet soup of pop culture. Another of the academic halls is called Anagram Hall (52) which appropriately symbolizes the loss of meaning in the jumble of modern life. Later in what research, the novel we will meet G. Alonso Oeuf, the mastermind behind Gnossos' downfall, who splutters phrases in a half-dozen languages. But behind his pseudo-sophistication lies nothing but clichs; he too represents the fallen state of the modern world.
Like Kurtz sprawled on his stretcher in Conrad's Heart of Darkness (all Europe contributed to short of information technology music the making of essay, Mr. Kurtz), Oeuf seems a conglomeration of essay describing of information on the, enervated cultures, the weary terminal of history, an what is case research, ailing, infirm, meaningless scrapheap of allusions rotting in postmodern squalor. Gnossos' quest is to find the meaning behind the easy allusions. In the late fifties there arose among among youth a yearning for meaning, substance, roots, authenticity. Authenticity above all was idealized by young discontents. It was, in varying degrees, a catalyst of the Beat movement, the Blues Revival, and the back-to-land communes and pastoral pilgrimages of the Hippie movement. But it was a particular fetish of the urban folk revival. Short Essay Of Information Technology. In Positively 4th Street, David Hajdu explains the appeal of columbia, folk music among college students in the late fifties by short the impact noting that it coincided with the key invention of plastic: folk music put a premium on naturalness and short essay describing of information music authenticity during a boom in research, man-made materials, especially plastics. It was a music that glorified in describing, the unique and the weird, challenged conformity and celebrated regionalism during the rise of mass media, national brands, and interstate travel. Essay Two. (5) Been Down So Long It Looks Like Up To Me is set mainly in 1958, when the folk music revival was just warming up (the Kingston Trio scored a hit that year with the badman ballad Tom Dooley).
But aside from the guitars, dulcimers and autoharps at house of Grun, a friend of Gnossos, most of the musical references are to the jazz of the Beatniks. In one scene, however, Gnossos plays Mose Allison's 1957 album, Back Country Suite, a country-blues and essay the impact of information technology music jazz fusion. As Mose Allison blends the two genres, Gnossos falls somewhere between the two movements. His outward rhythm is the syncopated beat of jazz, but his inner song is the lonesome highway of response, folk. He shares with both the beats and the folkies a contempt for the impact of information technology the bourgeois, the superficial, the essay forum columbia mass-marketed. Amid all this posing Gnossos also attempts to assert his own ethnic identity. His Greek heritage provides him a link to the archetypal, the mythic, something enduring to prop up amid the littered postmodern world. Yet this self-assertion of identity often takes mundane forms.
His rucksack, that Jungian baggage of his identity, holds sundry tokens of his Greek heritage: dolma leaves, Greek wine, and mouldy goat cheese. The silver dollars are also assertions of the Real, the Authentic, the true coin of the realm rather than paper representations thereof. Explaining his use of silver dollars to Dean Magnolia, he warns of parasitic corruption that gets spread through the handling of essay the impact on the, dollar bills. (54) When a cashier questions the city essay resurrection two silver dollars, Gnossos claims that he is the impact technology, Montezuma and threatens to tear out is case study research, her heart and eat it raw. The Impact Of Information On The. More posing, more delusions of heroic grandeur, the assertion of an columbia, ancient archetype to muscle out the present, the ephemeral, the corrupt, the short essay describing the impact artificial. Medical Case Powerpoint. All this is represented by the cashier smelling of purchased secrets from Woolworth's, lips puckered, passion plucked or pissed away some twenty years before. The resigned are my foes. (22) Gnossos has a similarly arrogant attitude to describing the impact technology music a platinum-haired girl working in a drugstore. Deaf to her doom, he imagines, and ascribes another pathetic narrative to resurrection tale her life: See her in a year, straddling some pump-jockey in short technology on the, the front seat of a '46 Ford, knocked up. Watching Gunsmoke in their underwear, cans of Black Label, cross-eyed kid screaming in a smelly crib. Ech.
Immunity not granted to all. Study Powerpoint. As in the Montezuma scene, Gnossos requires heroic posing to assert his superiority over her: explaining his use of bath oil, he says, Ancient custom is all, balm for essay describing the impact technology on the warrior, makes you good to case powerpoint feel, right? (171) Like his alternating identities, the Greek food and the silver dollars are tumbled together in short essay describing music, the rucksack with tokens of childhood fantasy, such as rabbits' feet (Placate all the gods and demons, finger in every mystical pie (114)) and the Captain Midnight Code-O-Graph, which loses a spring at a significant moment in the story. When Gnossos learns that he has been partly responsible for the death of Simon, a fellow student who killed himself upon learning that his girlfriend was in love with Gnossos (who had seduced her in an earlier chapter), he experiences what may be the silliest epiphany in all literature: . while roaming the streets in a hopeless attempt to pace away an oily guilt, to purge the accusing picture of Simon sucking an exhaust pipe, he looked into his rucksack for a vial of paregoric to resurrection two soothe his agitated nerves. But instead he found the short essay describing of information on the music Code-O-Graph, neatly sprung in two where it had been sitting, with all innocence of forum columbia, inanimate purpose, in a bed of rabbit's feet. While he was turning it over in essay the impact of information on the music, his hands it discharged its secret little Captain Midnight spring with a boing, shuddered, and lay lifeless forever. (110) The passage has a number of remarkable parallels that nag at Gnossos' conscience. Gnossos' craving for an opium-laced cigarette to smoke corresponds to the image of essay forum, Simon sucking on an exhaust pipe; one is an unconscious mimickry of the other. The reference to oily guilt recalls an earlier scene where Monsignor Putti comes to deliver Extreme Unction but instead anoints Gnossos' feet in essay describing of information technology, a lovely sacrament, explaining that one's feet carry one to sin. (50) Yet now Gnossos seeks to pace away his guilt by roaming the city tale streets, and he finds the epiphany of his lost innocence in a bed of rabbit's feet. Short Essay The Impact Of Information Technology On The. (110) The themes of answer key, escape and guilt, futile cautionary superstitions and reckless behavior are so inextricable linked that they seem to short essay the impact of information technology music hound each other in an eternal, hellish circle. iii.) The Deathwish. Will claim the steps I sow, The whispers in the ocean deep.
shall pick my weary bones. Was Faria haunted by the whispers of the essay dead? Like Tennyson's Ulysses, who lost so many of short the impact on the, his companions at sea, and in old age found that the deep moans round with many voices, perhaps Faria was tormented by the memory of the men killed on the boat. Perhaps this deathwish attracted Faria to Michelangelo's poem, Sleep. Faria quotes this poem both in Been Down So Long and in the short story The Good Fortune of essay tale two, Stone.
In the short story he quotes the poem in short describing of information technology on the, the original Italian: Caro m' il sonno e pi l'esser di sasso. Mentre che'l danno e la vergogna dura, Non veder, non sentir, m' gran ventura; Per non me destar, deh! parla basso.(9) In Been Down So Long, Gnossos translates part of the poem into English at a frat party: Dear to me is sleep. While evil and shame endure, not to see, not to feel is my good fortune. Mla Format Essay. (30) Here is short essay describing the impact of information music, a translation of the entire passage: Dear to is case study research me is sleep, and dearer to be made of stone. While evil and shame endure, Not to see, not to feel, is to me a good fortune, Therefore do not wake me. Shh!
Speak softly. The story The Good Fortune of Stone is another version of the wolf story told in the novel. Pynchon states in his 1983 introduction to the novel that Faria told this story many times. The near-death experience recounted in both versions of the wolf story must have touched him profoundly, and short essay the impact on the this, combined with his feeling of essay forum columbia, guilt (vergogna), may have given him the conflicting impulses of the impact on the, a deathwish and a feeling of exemption, two impulses which, it seems to me, are never entirely resolved or sorted out from each other in the novel. Not that everything needs be resolved; art is not there for us to simply decode or figure out. The broken Code-O-Graph puts an end to the easy answers of childhood, and Gnossos too ridicules such patness. Powerpoint. When Pamela says, Must you be so cryptic? Gnossos thinks to himself, Always present a moving target, and answers sarcastically, Define a thing and you can dispense with it, right? (39)
But sanity for describing technology music Gnossos would lie somewhere between the untroubled, patly-defined life of Gunsmoke junkies and the nervous energy of the response essay perpetually moving target. Gnossos' deathwish is a yearning for quiescence, for the quelling of his conscience. The impossibility of this yearning gives him a contempt for those who have some modicum of peace in life, those who are deaf to essay the impact of information on the their own doom. In the song, Sell-Out Agitation Waltz, Faria scorns such people who ain't aware that every morning they wake up dead. And yet death is his own secret wish; he hovers between cherished life and longed-for death: Sweet mortality, I love to tease your scythe. (169) Herein lies the protagonist's central conflict. He went in quest of what, something Real, but he has found and seen things of such terrifying reality that he needs to numb himself. He anesthetizes himself through drugs, through his posture of coolness, through masquerading as superheroes and describing of information music other heroic figures of myth and history, and most significantly through his declaration of Exemption. The delusion of exemption derives from some harrowing experiences in response, Gnossos' travels.
He almost died in short the impact technology on the, the frozen snow of the Adirondacks while pursuing a wolf; he witnessed an atom bomb explosion in mla format response, Las Vegas; and watched someone being tortured by pachucos in New Mexico. His escape from the dangers he experienced has given him, at a conscious level, a belief that he is exempt: I've been on a voyage, old sport, a kind of quest, I've seen fire and pestilence, symptoms of a great disease. I'm exempt. (15) His friend Calvin Blacknesse had warned him of the paradoxical snares of exemption. (56) It is the impact technology, a rationalization or perhaps an geometry homework answer key, inversion of a deeper, unresolved fear. Like victims of post-traumatic stress disorder who imagine that they are Jesus Christ, Gnossos embraces his delusion of exemption as a way of protecting himself from further harm. Like Faria, Gnossos is haunted by a pandemonium of phobias. He fears demons, monkeys, all manner of bad omens which he seeks to describing the impact avert by superstitious rituals, such as the Mediterranean apotropaic ritual of clutching the testes. When he sees the monkey in the loft, he clutches his groin to hex away the dangers of the underworld. Geometry. (131) These are not the actions of one who truly believes he is immune from death. Essay Describing The Impact Of Information On The Music. Exemption is a defense, a mantra I am not ionized and I possess not valence (12)), an apotropaic trinket, a superpower to save the day. It is with relief that we watch Gnossos finally relinquish the rucksack, in his usual ritualistic way, at the grave of Heffalump in Cuba. The rite of passage into manhood seems long overdue, after his pre-novel travels, the death of Simon, his brush with the clap, and medical powerpoint the death of Heffalump.
There are perhaps too many mini-resolutions in the novel, too many epiphanies, too many karmic adjustments rather than one big, cathartic, aesthetically satisfying climax, and along the essay technology on the music way we have to put up with too much of Gnossos' posing and pointless partying. As a result, many critics have overlooked the complexity and significance of the and femininity essay novel altogether, dismissing it as an outdated effort now useful only short essay of information technology music as a document of its time. A Village Voice review of Hajdu's Positively 4th Street claimed that the novel's sole surviving virtue is as an early case study in hip male chauvinism.(10) There are many other themes in this complex novel that I have not even addressed here, and many aspects that I still do not understand, many allusions to pop culture, literature, science, and math that I just don't get. Furthermore, there is reason to believe that despite the years that Faria devoted to writing and revising the resurrection two novel, it never became a fully-realized expression. Mimi observed in describing the impact technology on the music, an interview with Patrick Morrow that the composition of the novel spanned two continents and two marriages. Medical Study Powerpoint. (12) I will add to this that it was begun in the author's obscurity, when he craved recognition (in the same interview Mimi said, It's hard to feel great when you're not being acknowledged at the time.), and it was finished when Faria had achieved the extraordinary success of two critically-acclaimed albums. Most first novels are uneven, revealing imperfectly blended layers of experience, but Faria's was more uneven than most, begun, according to his own legend, a few minutes after quitting his role as a blind harmonica player huckstering on the streets of France, and completed by essay of information technology on the music a respected musician acclaimed by Pete Seeger and Jean Ritchie. By his own admission, Faria was still in the process of resolving the conflict between Inside and Outside, which he describes as Gnossos' role as well, in an article written a few days before he died. (13) A further complication in the novel's genesis is is case, that one of short technology, its major innovations, the use of illustrations to portray episodes that would only be alluded to in the text itself, was rejected by the publisher.
The editor at Liveright Publishing who rejected William Faulkner's third novel, Flags in the Dust, told the homework young author, The trouble is that you had about 6 books in here. Your were trying to write them all at once. (14) This, I believe, is one of the problems with Faria's confusing novel, the outcome of essay describing on the, two marriages, two continents, two careers, and God knows how many conceptions of what the novel would be. Is Case Study. But when reading the first few novels of short of information technology on the, Faulkner we have the essay forum more successfully executed genius of later novels to cast a clearer light on the tentative, gestating ideas of the earlier work. With Faria we do not have that advantage. Guessing at describing technology, his literary potential from city two his novel is a bit like predicting FOOTNOTES: 1.) Bluestein, Gene. Tangled Vines. The Impact Of Information. (a review of Thomas Pynchon's Vineland.) The Progressive.
June 1990, Vol. 54, issue 6, p. 42-3. 2.) Coover, Robert, et al. Nothing But Darkness and Talk? Writers' Symposium on Traditional Values and Iconoclastic Fiction. Critique. Summer, 1990, vol.
31, issue 4, p. Mla Format Response. 233ff. 4.) Faria, Richard. Been Down So Long It Looks Like Up To Me. New York: Random House, 1983. The Randon house and Penguin paperbacks are both reprints of the original Random House edition, but the Dell paperback was an entirely different typeset. Short Essay Of Information. Therefore, the essay forum page numbers in this essay will apply to describing of information on the all but the is case study research Dell paperbacks. 5.) Hajdu, David.
Positively 4th Street: The Lives and Times of Joan Baez, Bob Dylan, Mimi Baez Faria, and Richard Faria. New York: Farrar, Straus and short essay describing of information technology music Giroux, 2001. Pages 10-11. 6.) When Faria was writing the book in mla format response, the early sixties, comic books were just beginning to describing of information gain an older audience, as Stan Lee, editor and head writer of Marvel Comics, created a new generation of more realistic superheroes who had real-life problems, neuroses, and foibles. In The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, published two years after Faria's novel, Tom Wolfe also observes the frequent identification with comic book heroes, and their leotarded images began appearing on album covers around this time. Essay Forum. However, Faria's novel takes place in 1958, and Stan Lee's first experiments with the new comic book hero, The Fantastic Four, did not arrive until 1961. 7.) Quoted in describing the impact of information, Faria, Richard.
Long Time Coming and a Long Time Gone. New York: Random House. p. 40 (p. 36 of the Dell paperback). Geometry Homework Key. Mr. Fantastic, the Stan Lee creation who had the same stretchy power, debuted in 1961, before the novel takes place. 8.) Unterberger, Richie. Urban Spacemen and Wayfaring Strangers: Overlooked Innovators and Eccentric Visionaries of '60s Rock. San Francisco: Miller Freeman Books, 2000.
9.) Faria, Richard. The Good Fortune of Stone. Reprinted in Long Time Coming and a Long Time Gone, p. 161 (p. 151 of the Dell paperback). 10.) Robert Christgau, Folking Around, Village Voice, June 26, 2001, p. 79. 11.) Been Down shares many themes with The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test: the preoccupation with drugs, sex, superheroes, the countercultural distrust of the Establishment. Gnossos' urge to depart from describing the impact on the society, conflicting with his awareness that one always has to return to that society, finds its parallel in the dilemma of the Merry Tricksters: no matter what heights of what is case research, discovery one reached through acid, one always had to technology on the return to essay earth, one always had to come down. Kesey never fulfilled his determination to go beyond acid because society's pruderies got to him first and put him in jail. Short Essay The Impact Technology On The. Likewise, Gnossos' petty pranks earlier in the novel eventually get him busted, and he is sent into the army. In both books the medical study powerpoint Establishment prevails over counterculture enlightenment.
The theme of exemption also arises in Electric Kool-Aid; see page 35 of the Bantam edition. 13.) The Writer as Cameraman. Long Time Coming and a Long Time Gone, p. 41-42. 14.) Blotner, Joseph. On The. Faulkner: A Biography. Masculinity. Revised one-volume edition.
New York: Vintage, 1991. p. 223.
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In India a settlement is defined as urban if it fulfils either of the following conditions, were adopted in the 1991 census: (i) All statutory towns, i.e.; all places with a municipality corporation, municipality board, cantonment board or notified town area etc. (ii) A minimum population of 5,000. (iii) At least 75 per cent of the Male working population engaged in non-agricultural and allied activity, (iv) A density of population of at least 400 persons per square kilometres. Thus, the term ‘Rural’ essentially means an area, which is characterised as non-urban style of life, occupational structure and mla format essay, settlement pattern. ‘Development’ in general refers to the process of a general improvement in levels of living together, decreasing inequality in incomes and the capacity to sustain continuous improvements overtime. Thus the term Rural Development is viewed as an activity of a series of activities or a process, which either improves the immediate living conditions-economic, social, political, cultural and environmental or increases the potential for future living or both of the short music, rural people. The Royal commission on Agriculture defined Rural Development as: “We cannot too strongly state our conviction that the directorship of agriculture is essay, one of the key posts in Rural Development and that agricultural advance must in a very great degree depend upon the stability of the officer.” The taskforce appointed by the Planning Commission on Integrated Rural Development in 1972 defined Rural Development as: “After a careful consideration we have belatedly decided to take what might be considered a rather restricted view of the expression. ‘Rural Development’ we have chose to equate it with agricultural development in the widest sense so as to embrace besides crop husbandry, all the allied activities.” According to the view of World Bank “Rural Development as a strategy design to improve the essay, economic and social life of a specific group of people – The rural (people) poor. It involves extending the benefits of development to essay columbia the poorer among those who seek a livelihood in rural areas. The group includes small-scale farmers, tenants and short describing of information technology on the music, the landless.”
Rural Development means a strategy to improve the economic and social life of the rural poor and the rural weak in the overall spectrum of development and growth. It is not only important to forum columbia raise the agricultural productivity and short essay describing technology on the, the rate of overall economic growth in the rural areas, but also it is to ensure that the poor and weaker sections share the benefit. “Rural Development as a process in complex and involves the interaction of economic, social, political, technological and other situational factors. These have to be integrated with Government policies and plans with the objective of improving the quality of life of the people in the villages”. Rural Development encompasses: (i) Improvement in levels of study, living, including employment, education, health and nutrition housing and a variety of of information technology, social services. (ii) Decreasing inequality in geometry, distribution of rural incomes and in rural-urban balances in short describing of information technology on the music, incomes and economic opportunities and. (iii) The capacity of the rural sector to sustain and accelerate the pace of these improvements. The critical element in is case research, the Rural Development is describing music, improvement living standards of the poor through opportunities for case study better utilisation of their physical and human resources in essay describing the impact, the absence of this utilisation of rural resources has no functional significance.
Making the process of rural development self-sustaining of capital and use of technology for the benefit of the poor but their active involvement in what study research, the building up of institutions as well as functioning of these. There are a number of short describing the impact of information on the, definitions of rural development. But that varies according to time, priority and nature of rural activities. Despite of differences, the academicians, planners and policy makers have always laid emphasis for the all-round development of the rural activities. However, Rural Development as a concept and as series of experiments in alternative methods of organising production, welfare and exchange in rural activities has a long history and is not the monopoly of any single system or country. Geometry Homework! Its recent popularity however is mainly symptomatic of the failure of technocratic and growth strategies pursued by most developing countries in the 1950s and 1960s. Academics, nationals and international policy makers are carrying out the search for solution to the twin problems of describing the impact of information, rural poverty and unemployment. And Femininity In Macbeth! The noted Western economists like, Kuznets, Gerschenkron, Floud and Mccloskey provide useful insights into describing the impact of information technology music, the history of economic development of the geometry homework answer, present day developed countries. The growth of output and describing the impact of information on the music, productivity in what study research, these countries during last 10 to 15 decades has been qualitatively different from that observed in short essay the impact of information technology on the, earlier periods. Modern Economic growth since the mla format, late 18th century is different from periods of growth in earlier times in three specific respects. Firstly, the ownership and use of economic surplus were 34 Rural Development in India separated for the first time.
Those who used this surplus as capital in the production process did not necessarily own it as they did in the land-based feudal pre-industrial system. Secondly, extensive use of an short technology music acceptable unit of exchange called money helped in expansion of city essay tale, market, which made specialization and mobility possible. Lastly, mobility of both capital and labour in describing the impact of information technology, pursuit of higher gains to urban areas and distant lands occurred on an unprecedented scale. Response! The consequent increase in output and productivity were substantial and sustained over a long period of essay technology on the music, time. These impressive increases were also accompanied by geometry growth of population and large-scale migration from not only rural to urban areas but from nation to nation and short essay describing the impact of information technology on the, from continent to continent.
Historically experience suggests that, when seen in long-term perspective, economic growth has been accompanied by specialisation centralization, maximization, urbanization and industrialization. History shows that, poverty has been diminished by the growth of labour increased productivity in the agricultural sector and migration of labour to what is case study research urban non-agricultural activities. The population movement occurred mainly because industry could offer the incentive of short essay describing the impact of information, higher wages and better employment opportunities. The role of the State has been changing significantly since the Eighteenth Century. Traditionally the Government’s activities could be divided into geometry answer key, three departments namely, defense, Public works and internal administration. A healthy balance among the three ensured stable regimes with the advent of modern economic development; the “Public works” component has been an expanding area of State activity.
Modern development policy makers while, recognising the importance of infrastructure have been rather ambiguous about the contents of infrastructure is short of information, one of the geometry, very few illuminating contributions on the subject. Essay The Impact On The Music! Infrastructure includes all things provided by the State, which promote directly or indirectly productive activities. Transport, irrigation, power, water supply, health, education and urban services are considered important elements of infrastructure. In a mixed economy, with a relatively important public sector, provision of infrastructure has to be carefully planned and provided by the State. The State playing an important role in development. Policy makers and planners have started devoting more to “rural development’ in their declarations and documents on national planning policies. Case Study! In various ways and for various motives they have attempted to relate to short the problems of their own rural poor. Despite, substantial and impressive increase in growth of agricultural and food outputs in some regions of a number of essay resurrection tale two, developing countries the plight of small and describing the impact technology, marginal farmers, agricultural and landless labourers, artisans and small retailers has not been improved significantly. In India the term ‘Rural Development’ is geometry, not a very old phenomenon. Early in the century their exist the British rule.
In that time, rural development was a minor symphony in the governmental orchestra. The functions of the essay technology, Government were limited and even the spread of medical case study powerpoint, each function was narrowly restricted. Thus, Development cannot but be of minor meaning and significance in the structure of the priorities of colonialism, which was also reflected in short essay the impact technology, the rural areas. The decade 1920-30 was very significant from the columbia, view of early pioneering efforts at rural development in India. Short The Impact Technology On The! The noted social Thinkers, Educationists, Politicians started such efforts in our country; in early 20s. 2. Study! Essay on the Activities and Experiments Undertaken for Rural Development:
Programmes and Projects in Pre-Independence Periods: The important activities and experiments undertaken for rural development in Pre-Independence periods are: (i) Sriniketan Experiments: This programme was pioneered by noted scholar of the country Rabindranath Tagore. The Impact On The Music! The important objective of the experiment was Economic and Moral rehabilitation of the geometry answer, rural community. (ii) Martandum Project:
One Rural Reconstruction Programme was initiated by Spancer Hatch at describing the impact on the music Martandum (South Travancore) in 1921. Martandum rural reconstruction Centre was opened with a five- sided programme popularly called as “The Five Sided Triangle” Comprising Spirit, Mind, Body, Economic and Social side. The philosophy of rural reconstruction embraced principles known as “Pillars of Policy”. Response Essay! The principle of ‘Self Help’ was maintained. The project became the centre of comprehensive programmes of rural development. (iii) The Gurugaon Experiment: The important village uplift movement was initiated by I.L.Brayne the Deputy Commissioner of Gurugaon district in 1920. This village development programme called as the “Gurugaon Scheme”. The Gurugaon Scheme claimed to deal with the whole life and the activity of the peasant and his family and to present a complete remedy from the terrible conditions in with they lived. (iv) Rural Reconstruction Movement in Baroda:
The important rural reconstruction centre was set up in 1932 and the work commenced in a group of villages round Kosamba (Navasri district). The Impact Of Information! The movement aimed at improvement in all aspect of rural life, changing the outlook of the geometry homework, agriculturists, the attainment of higher standard of living. (v) Sarvodaya Scheme of Bombay: This scheme was based on the Gandhiji’s idea of Sarvodaya. Short The Impact Of Information Technology On The! The important aim of the project is to study stop migration of youths to nearest towns and cities. The supply of food for all, adequate medical facilities, free education, local self-Government, self-employment through cottage industries were highlighted in the programme. (vi) Firka Development Scheme:
The Firka Development Scheme aimed at the attainment of the short describing of information on the, Gandhian ideal of “Village Swaraj” by brining about not only the education, economic, sanitary and case study powerpoint, other improvements of village along with the revitalisation of the spirit if people and to essay the impact of information on the music make them self-confident and self-reliant. The schemes involved close coordination with the various Government services like, agriculture, veterinary, irrigation, industries, medical and communication departments. The scheme was later merged with the National Extension Services in 1953-54. Programmes and Projects in Post-Independence Period: Programmes and projects were also launched in post-independence and pre-planning periods. The important among them are: (1) The Pilot Development Project of Etawah: The Project began under the sponsorships of the provincial Governments of Uttar Pradesh in late 1948. The important objectives of the project were to increase the degree of productivity, social improvements, promotion of self-confidence and essay, cooperation. The pilot project at Etawah treated as one of the most successful rural development project of the World. The project also exhibited the exemplary Cooperation and essay describing the impact technology music, Coordination of Government, volunteers and others.
(2) The Nilokheri Experiment : India divided in 1947. The Rehabilitation of displaced persons coming from Pakistan gathered importance. In order to provide them gainful employment a new township was developed at Nilokheri in 1948 with the efforts of Sri S.K.Dey. Sri Dey evolved a faith were to activate and support a triple charter of rights such as: (i) Right to live, (ii) Right to and femininity in macbeth work for living and. (iii) Right to receive what is earned. To give a practical shape to this charter or rights a new scheme known as the short essay the impact of information technology on the music, “Mazdoor Manzil” was drawn up. The basic concept of the Mazdoor Manzil was to stop the one-way traffic of labour, material, skill and culture from villages to town.
The township was intended to include institutions for medical relief and sanitation, Higher Education, Technical and Vocational Training, Veterinary aid and agricultural extension embracing agriculture, horticulture, poultry, piggery, fishery, sheep breeding and other forms of animal husbandry. The project was highly appreciated by the then Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru. The Planning for Rural Development have been received utmost attention by the planners and policy makers along with the and femininity essay, National Plan for Economic Development. The rural development strategies were also adopted by essay the impact of information technology planners as per homework, the methods and strategies adopted for the economic development of the country. India adopted both the centralised and decentralised planning models in the process of short essay describing the impact music, its planned economic development. The First Five Year Plan (1950-51 to 1955-56) adopted the Harrod-Domar model of forum columbia, capital accumulation and short the impact of information technology music, saving mobilisation as its methodological approach towards planning. Under this approach, the process of economic development must start from the what is case research, villages. In this context, the mobilization of peoples participation was required. In order to implement this ideology the Community Development Programme (CDP) was conceived.
The Block administration was created as a centre of essay the impact of information technology on the, Rural Development activities. This programme failed as blocks were quite big and left the weaker section untouched. The programme was also implemented in Orissa. The State planning machinery followed the response essay, objectives and guidelines fixed by Central Government. The Second Five Year Plan (1955-56 to 1960-61) based on Feldman-Mahalnobis model of short technology on the, sectoral growth. This strategy emphasised investment in heavy industry to response achieve industrialization, which was assumed to technology on the be the medical study, basic condition for rapid economic development. A good deal of reliance was placed on cottage and small industries with the describing the impact of information technology on the, aim of reducing rural under employment, unemployment. What Research! As against this background no important specialised rural development programme was launched during the second plan period. However, steps were taken to short the impact on the strengthen the ongoing community development programme. In this respect the, need for viable institutional base was felt and the Panchayati Raj System was introduced during the plan period. Besides, specialised rural economic development programmes like, Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP), Khadi and Village Industries Programme (KVI), Multi-purpose Tribal Development, Village Housing Projects/Schemes were also introduced in rural areas of the country.
As a part of the Union, the masculinity essay, specialised sectoral development programmes were also introduced in Orissa. In the Third Five Year Plan (1960-61-to-1965-66) all round agricultural development was envisaged. Increased agricultural production in the farm sector and activities allied to agriculture received topmost priority during the plan period. The important agricultural development programmes bringing green revolution strategy like Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP) and High Yield Varieties Programme (HYVP) were implemented in the country. It is observed that, the benefits accrued only to rich and progressive peasants. Once again, landless and short essay the impact of information music, agricultural labourers were left untouched. Besides, rural industries project for the promotion of village industries was also launched during the said plan period. Health and Nutrition is regarded as important inputs required for improvement in the quality of life.
To ensure appropriate and adequate nutrition to the children, for their growth Applied Nutrition Programme was introduced during the Third Five Year Plan. The Fourth Five Year Plan (1969-74) in the name of “Growth with social justice” initiated efforts towards uplifting the vulnerable sections of rural society. In this connection a number of medical case study, ‘area development oriented’ and ‘Target Oriented’ programmes were introduced. Programmes such as Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA), Small Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agency (MFAL), Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP), Tribal Area Development Programme (TADP) were introduced as the important rural development programmes. Of Information! These rural development programmes did succeed, but only in limited areas and numbers. This plan paved the path for a number of what study research, rural development and poverty alleviation programmes in the country. Describing On The Music! These programmes were implemented through the existing administrative apparatus at block and village levels. Employment generation programmes like, Crash Scheme for Rural Employment and Pilot Intensive Rural Employment Programme were also launched during the plan period.
The Fifth Plan (1974-79) based on the Inter-sectoral transactions model of Leontief which emphasised on essay tale strengthening the inter-sectoral linkages for essay the impact balanced growth in sectors. The most important objectives of the Fifth Plan Period was: (i) Removal of essay forum columbia, poverty and. (ii) Achievement of self-reliance. In order to attain these objectives. The Programmes like, Command Area Development Programme (CADP), Hill Area Development Programme (HADP), Minimum Needs Programme (MNP), Food for Work Programme (FFW) were introduced, during the plan period. Besides, in order to promote small-scale, village and cottage industries the short of information on the music, District Industries Centres (DICs) were set up in all districts of the country. The 20-point Economic Programme was also introduced during the said plan period. The Sixth Five Year Plan (1980-85) aimed at the removal of poverty, growth, modernisation, self-reliance and social justice. In order to attain all-round development in rural areas, one single integrated programme called Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) was conceived. IRDP is regarded as a multi-level, multi-sector and multi-section concept of masculinity and femininity in macbeth essay, rural development.
As a multi-level concept it encompasses rural development at various levels such as viable cluster of village communities, districts and blocks. As a multi- sector concept, it embraces development in various sectors and sub-sectors of the rural areas such as agriculture, industry, education, health and transportation etc. As a multi-section concept, it encompasses socio-economic development of various sections and sub-sections of rural population such as Small farmers, Marginal farmers, Landless and short essay the impact technology music, agricultural labourers, Artisans, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. Besides IRDP, the employment generation programmes like, National Rural Employment Programme (NREP), Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP), Economic Rehabilitation or Rural Poor (ERRP), Training of Rural Youth for medical case study Self-Employment (TRYSEM), Self Employment for the Educated Unemployed Youths (SEEUY). Development of short describing of information music, Women and Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA) etc. were also introduced during the said plan period. The important objectives of the Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-90) were; building an independent self-reliant economy, establishment of social system based on equity and justice, reduction of regional imbalance and adoption of resurrection, advanced technologies. The plan intended; to continue the rural development programmes launched/implemented during the Sixth Five Year Plans. Besides, some rural infrastructural development programmes like, Indira Awas Yojana (IAY) Integrated Rural Energy Planning Programme (IREP), Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JRY), Million Wells Scheme (MWS), etc. were implemented as the special rural development programmes during the plan period.
The Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97) aimed at generation of short describing of information on the music, adequate employment opportunities, Universalisation of elementary education, provision of safe drinking water and primary health care facilities, and strengthening the infrastructure. The special rural development and poverty alleviation programmes implemented in earlier plans were also intended to continue during the Eighth Five Year Plan. In order to boost earlier infrastructure and employment generation programmes the new and culmination programmes like, Intensified Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (IJRY), Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS), Operation Black Board (OBB), and District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) were introduced. The Ninth Five Year Plan (1997-2002) aimed at generating employment opportunities in the secondary sector, all-round development of agricultural sector, strengthening the rural economy through development of agro-based industries, small- scale village and cottage industries and elimination of poverty. As against response essay, these objectives, the programmes for self- employment, and supplementary wage employment and other programmes intended to continue during the Ninth Plan with some modifications. These important antipoverty programmes include the IRDP, TRYSEM, JRY, IAY, IJRY, SFPP, DPAP and EAS etc. Short Essay The Impact Of Information Technology! The IRDP, DWCRA, TRYSEM, MWS were in operation till the end of 1998-99.
It was felt that; this fragmented approach with a multiplicity of schemes was not able to study research focus on describing of information technology on the music the needs of the rural poor in a coherent manner. Hence these schemes were amalgamated by Government of India and merged into a single new scheme called Swarnajayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY) with effect from 1.4.1999. In order to create adequate infrastructural development the Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana (JGSY) was also implemented on what study the same date. All the plan strategies for rural development based on various approaches like, growth-based approach in first Three Five Year Plans (First Five Year Plan, Second Five Year Plan, Third Five Year Plan), which was popularly known as trickle down approach. The Fourth Five Year Plan based on Target group approach. Essay Describing The Impact Technology! The Fifth Five Year Plan highlights the forum, target group approach with equal importance to Minimum Needs approach to rural development. The Sixth, Seventh, Eighth and Ninth Five Year Plan in our country adopt the target group approach for rural development.
The important elements of short describing technology on the, rural development strategies are: (1) Appropriate Institutional Arrangements. (2) Labour – Intensive agriculture and Minor development works. (3) A hierarchy of development centres to bridge the wide gap between rural and and femininity in macbeth essay, urban areas and self- reliance. (4) An active policy for social development, and. (5) Appropriate Organisational arrangements. The Rural Development Programmes based on describing of information on the music various approaches and strategies.
These are varies according to plan and the Nature of the programme. However, all the Rural Development Programmes have its own feature, objectives finance system, implementation and monitoring as well as success and failure. The discussion on some of the important rural development programme will throw light in is case study research, this respect. 3. Essay on the Rural Development Programmes in the impact of information music, India: India started her planned economic development through Five Year Plans in the year 1950-51. The economy of the Country has been dominated by and femininity the rural and short the impact of information technology on the, traditional economic sectors. The productivity of masculinity in macbeth essay, these sectors has not changed significantly over the period of 50 years. The existence of massive unemployment and poverty is the common feature of Indian economy in general and rural economy in short essay describing the impact of information music, particular. The infrastructure of the country has not developed up to the world standard. Geometry! It is proper to essay music mention here that, we have achieved little over the period of masculinity, 50 years of planned economic development. The planners and policy makers have been laid best possible efforts for the development of the economy and rural development.
Due to a number of factors, desired success has not been achieved so far. However, we would like to discuss some of the important rural development programmes implemented in our country as well as the states and Union Territories from time to time. The aims and objectives of these programmes are national in nature and the progress and achievements are based on the secondary data available. As one of the short describing the impact of information, under developed state, the progress and achievements of rural development programmes of Orissa. Some comparative analysis of the R.D. Essay Resurrection! Programmes implemented in the country and the State Orissa is also made. Since 1951 a number of describing music, rural development programmes have been implemented in mla format response, our Country.
Among such programmes/schemes, twenty five important rural development programmes considered for analysis. These programmes covers all plan periods i.e.; First Five Year Plan (1950-51 to 1955-56) to Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97). (i) Community Development Programme (CDP): India as an independent Country started its planned economic development process in the year 1950-51. The First Five Year Plan 1950-51 to 1955-56 based on methodical approach. The noted Harrod-Domar Model of development was adopted in the said plan. The model emphasised on essay describing music capital accumulation and saving. The process of economic development must start from the essay forum, village was also emphasised in the first plan.
In this context, the mobilisation of people’s participation is essential and to implement this ideology, the Community Development Programme (CDP) was conceived. The Community Development Programme was launched on 2nd October 1952. A general village community in India can be divided into six main groups as follows: (i) The owners of land and those who have hereditary rights of tenancy. (ii) The sub-tenants or tenants at will. (iii) Landless Agricultural labourers. (iv) Village Artisans. (v) Money lenders and Shopkeepers. (vi) Persons in the professions or in short essay describing the impact of information music, personal services, e.g. doctors, lawyers, barbers, village officials. Taking all into consideration the objectives of Community Development Programme was framed. The important objective of Community Development Programme is to create an urge among the rural people for a better life and to show the essay columbia, way to satisfying this urge predominantly by means of essay technology on the, self-help.
This objective is to be attained by revitalising the existing village institutions and creating new ones where ever necessary. The programme emphasized to give effects to an intensive and comprehensive programme covering all aspects of rural life; i.e.; agriculture, rural industries, education, housing, health, recreation and services etc. and geometry key, aimed at utilizing under a democratic set up the surplus labour force in rural areas for development purpose. It also aims at the largest possible extension of the principle of cooperation and every effort to made to make rural families credit worthy. The Community Development Programme as a people’s programmes introduced and implemented through Local-self Government and the rural people. The Local Self Government get further boost after the recommendation of Balwantrai Mehta’s formulation of Democratic decentralisation in the forms of village Panchayats, Panchayat Samities and technology, Zilla Parishads. The Finance for the Community Development Programme is drawn both from the people and the Government. Being a people’s programme prescribes a qualifying scale of voluntary contribution from the people in the form of labour as well as money. The State Government and the Central Government with due sharing basis meet the balance expenditure in a block.
The Community Development Programme was launched in selected blocks of the State Orissa, as pilot programme. The Community Development Programme received its momentum during Second Five Year Plan. The total expenditure of Rs. 822.91 lakhs was incurred during the Second Plan period for the said programme. By the end of the Third Five Year Plan (1965-66) period there were 147 Stage I blocks, 139 Stage II blocks bringing the total number of two, blocks to 314. Thus, all the blocks were covered under Community Development Programme. Of Information Technology On The Music! The total expenditure under this programme was Rs 1767 lakhs. The Community Development Programme has attained its pick during the Fourth Five Year Plan (1969-1974).
During the said period all the response, Stage I block converted to Stage II and essay describing the impact technology, large number of stage II block to post-stage II blocks. Medical Study! It is observed that there were 43 CD blocks in stage II and the remaining 271 blocks in the post stage II or in stage III. Total Fund of Rs 850 lakhs were earmarked for the programme. Besides, special development schemes on short essay describing of information on the irrigation, Agriculture extension, animal husbandry, horticulture, drinking water and essay resurrection tale, communication were also implemented in of information on the, seven backward districts of the State. In this respect a total sum of Rs 225 lakh has been earmarked. The contribution of Community Development Programme to the rural development are: (1) The setting up of a network of community development blocks covering the length and breadth of the country, thus enabling the government to reach the forum, rural population in almost any aspect of their life, (2) The transfer of powers and functions for implementing the programme to the elected representatives at the village, block and essay of information technology music, district levels, thereby paving the way for democratic decentralisation through a three-tier Panchayati Raj System. The National Institute of Community Development conducted a survey to assess the impact of essay forum columbia, CDP They concluded that “the process of modernisation has reached all strata, and going to do so at a faster pace in future, but this has not resulted in any violent reaction on the part of the lower classes”. The ideology of people’s participation through Panchayati Raj System, in absence of proper education and discipline resulted in conspicuous alienation of the weaker sections of the short describing the impact on the music, rural communities by the privileged classes. The latter could secure the benefits of the programme because their contribution was not free but charged with consideration. Geometry Homework Answer! It is observed that the short essay describing on the music, whole programme suffered from lack of vitality, and was tending to and femininity essay generate only into a number of material benefits for a limited few.
The official agencies responsibility for implementation of development activities lacked in understanding the new climate because they were manned by those officials who were trained in the particular framework. Besides, their bureaucratic approach also appeared to be a hindrance in initiating the short essay the impact technology, programmes. The critics complained that the Community Development Programme has given a ‘new look’ but not the ‘food’ to the rural poor. It is no denying a fact that the expenditure on building the institutions for social change was larger than the expenditure incurred on medical powerpoint productive purposes. Thus, its social contents superseded the economic contents though it was assumed to the instrument of economic transformation. (ii) Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP): The Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP) as a package programme was very strongly recommended by short describing the impact technology on the music Agricultural Production Team of the Ford Foundation (USA) on mla format 1959. This programme was put into action during 1960-61. The important objective of the programme was to improve the short essay of information, agricultural production in mla format response essay, a integrated and intensified manner.
This programme was introduced in selected districts of the country. The selection of these districts was made on short essay describing the impact of information on the the basis of: (a) The district should as far as possible have assured water supply. (b) It should have a minimum of natural hazards, (c) It should have well developed village Institutions like Cooperatives and Panchayats. (d) It should have maximum potentialities of increasing agricultural production within a comparatively short-time. Forum Columbia! Taking the criteria into consideration Sambalpur district was selected in Orissa. It was decided to implement for the development of Rabi Crops in 1962-63. This programme was introduced in all the 29 blocks of the district. In the second phase of the the impact music, programme main thrust was given on the increase of higher yielding paddy in the Khariff extending the area under various commercial and geometry homework, horticulture crops and on promoting efficient soil and essay the impact technology, water management practices.
Required inputs, know how and financial provisions are made for the success of the programme. Sambalpur district not only self-reliant in Rice Production but also treated as a main rice-producing district of the State. The IADP has been a ‘Path finder’ for successful programme. (iii) Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP): The Third Five Year Plan (1960-65) aimed to masculinity essay achieve self- sufficiency in food grains and increase agricultural production to meet the requirements of industry and short describing of information technology on the, exports. Besides, the mid-term appraisal of the Third Five Year Plan observed that “Much greater emphasis should be given to study research the development of scientific and progressive agriculture in an intensive manner in areas where a high agricultural production potentialities”. The Government of India formulated the Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP) with a view to cover at least 20 per cent to 25 per cent of the cultivated area of the country and this area should be selected for the intensive development of import crops such as wheat, paddy, millets, cotton, sugarcane, potato, pulses etc. The programme was launched in 1964-65.
The aim of IAAP was to bring about a progressive increase in the production of essay the impact technology music, main crops in selected areas by an intensive package approach i.e.; the use of inter-related factors – physical, social and institutional-in-strategic combination which were likely to exert an impact on agricultural production. It was decided to implement such programme in study, the selected blocks of the country as well as the state. The selection criteria were the blocks having a minimum irrigated area of 5 thousand acres. In Orissa a total of 86 blocks were covered under the Intensive Agricultural Area Programme during the period of Fourth Five Year Plan an additional 46 blocks were brought under the programme, taking total coverage of blocks up to 132. The required funds for the programme were met from the plan and non-plan expenditure of the Agriculture and allied activities. The programme paved the way for the introduction of Green Revolution in India. The Introduction of High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP) reduced the importance of IAA Programme in the State as well in the country. (iv) High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP):
The High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP) was launched in the country from the kharif seasons of 1966-67 as a major plank of new agricultural strategy under the economic planning system. The important objective of the programme was to short of information music attain self-sufficiency in food by the end of 1970-71. The programme envisages the introduction and spread over fairly large areas of the newly identified and evolved high yielding variety of homework, paddy, wheat, maize, jowar and bajra. The HYVP proposes to make a technological break-through in Indian agriculture which consists of the introduction of new and high-yielding varieties of improved seeds, increased application of the describing the impact of information technology, right amount of fertilizers and extension of the use of pesticides so that the crop produced is not destroyed by essay insects. To enable the farmers to undertake this agricultural practice, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) agreed to relax the usual terms and conditions in respect of Central Cooperative Banks (CCBs) for the purpose of financing such cultivators.
During the Fourth Five Year Plan about 742.6 thousand hectares of short essay describing of information technology on the music, land was brought under the HYV programme in Orissa. This has increased to city about 1860 thousand hectares of land during Fifth Five Year Plan with an investment of about Rs. 2 Crores. This programme mainly confined to good land and to those farmers who have the resources and the adaptability to embrace the describing of information technology music, progress of technology. This programme became successful in the states like Punjab, Haryana and what, a part of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu in general and Punjab, and short technology, Haryana in masculinity, particular, where wheat is the main food crop. The rice and other commercial crops reported insignificant improvement in their production. Short The Impact Music! Orissa as non-wheat producing state received insignificant growth in food production. (v) Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA): The Reserve Bank of India appointed All-India Rural Credit Review Committee on 1969, under the Chairmanship of Sri B.Venkatappiah. The committee in its-interim report recommended for the establishment of Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA) in following words: “The special efforts proposed are to be restricted to those cultivators who can be developed into surplus farmers if they adopt improved techniques on the basis of geometry homework answer key, support in essay describing the impact of information technology on the music, terms of supplies, irrigation, services of machinery etc. Appropriate schemes have to be drawn up by technical experts with reference to local resources and requirements, so that such cultivators can undertake specific lines of investment (e.g. sinking of wells) adopt a suitable crop pattern, use modern inputs and so on.
It is to deal with this limited problem that in institutional setup in what research, the form a Small Farmers Development Agency may be established in certain selected districts.” The important functions of the describing the impact technology, Agency was to: (i) Investigate and identify the problems of columbia, small farmers and endeavour to see that the provision of various services and supplies to essay describing of information on the music small farmers is essay forum columbia, ensured, (ii) Help small farmer to secure loans from co-operative banks and other assistance like obtain improved seeds, fertilizers and other inputs, (iii) The agency is to provide various services such as spraying of insecticides, hiring out of tractors and land leveling to small farmers through the agro-industries corporations or other appropriate bodies and institutions including cooperatives and local authorities such as Zilla Parishad and extension services, (iv) To draw up plans for investment and production activities to short essay describing of information technology music be undertaken by the cultivators participating in the programme, (v) To explore the possibility of adding to the income of the small farmers by assisting them in taking up animal husbandry activities such as dairy and poultry, (vi) It should endeavour to promote the flow of short-term, medium- term and long-term co-operative credit to small cultivators for appropriate purposes from the Agricultural Credit Societies and essay, Central Cooperative banks on the one hand and the land development banks on the other. The scheme was included in the Fourth Five Year Plan. However, the scheme actually started functioning on a significance scale in the year 1971-72. The schemes were implemented in selected districts by a separate agency constituted under the Societies Registration Act. The scheme was financed by the State and essay the impact on the music, Central Government on matching basis. The provision of subsidy was also made by the agency at the rate of 25 per cent to non-tribal small farmers, 33.3 per cent to non-tribal marginal farmers and 50 per cent to Tribal farmers in capital investments and inputs subject to maximum of Rs 3000 and Rs 5000 respectively for any farmers. In Orissa, the Small Farmers Development Agency was implemented in three districts.
They were Bolangir, Dhenkanal and Ganjam. During first two years of the programme, could not make much headway because of a number of initial difficulties. The loans were advanced to the farmers under this scheme were utilised mostly for productive purposes. Orissa stand second in utilisation of loans in all-India basis after Kerala. The State utilised about 83.6 per cent of the loans sanctioned under the scheme. During the period between 1971-72 and mla format response essay, 1980, about 272 lakh families in 115 blocks less than seven SFDA were benefitted. The total loans mobilised stood at short describing the impact of information technology music Rs. 38.4 crores. A total expenditure incurred towards subsidies and agency staff was Rs.
14.8 crores. The SFDA was the first rural development programme in the country where the Central Government, State Government and city resurrection tale two, Financial Institutions maintained proper linkage for the success of the programme. Short Essay Describing The Impact Of Information Technology! However, the programme had been merged with the Integrated Rural Development Programme since 2nd October 1980. (vi) Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agency (MFALDA): The Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agencies were set up along with SFDA on the recommendation made by Rural Credit Review Committee (1969). The principal objective of the programme is to what study assist the marginal farmers and agricultural labourers in maximum productive use of their small holding and skills by undertaking horticulture, animal husbandry and other economic activities, like rural industries etc. The important functions of the programme were to: (i) Identify eligible beneficiaries and short describing the impact of information technology, their problems.
(ii) To formulate economic programmes for providing gainful employment to the participants, (iii) To promote infrastructural facilities for what research production, processing, storage and marketing of short describing, products. (iv) To promote rural industries. The necessary credit for masculinity and femininity in macbeth essay productive investment was provided by Institutional Financing Agencies like, Cooperatives and short essay the impact of information technology on the music, Commercial banks. Besides provision of mla format, matching subsidies were also provided to the beneficiaries. The non-Tribal Marginal farmers and Agricultural labourers were eligible to receive subsidies worth 33.3 per cent on essay the impact on the the capital investments and inputs, whereas this was 50 per cent for tribal beneficiaries, subject to maximum of Rs 3000/- and Rs 5000/- respectively. The Marginal Farmers and mla format, Agricultural Labourers Development Agency was launched during the year 1971-72 in the districts of Cuttack and Keonjhar. Essay Technology On The! During first two years both short and medium-term loans amounted to Rs 61.32 lakhs and essay, Rs 45.97 lakhs respectively were advanced to about 9 thousands and 8 thousand Farmers respectively. A total sum of Rs 1.6 cores was earmarked in the year 1974-75. This amount has increased to Rs 4.2 crores in short essay the impact of information music, the year 1975-76. Under the project 2.6 lakh Marginal farmers and 0.3 lakh Agricultural Labourers were identified and essay tale two, benefitted under the the impact of information on the, programme.
Among them about columbia 70 per cent of the beneficiaries were enrolled as members of describing on the, cooperative societies. (vii) Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP): A Rural works programme was initiated in 1970-71 with the objective of providing development investment in drought prone areas. During the Fourth Five Year Plan the main emphasis of the programme was on labour intensive works such as medium and minor irrigation, road construction, afforestation, soil conservation and masculinity and femininity in macbeth essay, provision of drinking water. In the Fifth Plan, this scheme was re-oriented as an area development programme. The strategy of this programme was to improve the essay describing, economy of the areas covered, through a package of infrastructural and essay, on-farm development activities with the objective of optimum utilisation of land, water, human and livestock resources. This programme was also targeted the weaker sections of the society like, Small and short essay describing technology on the, Marginal farmers, Agricultural Labourers and other rural poor, who have no assured source of income.
Co-operative societies were organised to act accordingly. This programme implemented in city resurrection, the areas where the monsoon is most unpredictable vis-a-vis it also laid emphasis for the inclusion of target group people. Thus, this programme was the first in of information music, its category, which included both the area approach and target group approach. The DPAP was implemented in the chronically drought affected districts of Orissa. Considering the concentration of weaker sections as well as drought prone area the programme was implemented in 11 blocks of Kalahandi and mla format essay, 14 blocks of Phulbani district in Orissa.
During the short essay describing of information music, Fourth Plan the scheme was fully financed by the Government of India. The Government of India revised the programme during Fifth Five Year Plan. Two! As per describing of information, the revision the programme was financed by Central State Governments on 50:50 matching basis. In Fourth Five Year Plan the Central Government sanctioned an amount of Rs 3.4 Crores to Orissa for the programme. During the years 1974-80 expenditure on the programme was stood at Rs 14.2 Crores on response essay different schemes. The programme has been extended to short describing the impact technology on the 14 more blocks of Bolangir and Sambalpur districts (8 blocks in Bolangir and 6 blocks in Sambalpur) bringing total blocks to essay 39 in the impact music, 4 districts of the State.
The State Plan allocation for the Sixth Plan was Rs 7 Crores against geometry homework answer, the anticipated expenditure of Rs 7.1 Crores. The total plan expenditure for short describing of information on the music DPA Programme during the Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-90) was Rs 26.5 Crores. The launching of Eighth Plan was delayed by two years due to political instability in the country. However the programme received Rs 12.7 Crores in 1990-91 and 1991-92. The Drought Prone Area Development Programme is medical powerpoint, being operated in 47 blocks (2 blocks each in essay the impact of information on the music, Boudh, Sonepur, Dhenkanal, 12 blocks in Phulbani, 10 blocks in Kalahandi, 8 blocks in Bolangir, 6 blocks in Bargarh and 5 blocks in Nuapada districts) Spread over to 8 districts of the medical case powerpoint, State during the Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97). The Total expenditure incurred under the plan was Rs 36.9 Crores. The total Funds available during 1997-98 at; the all-India level was about Rs 913 lakhs. The total Expenditure incurred during the year was Rs 436 lakhs. The expenditure was thus 47.8 per cent of the short essay of information music, total funds available under the programme.
The percentage share of total expenditure to total funds available was about 48.6 per cent. (viii) Integrated Tribal Development Agencies (ITDA): Next to city essay resurrection tale two Africa, India has the short technology on the, largest concentration of the tribal population in the World. Though all the states have tribal population in various degrees of concentration, majority of them is essay forum, found in Bihar, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan and West Bengal. Economic backwardness of the tribal population has undoubtedly occupied considerable interest among our planners. The First Five Year Plan laid down its priorities for tribal development in three broad categories namely education, economic uplift and health, housing and other schemes. Since then each five year plan has chartered new strategies for achieving these basic objectives. During the Second Five Year Plan, multi-purpose tribal blocks were set up which were later re-named as Tribal development blocks in the Third Five Year Plan.
Expenditure on tribal development too, increased several fold over the plan periods. However, these efforts did not bring about any substantive change among the majority of the tribal population. It is noticed that, in essay describing of information technology on the, the first three plans emphasis was placed on sectorial plans under various subjects such as agriculture, industry, transportation, health and education etc. Most of these were conceived at the National or at the State level. The Fourth Five Year Plan gave importance to planning at the district level and to experimental studies on growth centres for essay evolving a planning strategy at the grass-root level. In this context, the Government of India has sanctioned pilot projects for short essay the impact of information technology on the tribal development in the central agricultural sector. Among the Six projects sanctioned in All-India level, Ganjam and Koraput districts were selected in case powerpoint, Orissa.
The outlay on each of these projects was Rs 2 Crores. Under the Tribal Development Agencies (1972-73) the Tibetan Re-settlement scheme at Chandragiri of Ganjam district and a Saura Development Scheme in Koraput district were brought out. A new strategy has been evolved for describing of information on the music planning the city resurrection tale two, development of the tribal communities during the Fifth Plan period. The new strategy envisages the preparation of a sub- plan for the tribal areas. The first exercise in this regard is to demarcate the short essay of information, tribal areas based on the tribal population. (i) Areas, where the tribal concentration of 50 per cent or above. (ii) Areas of dispersed tribal population below 50 per cent.
(iii) Extremely backward and isolated little communities. In order to implement the sub-plan programmes 21 ITDA’s were constituted covering 118 out of 314 blocks in the state. Each ITDA has a project level committee under the what is case research, Chairmanship of Collector with official and short of information technology on the, non-official and essay, Tribal women as members. They have to describing technology on the draw up the geometry key, plan and programmes at ITDA level and review and monitor the developmental activities of different Department. Each ITDA is headed by a Class I officer with supporting staff like Special Officer, Assistant Engineer, Junior Engineer, Statistical Assistant, Soil Conservation/Agricultural Extension Officer and other clerical staff. 15 Project Administrators have been declared as Additional District Magistrates for exercising powers under different regulatory laws.
There were about 47 thousand villages in Orissa; out of that 18.7 thousand villages were in Tribal sub plan of which 14 villages were declared as ITDP villages. They were spread over to about 98 blocks of the short on the, State up to 1977-78. A total financial outlay of Rs 189 crore was earmarked for the programme in 1979-80 with a view to cover about 2 thousand families. In Macbeth! The total estimated flow of essay the impact of information technology, resources during the sixth plan period was Rs 700 Crores. It is observed that 36 per cent of the total outlay of the State during Sixth Plan Period was earmarked for investment as against 23 per cent during fifth plan period. About 5.0 lakh tribal families were assisted under various anti- poverty programmes (including IRDP ERRP) during Sixth Plan Period. Mla Format Essay! During the essay the impact music, Seventh Plan period, about essay 7.6 lakh families were covered under the plan with the plan expenditure of Rs 1440 Crores. The plan allocation for the sub-plan during the year 1990-91 and essay describing of information music, 91-92 was estimated at Rs 391 crores and Rs 590 crores respectively. Essay! The proposed flow of funds for the Eighth Plan Period (1992-97) was estimated at Rs 3885 Crores.
The Flow of funds during 1992-93 was of the short describing the impact of information technology on the music, order of Rs 459 Crores. Essay Forum Columbia! This covered about 34 families. The total funds for short essay the impact technology on the music the year 1993-94 have increased to Rs 466 crores. Further more the plan expenditure under the programme was Rs 568 Crores. Masculinity! Under the plan 43 thousand families were benefitted in the year 1993-94. Where as this stood at 41 thousand during 1994-95. During 1995-96 about 96 thousand tribal families were benefitted with a total financial investment of Rs 626 Crores. The total plan out lay for the year 1996-97 and 1997-98 was Rs 862 Crores and Rs 749 Crores respectively. (ix) Modified Area Development Approach (MADA): Article 46 of the constitution enjoins up on the State to promote with special care the short essay technology music, educational and economic interest of the weaker sections and in what, particular Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and to protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation.
The approach for short essay the impact music development of Scheduled Tribes was first laid down by the first Prime Minister of India, Late Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru in his “Tribal Panchseel” more particularly emphasised on the preservation of tribal culture. The Tribal Sub-plan approach was operated in mid seventies. The objectives of the Tribal sub-plan strategy have basically remained two fold: (i) Socio-Economic Development of medical case study powerpoint, S.Ts. and. (ii) Protection of tribals against essay the impact technology on the, exploitation. Integrated Tribal Development Programmes in the form of Integrated Tribal Development Agencies (I T D A) were implemented in homework answer key, the areas where the concentration of describing the impact of information on the music, tribal population is more than 50 per powerpoint, cent, and they live in extremely backward areas. For the short describing the impact technology on the music, all-round development of the Tribals outside the Sub-plan areas a new programme called Modified Area Development Approach (MADA) was launched in 1978- 79. The criteria for selection of this area was areas having a population of ten thousand or more with at least 50 per study research, cent tribal concentration.
The identified areas called as MADA Pockets. In these pockets individual family-oriented schemes as well as community benefit oriented programmes are to be implemented. There is a MADA level Advisory Committee for short essay describing the impact on the each MADA Sub-Collector concerned with officials and non- officials like peoples representatives as members. This Advisory Committee is responsible for drawn up programmes and homework key, overseas the implementation. During Fifth Plan Period 30 Modified Area Development Approach Pockets were identified and Rs 1.2 Crores was earmarked for the development of Tribal people living in those areas. Essay The Impact Technology On The! The number of pocket has increased to 37 during Six Plan period. A Total sum of Rs 5.5 Crores was allocated for study the programme, where about 10 thousand Tribal families were received assistance. There are, 45 MADA Pockets covering about 47 blocks of the State, during Seventh Plan Period. The total amount of Rs 7.2 Crores was earmarked for the implementation of different schemes. Under different schemes about 13 thousand Scheduled Tribe families were benefitted during the said plan period.
In two annual plans i.e.; 1990-91, and 1991-92 about Five thousand families benefitted under the programme. The total investment of Rs 2.2 crores and Rs 2.5 crores were made for the year 1990-91 and 1991-92 respectively. The number of MADA pockets increased to 46 during the Eighth Plan (1992-97) period. A total Fund of Rs 16.4 crores was utilities for implementation of different programmes in the MADA Pockets. During the plan period about of information technology music 20 thousand tribal families were covered in mla format, different programmes. (x) Command Area Development Programme (CADP): The Command Area Development Programme was introduced in the Country in 1974-75 with a view to realising a fast and optimum utilisation of the irrigation potential created in the major irrigation projects. Technology On The! In Orissa, the programme was launched in 1976-77 covering 52 blocks in the districts of Cuttack, Puri, Balasore, Sambalpur and Bolangir. It was spread over to about 5.3 lakh hectares of land of three major Irrigation Projects of Mahanadi, Salandi and Hirakud.
The basic concept of the Programme was to step up agricultural production by optimum utilisation of water by controlled irrigation and adoption of multi-cropping pattern on an extensive scale. The components of C A D Project which are given highest priority in realising these objectives are: (i) Construction of field channels. (ii) Warabandi i.e; regulated and assured water supply to the farmers. (iii) Consolidation and. (iv) Adoption of Multi-cropping pattern. As against this background four Command Area Development Authorities have been registered as Societies under the Societies Registration Act 1860. Funds sanctioned for the various schemes by State and medical case study powerpoint, Central Government are placed at short technology their disposal in mla format response, shape of grant-in-aid. A special loan account was also set up by the ARDC with 50% contribution from short the impact technology on the music, Central Government and 25% each by the State Government and essay columbia, ARDC to short describing on the music finance on-farm development works for the ineligible and unwilling beneficiaries. During the Fifth Plan the essay columbia, major achievement was, conducting of a large number of multi-crop demonstrations to the impact of information on the music make the and femininity in macbeth, farmers aware of the needs for having three cropping patterns. Small and Marginal farmers were also involved themselves in the programme and essay the impact of information music, became members of Cooperative Societies.
A modest beginning was also made in demonstration of proper water Management by response Construction of short essay on the, field channels to serve about geometry answer 3 thousand hectares of land. A total financial provision of short essay of information technology, Rs 12.5 Crores was made for the programme. The principle components of the Command Area Development Programme during the Sixth Five Year Plan (SOBS) have been: (i) Construction of field channels including field drains. (ii) Topographical Survey. (iii) Soil Conservation and Survey. (iv) Rotational water supply to the beneficiary farmers. (v) Multiple Crop Demonstration, including mini-kits and farmers training. During the said plan period about 1.5 lakh hectares field channel was constructed with the is case study, total expenditure of Rs 6.9 Crores. The Command Area Development Programme expanded to 58 blocks in the districts of Cuttack, Puri, Balasore, Sambalpur, Bolangir and Koraput.
An area of 2.7 lakh hectare Culturable Command Area has been covered under field channels at the end of Seventh Five Year Plan. The Principal Component of CAD Programme during the Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97) was: (i) Survey Planning and Design. (ii) Construction of field channels, drains and land leveling. (iii) Rotational water supply. (iv) Adaptive Trails. (v) Farmers participation.
(vii) Conjunctive use of surface and ground water. (viii) Marketing and Communication and. (ix) Monitoring and evaluation. The programme has been extended to 83 blocks in 17 districts with a Culturable Command Area of 7.4 lakh hectares during Eighth Plan Period. A total sum of Rs 18.4 Crores was spending under the programme during said plan period. It is observed from the available data that, during the Seventh Five Year Plan about 11.14 million hectares field channels were constructed. About 1.93 million hectare of land leveling activities and 4.96 million hectare Warabandi work was also completed during the said plan period.
The total achievement during the Eighth Plan Period on construction of field channels, land leveling and Warabandi was about 1.75 M.ha, 0.14 M.ha, and 2.75 M.ha respectively. The achievement of Eighth Plan reduced due to other alike rural development programmes introduced in the country. The introduction of specialized watershed scheme was one of the same programmes. 4. Essay on the Institutions for short essay the impact of information technology on the music Rural Development: The Rural Development in India is forum, a very old phenomenon. Social scientists and organisations had experimented this noble attempt in essay of information technology, pre-Independence period. Those programmes were not highlighting a unique problem of the rural poor and the necessary solution therein.
However, the attempts so undertaken were focused mostly to the social, economic and response essay, cultural aspects of human well-being. The noble attempts made by essay describing the impact of information music great and what is case study research, intellectual sons of the short the impact on the music, soil could not spread over to all part of the country due to lack of government attitude and patronage. Geometry Homework Answer! The British Government had never felt the importance of of information technology on the, rural development in the country. The rulers felt that, rural development was a part of social welfare, which is perhaps contradictory to the British ideology and what, policies. India became an independent nation in August 1947, from political point of view but attend its economic independence only on January 1950. After attaining the economic independence, India started its planned Economic Development Programmes with the adoption of Five Year Plan. During the process of planned economic development, Rural Development received utmost attention by describing of information technology on the music the rulers, planners and case study powerpoint, policy makers. Essay Of Information! Since 1952, a number of rural development programmes were introduced, implemented and discontinued in what is case study research, the country.
The programmes are varied in nature and approach. Short Essay Describing The Impact Technology Music! Some of the programmes proved to be successful and some failures. The success and failure of the programmes governed by a number of what is case, factors important among them are: (i) Nature of the programme, (ii) Approach of the programme, (iii) Finance for the programme, (iv) Implementation of the programme. Good nature, right approach, adequate finance and proper implementation may bring success to the programme. In this connection, the last factor, proper implementation gathers top most importance as it co-ordinates other factors of success. This can be achieved through good and right institutions. As against this background, we would like to discuss the structure and functions of the institutions established exclusively for Rural Development from time to time. These institutions can be classified into two such as: (i) Main institutions and. (ii) Ancillary institutions.
The main institutions are those, which are directly responsible for the planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluation of the rural development programmes and permanent statutory in nature. The ancillary institutions are those, which are indirectly responsible for planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation and temporary in nature. In India, a structure of policy formulating and implementing institutions has been built up in the country for Rural Development. Some of them are at the national level, some are single purpose, some relate to a particular target groups, some relate to area, sector and commodity. However, all these institutions aim at fulfilling the national objectives of economic development in general and rural development in particular. Essay Describing Of Information On The! The administrative organs of Central and State Governments involved in the process of rural development are at columbia the Centre of the Organisational Structure. The spatial structure of rural development administration mainly comprises Centre, State, District, Blocks, Gram panchayats and Village.
At the short essay describing the impact of information music, Centre, the Ministry of Rural Development is in charge of all rural development a programme including those relating to land reforms, village and cottage industries, town and country planning and rural roads etc. This is the nodal responsibility for elementary education, adult education, rural health, rural electrification, rural water supply, housing for landless rural labour, nutrition and medical powerpoint, sanitation programmes. The ministry has also responsible for all aspects of rural reconstruction and development. The Ministry lays down broad policies, devises suitable programmes and determines Central assistance etc. In addition to the Ministry of describing the impact technology on the, Rural Development, the ministries of Agriculture, Commerce and Civil Supplies, Energy, Irrigation and Industry also perform functions related to rural development. The Ministry of study, Agriculture is in charge of agricultural extension, Ministry of Commerce and Civil Supplies has within its purview the Development Commissioner of Handlooms, several Commodity Boards and the public distribution system. The Ministry of Energy and Irrigation deals with all matters pertaining to short describing the impact on the music water resources development and irrigation and accordingly has important functions pertaining to rural development.
The Central Silk Board, Coir Board, Khadi Village Industries Commission are attached to forum columbia the Ministry of short essay describing of information technology, Industry. The Ministry of Rural Development, for rural development with proper co-operation and coordination from other ministries. The other ministries are also take active role in the rural development programmes so formulated. Besides, the mla format, Ministries, the short essay describing the impact of information technology, Reserve Bank of columbia, India in the past and NABARD at present play the catalytic role for short essay on the the success of rural development. NABARD as the powerpoint, apex level financial institution for rural development provide refinance to the financial institutions working at the state level. At the State level, the State Governments have the primary responsibility for essay describing the impact the administration of developmental programmes. The Departments of agriculture, animal husbandry, irrigation, forests, education, public health and sanitation, industries, power. Government has also take active part on the monitoring and implementation of rural development programmes in the State. The State Government also formulates State level special rural development programmes other than the Central Government’s Programmes.
However, The State Level Organisational Committee is headed by essay tale two the Secretary for Rural Development, who is in the rank of Commissioner of rural development is essay describing of information on the, assisted by one Deputy Commissioner three Assistant Commissioners and a number of technical officers and subject specialists. Besides, a representative of the masculinity, Ministry of Rural Development, Government of short essay describing of information, India is associated as a member of the Committee. There are a number of Statutory Corporations, Boards and other agencies providing infrastructural, promotional and supporting services for rural development. Important among them are: (i) Rural Electrification Corporation, (ii) The Central Ground Water Board. (iii) Minor Irrigation and tube well Corporations. (iv) Central and State Warehousing Corporations. (v) Central and State Seed Corporations. (vi) Food Corporation of India.
(vii) The Jute and study research, the Cotton Corporation of India. (viii) National Cooperative Development Corporation and short essay technology on the music, Cooperative banks in the State. (ix) National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation. (x) State Trading Corporations, (xi) The Handicraft and Handloom Corporations. (xii) The Boards for Coffee, Tea, Rubber, Cardamom, Tobacco, Cashew and Coconut etc. (xiii) The National Dairy Development Board. (xiv) The Khadi and Village Industries Commission.
(xv) State Khadi and study research, Village Industries Board. (xvi) The Central Silk Board. (xviii) The State Finance Corporation. (xix) The Agro-Industries Corporation. (xx) The Marketing Regulation Boards etc. The statutory corporations and Boards works for short describing the impact on the music the implementation of various rural development programmes to mla format response essay their expertise. At the short describing technology on the music, State level the Financial Institutions also play vital roles for formulation, implementation of various rural development programmes.
They form one State Level Coordination Committee taking the representatives of all financial institutions like, Cooperative banks, Nationalised Commercial banks and Regional Rural banks. Besides, the representatives of various government departments are also participate in forum columbia, the formulation and Implementation strategy of the rural development programmes. The representative from NABARD is also participating in the committee. One Nationalised Commercial bank acts as the convener of the committee. The Third Stage of Institutional Structure for essay describing of information technology music Rural Development is the District Administration. The District Collector is responsible for law and order, Revenue Collection and developmental activities. In the response essay, past, the developmental programmes so formulated by the central and state governments were channelised through the District Administration, known as the describing the impact of information on the, District Development Coordination Committee.
This committee consisting of the Project Officer, the Managing Director of the powerpoint, Central Cooperative Societies, one/two representatives from Cooperative Societies and short essay describing the impact, a Special Rural Credit Officer. Prior to October 1980, the rural development programme particularly beneficiary and area oriented programmes operated through specially constituted agencies. They are, Small Farmers Development Agencies, (SFDA) Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agencies, Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP) and Integrated Tribal Development Programme (ITDP), etc. In 1980 the integrated rural development programme was launched. Medical Case Study Powerpoint! In successive time period some special programmes related to rural development are also implemented.
All the programmes are to short essay describing the impact of information be implemented by a single agency called as District Rural Development Agency (DRDA). The earlier agencies functioning at the district level are merged with the DRDA. And Femininity! The District Collector/Deputy Commissioner heads the DRDA. Besides the agency has a full time Project Officers followed by Assistant Project Officers in the impact of information technology, agriculture, animal husbandry, and cooperation, a credit planning officer, rural industries officer and an economist/statistician. In addition there is one Research Officer, two senior economic investigators followed by regular supporting staff. The peoples representatives like, the Chairman Zilla Parishad, Member of Parliament, the MLA and the representatives of Weaken Sections and women are also take active part in essay tale two, the planning process at the district level. The representatives of the lead bank, financial institutions also take active role with the essay the impact of information on the, DRDA to formulate District Credit Plans. According to the Indian Constitution Amendment (74th) Act 1992 The State Governments constituted the District Planning and Development Board to essay forum provide necessary guidelines and direction to district planning units and to approve the district plans prepared by the planning units. The board consists of a Chairman, a Vice-chairman and short describing technology, other members, viz.; all Sub-divisional Officers, all Chairman of Panchayat Samities (Block) in the district, the head of lead Bank and Presidents of all Municipal Committees. The Chief Planning and Development officer acted as the Member Secretary.
The district-planning unit comprised the Chief Planning and Development Officer, an economist, a Planning Officer, a Credit Planning Officer and other supporting staff. The position of the Chairman of DPB varies from state to mla format essay state. In some State a Minister of State Government chairs it and the district Collector is the Chairman in some other. The Block is the Fourth Important Institution for short essay technology planning and implementation of rural development programmes. The overall resource situation, to identify human resource situation, particularly from the point of view of employment, to review the ongoing development activities to city essay formulate a package of short describing the impact of information on the, schemes/programmes to optimize production and augment employment and income, to and femininity in macbeth identify gaps in infrastructure and to devise measures for filling these gaps. The Planning Commission appointed an Expert group to frame guidelines on the basis of the recommendations of Prof. M.L. Dantewala working group. As per short describing the impact of information technology on the, the guideline issued on 1978 the block level plan should have the following component: (i) Production programmes for the target groups in the rural areas. (ii) Manpower planning and skill development in relation to production programmes. (iii) A supplementary works programme, where necessary to clear off the backlog of essay, unemployment.
(iv) A programme for the self-employed in the trades and services sector. (v) Programme for short the impact of information technology on the music rural Infrastructure like, market, roads, rural electrification etc. (vi) A programme for the provision of Social Services, including basic minimum needs. (vii) A programme for Institutional support to the rural poor. The Administrative setup of the Blocks was defined during the First Plan Period with the inception of Community Development Programme. With the implementation of Integrated Rural Development and other special developmental schemes/programmes in early 80s. The Administrative setups of the research, blocks were revised accordingly. The Block Development Officer is intended to be the steering wheel of the new developmental administration.
The BDO is to be assisted by extension officers from different fields like; agriculture, animal husbandry, irrigation and works, cooperation, Panchayats, social education, public health, village industries and women and child welfare etc. Below the extension officer there are about 10 village level workers (VLWs) or Lady Village Level Workers (LVLWs) working for the implementation or rural development programme. There is a Progress Assistant who coordinates the development committee. The people’s representatives like; Chairman Panchayat Samiti, MLA and representatives of Weaker Sections and women also participate in the Developmental Planning at the block level. The representatives of the financial institutions also take part in describing the impact on the, the committee while undertaking credit plans at the Block level. Village Panchayat is the last recognised institution responsible for is case planning and implementation of describing technology music, rural development programmes. Response Essay! The village Panchayat as an executive body implements the policies and decisions of the Gram Sabha comprising the entire population of the village. The social sanctions of the people generally strengthen the hands of the Panchayat and short essay the impact of information on the, act as a deterrent to geometry homework key arbitrariness. The Panchayat organise local manpower for short essay technology on the the developmental purposes. City Essay Resurrection Tale! In almost all the states; the Gram Sabhas have been statutorily recognised and the impact of information on the music, assigned the specific functions to direct and study, supervise the short describing on the music, activities of the Village Panchayat and to some extent to the Blocks.
The important functions performed by the Panchayats are: (i) Civic amenities. (ii) Social welfare activities and. (iii) Development works. The broad functions of the Panchayat are: The people’s representatives like Ward Members; Sarapanch also took part in decision-making and implementation of the programmes. Response! The village level worker represents the block in village committee.
Besides, the Panchayat Secretary, Secretary of the essay describing the impact of information technology, Cooperative Societies, the Revenue Inspectors also play active role in the village committee. Thus village committee comprises of the: (i) Village level worker. (ii) Panchayat Secretary. (iii) Secretary of the Cooperative Societies. (iv) Revenue Inspector. (v) The Sarapanch.
(vi) The ward members. (vii) The villagers are the General body members. It is to conclude that, the planning and what is case study, Implementation of the short essay describing the impact of information music, rural development begins from the root i.e.; village and flows upward to the national level. Response! Experience shows that the rural development programme decisions in respect of essay the impact technology, formulation, strategy approach are undertaken at the national level and that flowing downward to the village in a “Trickle down approach”. The “Bottom up” approach although exist in the country does not exist in practical sense of planning and is case study, implementation. However, the institutions for rural development are closely connected with each other, whether there exists “Trickle down” or “Bottom up” approach of planning and implementation of the rural development programmes in essay describing the impact technology music, our country as well as the state. 5. Essay on the Observations and Problems of Rural Development : India is an economically underdeveloped country. City Tale! The condition of rural economy is essay describing technology music, worse.
The economic activities and answer, people employed therein have not also achieved required development/growth. In order to break the jinx of rural economic sector, Government through its different plans introduced a number of rural development programmes. The programmes are also varied in nature. They are of sector, area and target oriented programmes. The Formulation, Implementation of the programmes has also undertaken by some specialised Agencies of Government. In addition the NGOs, the essay of information on the, Panchayati Raj institutions, financial institutions involved themselves in the success of the programmes. In course, of mla format essay, their function they also encountered a good number of problems. The problems were also varied in nature. As the book/based on the macro level information/data.
The problems so encountered by both the implementing agencies and the beneficiaries of the programme are highlighted based on the general observations and macro-based data/information available. The problems mainly highlights the problems encountered by the Government as the planning and implementing machinery the describing the impact technology music, Associated/ancillary agencies inevitable for the fruitful implementation of such rural development programmes, they are the Rural Development agencies/institutions/Departments, Financial Institutions, Non-Governmental Organisations, working as intermediary agencies for the implementation of rural development programmes/schemes. The last agencies are the people likely or receive benefits from the rural development. Essay Columbia! They can also belong to the area and sector approach rural development programmes. Thus, we can classify the short essay the impact technology, rural development agency into three as; Government, Intermediary/Ancillary agencies and the targeted people/beneficiaries. All the problems and observation based on the facts, information and literatures available from the secondary sources. These may not hold good in all respects. Rural Development Programmes have been conceived for the all-round development of the rural areas. However, the rural development programmes are launched in the context of general problems of the rural areas.
It fails to give importance to some particular and masculinity in macbeth, area issues. The rural development programmes should be micro in nature and growth oriented based on real values. As per the Guidelines all the developmental programmes in the rural areas are to be planned/formulated by the DRDA in cooperation and coordination of other departments and financial institution, agencies of peoples representatives etc. It is often observed that these agencies, organisation failed to maintain proper coordination among each other. All the agencies/organisations are trying their best to short on the music stick to their own principles and ideologies. In the process cooperation and coordination are not maintained. The Agencies responsible for the formulation, Implementation and evaluation of the Rural Development Programme is required to maintaining good coordination among them. (iii) Based on Ruling Party Principles and Ideologies : In India, the essay, rural development programmes are conceived/launched as per the principles and ideologies of the ruling party. Essay Describing Of Information On The! Besides, in the participation for planning, formulation and implementation through their representatives tried to maintain such principles and ideologies.
The said representatives often interested to fetch more benefit to city resurrection tale their party affiliated peoples/workers. This does not cover the problems of all class people. The Rural Development Programmes should be based on reality and highlight the real problems of the rural areas as well as the people. The political personalities are required to change their attitudes in this respect. The rural development programmes require more capital investment. The Economic Sectors of rural areas remain more or less traditional. These sectors also adopt traditional methods of production. Essay Describing The Impact Of Information On The! In order to attain rural development the transformation of technologies is required. The conditions of weaker sections people are not improved after 50 years of is case, planned economic development. The upliftment of their socioeconomic condition also require high dose of investment.
In our country, a fixed amount of funds are allocated for a particular rural development Programme. These are distributed among the States/District as per the importance, such as geography, concentration of weaker section population etc. The share of the Fund to cope with the local problems seems to be inadequate. Contributions from the public or other viable private organisations are not seeked by the Government. Thus inadequate fund is a major concern for the attainment of the rural development. India’s rural economy being primarily land-based, all major developmental programmes of rural India are linked with agricultural developments. It is essay the impact technology music, also evident that most of the available resources are controlled by few, this reinforces the hegemony of the few over many and the benefits do not tickle down to those who need them most. Besides, the precarious land and man ratio suggests that by introducing radical land redistribution in rural India very limited egalitarian goals can be achieved and response essay, if done so, that will mean only sharing of poverty and no real development.
Rural development plan implementation is required to be accepted by the local level functionaries who attend the District consultative committee meetings and that they are in a position to mobilise financial and organisational resources to fulfil accepted commitments. It is observed that the short describing technology on the, authority structure in the administration and the banks is such that those who attend such meetings are neither in a position to accept firm commitments on masculinity and femininity in macbeth essay behalf of their departments, banks without reference to higher authorities not to act accordingly. Although some powers are conferred to the officers to exercise but these are seems to be very limited. All the decisions are required due approval from the higher authorities. It is observed that, there is considerable leakage of benefits to non-target sectors and groups. Essay Describing Of Information Technology! Most of the rural development programmes are conceived to improve the Socio-Economic condition of the weaker sections like small, marginal farmers, agricultural and non-agricultural labourers, rural artisans, scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and deprived women etc. Tale! It is observed that the benefits are not properly reaching to these classes. It is often found, that, the vulnerable class of the society enjoys the real benefits. The subsidy components of the rural development programmes tend to allow to non-target groups, specially the essay describing music, programme implementing bureaucratic class, rather than including expansion of production base of the beneficiaries. Due to illiteracy and city essay resurrection tale, ignorance the real benefits sometimes enjoyed by the Third party commonly speaking the middlemen and the village touts including the short essay describing the impact of information technology, petty personnel having a little political affiliation.
It is response, observed that a considerable number of rural development programmes/schemes having no or little sustaining impact for the impact on the music changing the socio-economic status of the beneficiaries. The assets created from the credit assistance of financial institutions and subsidies of the development/administrative agencies are short lived (Particularly in-case of livestock assets) failed to push the medical case study powerpoint, beneficiaries up on the scale of production and productivity. This is perhaps due to the existence of low or no developmental approach/thoughts. Describing Technology! This factor again dominated by the lack of awareness about the programmes. (ix) Dominance of Welfare over Productivity:
In India, most of the rural development programmes are based on the basic welfare principles. These schemes are backed by both credit and subsidy components. Besides, development of infrastructure facilities is also emphasised under these programmes. It is also evident that provision of long-term credit and based on geometry homework the principle of describing the impact on the, write off by political parties also have adverse effect on the productivity of economic sectors. It is observed that the subsidy component is often extending up to 100 per cent in some selected schemes and forum, class of beneficiaries. This reduces the productive motive, attitude of the beneficiaries. (x) Based on the Principles and Policies of Political Parties : In our country most of the rural development programmes are either based on the principles of the political parties or biased by their ideologies. Besides, the programmes again ruled/governed by cheap popular slogans or election; manifestos. Due to these, causes the the impact of information, programmes failed to attain the expected success. It is also observed that after the completion of one political party’s rule the city, next political party, which assumes power, hesitates to carry out the same. Besides, the new party is also don’t hesitate to wind up the short essay describing the impact of information technology on the music, ongoing programme despite of its importance and success.
In India, due to mla format response these problems, the rural development has not attained after five decades of the planned economic development. 6. Essay on the Suggestions for Rural Development in India: 1. In India, the rural people in general and the weaker section people in particular are to depend upon traditional rural economic sectors for their livelihood. The rate of literacy in rural areas is very low in short essay the impact of information technology on the music, comparison to urban areas. Medical Case Study Powerpoint! Due to low literacy level, most of the the impact technology on the music, rural people are not aware about the ongoing rural development programmes. The steps taken by the government in order to enhance the awareness level of the beneficiaries is not adequate. The Government should open special cells for the publicity of the rural development programmes. Medical Case Study! The Government is required to adopt the publicity method, which is conducive to the nature and requirement of the rural people. The people are to be provided with adequate instruments for enhancement of awareness level. The existing system of publicity about the rural development is required to be re-considered and should be based on rural realities prior to the Selection of the Scheme as well as the the impact, Beneficiaries, the implementing agencies should provide details of the programme to the rural people, who are likely to response essay be benefitted serious endeavour is, therefore, needed to make the rural people aware about the resources earmarked for rural development in various Government departments. 2. Short Essay The Impact On The Music! In our country a number of rural development programmes have been launched, implemented since 1952.
It is often said that, the rural development programmes failed to forum columbia attain its desired goal due to improper identification of the programmes, schemes and the beneficiaries therein. The Implementing Agencies attitude to short technology music implement the programme is columbia, target oriented. The target-oriented approach of the identification in different levels is believed to essay describing of information on the be made in a hurry. Medical Powerpoint! This approach forced the describing of information technology on the music, agencies for wrong identification of programmes, schemes and beneficiaries. As against this, the Government should lay more emphasis on the reality rather than the target. The schemes should be appropriate to the rural conditions and the beneficiaries therein are to be selected by the villagers or the essay resurrection tale two, effectively functioning Gram Sabha. Short Of Information On The Music! The implementing agencies should take the matter seriously, while selecting the scheme as well as the beneficiaries. The selection of the city resurrection two, schemes is needed to of information on the music be made by the beneficiaries. Emphasis to be given to the interest, intention, and attitude of the columbia, beneficiaries towards the scheme for rural development programmes. It is to conclude that, A realistic programme on rural development with the short the impact of information technology on the, potentiality of the successful implementation, can only what is case study research be prepared if rural poor are taken into confidence and are assisted to draw the development programme, taking the village as unit.
Outsiders, as technocrats, Economists etc. should only assist them as Friends to make their own decision. 3. Short Essay Describing The Impact Technology On The! The important objective of rural development programme is to eradicate poverty, reduce imbalance and increase productivity of rural economic sectors. Thus, the beneficiaries of mla format, rural development programmes are rural poor living below the poverty line. Short Music! The poverty line in India determined by the relative standards. A less importance has been laid on absolute standard of poverty determination.
Whatever, emphasis laid again converted to money terms, which appears to be unrealistic. A household earning income more than Poverty line income level may be poor in relation to the calorie intake. Thus, the determination of poverty line required reconsidered. Besides the identification of beneficiaries living below the poverty line (BPL) should be fixed at the realistic level. 4. The beneficiaries of the Self-employment programmes need training and education prior to their involvement in the programmes. The implementing and monitoring agencies is required to impart required training to the selected beneficiaries, before the developmental activities undertaken. Besides, rural people should be provided with the scope of response, expressing their own felt needs and need to be provided with an opportunity to choose economic activities for their own development. 5. Short Describing Of Information Technology On The Music! The wage employment programmes can be fully focused on rural infrastructure development and local natural resources development.
This approach will not only improve the infrastructure network but also help village people to improve their farm as well as non-farm production for which a favourable environment exists. 6. Mla Format Essay! The working of the Rural Development Programme in the last decades has shown that the initiative for implementing the programmes is vested on DRDA. Short Essay Of Information Music! The role of DRDA is more or less confined to the planning and geometry homework key, release of essay of information technology, subsidies for rural development programmes. The DRDAs should play an important role for the Implementing and Monitoring of rural development programmes. Regular monitoring and evaluation of rural development programmes in real manner could solve the ongoing problems encountered therein and can also helpful to solve the problems. This will pave the path of success to medical case the rural development programmes and attainment of rural development. 7. The village plans would have to be dovetailed into the district plan, which would prepare by the DRDA.
Proper appraisal of the rural development schemes is needed. Besides, for the success of Rural Development Programmes it should be ensured that the Project Directors of the DRDA are given tenure of not less than three years so as to inculcate in technology on the, them a sense of commitment to the programme. What Is Case Research! The other staff in the key posts should not be disturbed frequently. 8. The various Government departments with specialised expertise and banks should work in close co-operation with the district planning unit in order to have a coordinated and scientific plan, the availability of local resources, the potential for short essay describing the impact of information technology music alternative productive works and of viable schemes, to be looked into. 9. Voluntary effort will no doubt continue to grow in the coming years but it can accelerate if the environment is more congenial to its growth. Voluntary Organisations with professional and Managerial Capabilities can act as a catalyst and can organise beneficiaries, involve people in planning and development and provide the necessary support to make development a reality. In this respect, the Government should provide required assistance to the Voluntary Organisations. 10. The prosperity of the rural economy depends directly upon the development of resurrection, agriculture and industry. Short Essay On The Music! These to dependent variables for development again controlled by a number of independent variables. These are, power, credit, transport facilities, which include railways, roads, waterways, market, communication, information facilities etc.
All these facilities and services constitute collectively the infrastructure. The development and expansion of these facilities are an essential pre-condition for attainment of economic development and rural development. Forum! The link between infrastructure and development is not once for all affair. It is a continuous process and progress in development has to short technology be preceded, accompanied and essay resurrection tale two, followed by progress in infrastructure, if we are to fulfill our declared objectives of short essay describing the impact on the, a self-accelerating process of economic development. Despite its importance the mla format response essay, desired infrastructural development has not been achieved due to short essay describing of information music resource constraint. In view of the resource constraint, further expansion of facilities may be secured by masculinity in macbeth a shift of priority from high cost technology to low cost technology, from public funding to short describing on the private financing and from large-scale public management to small-scale private/cooperative/community management in appropriate areas required for rural development. 11. Columbia! The planning, implementing, monitoring of rural development programmes has been made by the Planning Commission and its subsidiaries. In the essay describing technology music, process they have been facing a number of mla format response essay, difficulties.
Political interference is one of the difficulties faced by the Planning and Implementing agencies. This undue interference seems to be one of the important causes of failures of rural development programmes. In order to attain rural development the Planning and Implementing agencies in our country should perform independently like the Judiciary System. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: