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Paul essay

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Baptist Hospital - Charge Nurse Resume Example. Enthusiastic and personable Adult-Gerontology Nurse Practitioner with one year as NP and twenty two years as an RN. Possesses excellent communication skills and establish strong rapport with all patients. Registered Nurse Practitioner in paul essay, the State of Texas, license number AP125479. Drug Enforcement Administration license. Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) Basic Life Support (BLS) Certification 2013 to present. American Academy of is better than, Nurse Practitioners member. Essay! Nurse Practitioner Association of Texas. For Future Essay! Hospice and Paliative Patient Care. Trained in in- and out-patient care.

Lab result evaluation Patient-centered care Sound judgment Adult-Geriatric treatment knowledge Skilled cardiac care nurse Enthusiastic caregiver Culturally sensitive Good bedside manner. Baptist Hospital - Beaumont , TX Charge nurse on Progressive Care Unit. Oversaw average of 27 patients per shift. Oversaw and managed clinical and essay, support staff in patient care activities while maintaining a high level of staff morale and professionalism. Self-directed with astute judgment skills. High level of data plan, personal accountability. Essay! Liaised between patients and physicians to ensure patient comprehension of data analysis plan, treatment plans. Paul! Instructed patients and family members on proper discharge care. Closely monitored acute conditions.

Treated patients with chronic and acute health problems such as MI, arrhythmias, asthma, COPD and dream for future essay, pneumonia. Participated in essay, unit-based Quality Assurance Program. Delegated staff nurse duties. Scheduled patient admissions and discharges. Strong leader for nursing personnel assigned to the unit/shift. Diagnostic Group, Harbor Healthcare System - Beaumont , TX.

Provided care to patients in the inpatient, outpatient, long term acute care and palliative/hospice setting. Assessed need for, ordered, obtained and interpreted appropriate lab tests. Managed the pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment of various disorders and data analysis, diseases. Provided palliative care in inpatient and outpatient settings ranging from assessment to paul development and for future, implementation of essay, care plans. Disciplined, energetic employee who quickly establishes rapport with patients and colleagues. Christus St. Elizabeth Hospital - Beaumont , TX Provided patient care in Telemetry unit, adeptly handling all aspects of preface, treatment from medication to wound care to monitoring for number patients per shift. Counseled and educated patients about health issues and essay, wellness.

Expertise in medical-surgical cardiac care. Examined patients and essays on the, dispensed medications as needed. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological management and treatment of various disorders and paul, diseases. Self-directed with astute judgment skills. High level of dream for future essay, personal accountability. Performed lab tests and communicated results. Instructed patients and paul, family members on proper discharge care. Liaised between patients and physicians to ensure patient comprehension of treatment plans. Closely monitored acute conditions. Treated patients with chronic and acute health problems such as MI, arrhythmias, asthma, COPD and pneumonia. Developed and essays, implemented nursing care plans.

Documented patient information obtained from interviews. Ensured efficacy of treatments through monitoring of treatment regimens. Followed infection control procedures. Made appropriate interventions by reading and interpreting heart monitors. Adult Primary Care Southeast Texas Medical Associates - Beaumont , TX Managed and coordinated care of clients with acute illness and chronic, complex, multi-system disease. processes of adult patients. Performed consultations and follow-up visits. Ordered and evaluated diagnostic. tests.

Collaborated with physicians, dieticians, physical therapists, and paul essay, other consultants. Essay! Counseled clients. Essay! regarding health risk factors, and disease management. Southeast Texas Medical Associates - Beaumont , TX Administered primary care to adult and geriatric individuals in a patient-centered medical home. Obtained. patient histories; performed physical examinations; ordered laboratory and radiology exams; provided. guidance on health maintenance, health promotion, risk reduction and client education. Gulf Coast Health Center - Port Arthur , TX Performed well-adult and school, episodic visits under the supervision of a nurse practitioner.

Provided culturally. relevant care to diverse group of clients. Focused care on health maintenance, health promotion, risk reduction. and client education. Utilized translators, and provided foreign language educational materials to. Paul Essay! non-English speaking clients. University of Texas Medical Branch Women's Health Center - Orange , TX Delivered care to diverse population in a community health center. Provided well-woman exam, family. planning, contraception counselling and education on sexually transmitted diseases. American Association of Nurse Practitioners (AANP) Southeast Texas Nurse Practitioners (SETXNP) Texas Nurse Practitioners (TNP) Philippine Nurses Association of the Texas Golden Triangle, a sub-chapter of Philippine Nurses Association Metropolitan Houston (PNA) American Association of essays on the, Critical Care Nurses (AACN) CERTIFICATIONS: American Association of Nurse Practitioners (AANP) Registered Professional Nurse, State of Texas, since 1992 Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) Certification, 2000 to present Progressive Care Certified Nurse, 2006 to paul present. Healthcare: twenty three years nursing hospital experience, computerized charting, inpatient, outpatient, long-term care, and hospice/palliative care settings experience as Nurse Practitioner. People skills: great bedside manner, enthusiastic people person, advanced problem-solving, great organizational skills, culturally competent care.

Nurse Manager - Cardiac Intensive Care Unit@Tampa General Hospital. REGISTERED NURSE@Hackensack Meridian Health: Jersey Shore University Medical Center. Family Nurse Practitioner@CG Medical Associates. Inpatient Acute Dialysis Nurse@Fresenius Medical Care North America. Nurse Educator@El Paso Veterans Affairs Healthcare System. Nursing Care Partner@Sentara Norfolk General Hospital. Writing Preface Thesis! Nurse Pracitioner@Abrazo Diabetes Care Center Endocrinology. Featured Jobs in essay, Groves:View More Groves Jobs.

Get job alerts sent to your inbox for. College Application With! Charge Nurse Nurse Practitioner Staff Nurse/ Charge nurse. University of Texas Medical Branch Western Mindanao State University Health Works Community event participant. Adult- Gerontology Nurse Practitioner 2013. Essay! Bachelor of Science , Nursing 1989. Where can I find a Baptist Hospital Charge Nurse resume example in Groves, Texas 77619? This is an actual resume example of a Charge Nurse who works in the Nurse Practitioners Industry. LiveCareer has 7724 Nurse Practitioners resumes in its database. LiveCareer’s Resume Directory contains real resumes created by subscribers using LiveCareer’s Resume Builder.

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How to Give a Killer Presentation. For more than 30 years, the TED conference series has presented enlightening talks that people enjoy watching. Essay? In this article, Anderson, TED’s curator, shares five keys to great presentations: Frame your story (figure out where to start and where to end). Plan your delivery (decide whether to memorize your speech word for word or develop bullet points and then rehearse it—over and dissertation analysis over). Work on stage presence (but remember that your story matters more than how you stand or whether you’re visibly nervous). Paul? Plan the multimedia (whatever you do, don’t read from PowerPoint slides).

Put it together (play to your strengths and thesis be authentic). According to Anderson, presentations rise or fall on the quality of the idea, the narrative, and paul essay the passion of the for future speaker. It’s about paul, substance—not style. In fact, it’s fairly easy to “coach out” the grading system is better essay problems in a talk, but there’s no way to “coach in” the basic story—the presenter has to paul have the raw material. So if your thinking is not there yet, he advises, decline that invitation to speak. Instead, keep working until you have an idea that’s worth sharing.

A little more than a year ago, on a trip to Nairobi, Kenya, some colleagues and I met a 12-year-old Masai boy named Richard Turere, who told us a fascinating story. Grading Than? His family raises livestock on the edge of a vast national park, and paul one of the biggest challenges is on dream protecting the animals from lions—especially at night. Paul Essay? Richard had noticed that placing lamps in a field didn’t deter lion attacks, but when he walked the data analysis plan field with a torch, the lions stayed away. From a young age, he’d been interested in electronics, teaching himself by, for example, taking apart his parents’ radio. He used that experience to devise a system of essay lights that would turn on and off in sequence—using solar panels, a car battery, and a motorcycle indicator box—and thereby create a sense of movement that he hoped would scare off the is better marks essay lions. He installed the lights, and the lions stopped attacking.

Soon villages elsewhere in Kenya began installing Richard’s “lion lights.” The story was inspiring and worthy of the broader audience that our TED conference could offer, but on the surface, Richard seemed an paul essay unlikely candidate to give a TED Talk. He was painfully shy. His English was halting. When he tried to describe his invention, the sentences tumbled out incoherently. And frankly, it was hard to imagine a preteenager standing on a stage in front of mexican drug war 1,400 people accustomed to hearing from polished speakers such as Bill Gates, Sir Ken Robinson, and Jill Bolte Taylor.

But Richard’s story was so compelling that we invited him to speak. Paul Essay? In the months before the 2013 conference, we worked with him to frame his story—to find the right place to begin, and to develop a succinct and logical arc of dissertation data plan events. On the back of his invention Richard had won a scholarship to paul essay one of Kenya’s best schools, and there he had the chance to practice the talk several times in front of a live audience. It was critical that he build his confidence to the point where his personality could shine through. When he finally gave his talk at TED, in Long Beach, you could tell he was nervous, but that only made him more engaging—people were hanging on dream for future essay his every word.

The confidence was there, and every time Richard smiled, the audience melted. When he finished, the response was instantaneous: a sustained standing ovation. Since the first TED conference, 30 years ago, speakers have run the gamut from political figures, musicians, and TV personalities who are completely at ease before a crowd to lesser-known academics, scientists, and writers—some of whom feel deeply uncomfortable giving presentations. Over the years, we’ve sought to essay develop a process for data helping inexperienced presenters to paul frame, practice, and essay deliver talks that people enjoy watching. It typically begins six to nine months before the event, and involves cycles of devising (and revising) a script, repeated rehearsals, and plenty of essay fine-tuning.

We’re continually tweaking our approach—because the art of public speaking is is better than marks evolving in real time—but judging by public response, our basic regimen works well: Since we began putting TED Talks online, in 2006, they’ve been viewed more than one billion times. On the basis of this experience, I’m convinced that giving a good talk is highly coachable. In a matter of hours, a speaker’s content and delivery can be transformed from muddled to mesmerizing. And while my team’s experience has focused on TED’s 18-minutes-or-shorter format, the lessons we’ve learned are surely useful to other presenters—whether it’s a CEO doing an IPO road show, a brand manager unveiling a new product, or a start-up pitching to essay VCs. There’s no way you can give a good talk unless you have something worth talking about. Conceptualizing and framing what you want to say is the most vital part of preparation. Find the Perfect Mix of Data and Narrative. by Nancy Duarte. Most presentations lie somewhere on the continuum between a report and a story.

A report is data-rich, exhaustive, and informative—but not very engaging. Stories help a speaker connect with an college application with audience, but listeners often want facts and information, too. Great presenters layer story and paul information like a cake, and understand that different types of talks require differing ingredients. From Report: Literal, Informational, Factual, Exhaustive… If your goal is to communicate information from a written report, send the full document to the audience in advance, and limit the presentation to writing thesis key takeaways. Don’t do a long slide show that repeats all your findings. Anyone who’s really interested can read the report; everyone else will appreciate brevity. Financial audiences love data, and they’ll want the details.

Satisfy their analytical appetite with facts, but add a thread of paul narrative to appeal to their emotional side. Then present the essays mexican war key takeaways visually, to help them find meaning in paul essay, the numbers. Instead of covering only system essay specs and features, focus on the value your product brings to the world. Paul Essay? Tell stories that show how real people will use it and mexican why it will change their lives. For 30 minutes with a VC, prepare a crisp, well-structured story arc that conveys your idea compellingly in 10 minutes or less; then let QA drive the rest of the meeting. Essay? Anticipate questions and rehearse clear and concise answers. Formal talks at big events are high-stakes, high-impact opportunities to take your listeners on dissertation data plan a transformative journey. Use a clear story framework and aim to engage them emotionally. …to Story: Dramatic, Experiential, Evocative, Persuasive.

Nancy Duarte is the author of HBR Guide to paul Persuasive Presentations, Slide:ology, and Resonate. She is the CEO of Duarte, Inc., which designs presentations and teaches presentation development. We all know that humans are wired to listen to stories, and grading is better essay metaphors abound for the narrative structures that work best to engage people. When I think about compelling presentations, I think about paul essay, taking an audience on a journey. A successful talk is a little miracle—people see the essay school world differently afterward. If you frame the talk as a journey, the biggest decisions are figuring out where to start and where to end.

To find the right place to paul essay start, consider what people in the audience already know about your subject—and how much they care about it. If you assume they have more knowledge or interest than they do, or if you start using jargon or get too technical, you’ll lose them. The most engaging speakers do a superb job of very quickly introducing the topic, explaining why they care so deeply about it, and convincing the system is better than marks audience members that they should, too. The biggest problem I see in first drafts of presentations is that they try to cover too much ground. You can’t summarize an entire career in a single talk. If you try to cram in everything you know, you won’t have time to include key details, and your talk will disappear into abstract language that may make sense if your listeners are familiar with the subject matter but will be completely opaque if they’re new to it. You need specific examples to paul essay flesh out your ideas.

So limit the application with essays scope of paul your talk to that which can be explained, and brought to life with examples, in the available time. Much of the college essays early feedback we give aims to correct the impulse to sweep too broadly. Instead, go deeper. Give more detail. Don’t tell us about essay, your entire field of is better marks study—tell us about paul essay, your unique contribution. A successful talk is a little miracle—people see the preface thesis world differently afterward. Of course, it can be just as damaging to overexplain or painstakingly draw out the implications of a talk. And there the paul remedy is for future essay different: Remember that the people in the audience are intelligent. Let them figure some things out for themselves. Let them draw their own conclusions.

Many of the best talks have a narrative structure that loosely follows a detective story. The speaker starts out by paul essay presenting a problem and on the war then describes the search for a solution. There’s an “aha” moment, and the audience’s perspective shifts in paul essay, a meaningful way. If a talk fails, it’s almost always because the speaker didn’t frame it correctly, misjudged the audience’s level of interest, or neglected to tell a story. Even if the topic is important, random pontification without narrative is always deeply unsatisfying. There’s no progression, and you don’t feel that you’re learning.

I was at for future essay, an energy conference recently where two people—a city mayor and a former governor—gave back-to-back talks. The mayor’s talk was essentially a list of impressive projects his city had undertaken. It came off as boasting, like a report card or an advertisement for his reelection. It quickly got boring. Paul? When the governor spoke, she didn’t list achievements; instead, she shared an with idea. Yes, she recounted anecdotes from her time in paul, office, but the idea was central—and the application essays stories explanatory or illustrative (and also funny). It was so much more interesting. The mayor’s underlying point seemed to be how great he was, while the governor’s message was “Here’s a compelling idea that would benefit us all.” As a general rule, people are not very interested in essay, talks about on dream, organizations or institutions (unless they’re members of them). Ideas and stories fascinate us; organizations bore us—they’re much harder to paul relate to. (Businesspeople especially take note: Don’t boast about your company; rather, tell us about the problem you’re solving.)

Once you’ve got the framing down, it’s time to focus on your delivery. There are three main ways to deliver a talk. Thesis? You can read it directly off a script or a teleprompter. You can develop a set of bullet points that map out what you’re going to say in each section rather than scripting the whole thing word for word. Paul Essay? Or you can memorize your talk, which entails rehearsing it to the point where you internalize every word—verbatim. My advice: Don’t read it, and dissertation plan don’t use a teleprompter. It’s usually just too distancing—people will know you’re reading. Essay? And as soon as they sense it, the data analysis plan way they receive your talk will shift. Suddenly your intimate connection evaporates, and everything feels a lot more formal.

We generally outlaw reading approaches of any kind at TED, though we made an essay exception a few years ago for a man who insisted on using a monitor. We set up a screen at the back of the auditorium, in the hope that the audience wouldn’t notice it. College Essays? At first he spoke naturally. Paul? But soon he stiffened up, and you could see this horrible sinking feeling pass through the audience as people realized, “Oh, no, he’s reading to system marks essay us!” The words were great, but the talk got poor ratings. Many of essay our best and college most popular TED Talks have been memorized word for word. Essay? If you’re giving an important talk and you have the for future time to do this, it’s the best way to go.

But don’t underestimate the essay work involved. One of our most memorable speakers was Jill Bolte Taylor, a brain researcher who had suffered a stroke. She talked about what she learned during the eight years it took her to recover. After crafting her story and undertaking many hours of solo practice, she rehearsed her talk dozens of times in writing, front of an audience to be sure she had it down. Obviously, not every presentation is worth that kind of investment of time. But if you do decide to memorize your talk, be aware that there’s a predictable arc to the learning curve. Most people go through what I call the “valley of awkwardness,” where they haven’t quite memorized the talk. Paul? If they give the talk while stuck in that valley, the audience will sense it. Their words will sound recited, or there will be painful moments where they stare into writing thesis the middle distance, or cast their eyes upward, as they struggle to remember their lines. Paul? This creates distance between the college with essays speaker and the audience. Getting past this point is simple, fortunately.

It’s just a matter of rehearsing enough times that the flow of words becomes second nature. Then you can focus on delivering the paul talk with meaning and authenticity. Don’t worry—you’ll get there. But if you don’t have time to learn a speech thoroughly and get past that awkward valley, don’t try. Essay? Go with bullet points on note cards. As long as you know what you want to say for each one, you’ll be fine.

Focus on remembering the transitions from one bullet point to the next. Also pay attention to your tone. Some speakers may want to come across as authoritative or wise or powerful or passionate, but it’s usually much better to just sound conversational. Don’t force it. Don’t orate. Just be you. If a successful talk is a journey, make sure you don’t start to annoy your travel companions along the way. Some speakers project too much ego. They sound condescending or full of themselves, and the audience shuts down.

Don’t let that happen. For inexperienced speakers, the paul essay physical act of being onstage can be the system is better than most difficult part of giving a presentation—but people tend to overestimate its importance. Paul? Getting the words, story, and data analysis substance right is paul a much bigger determinant of success or failure than how you stand or whether you’re visibly nervous. And when it comes to stage presence, a little coaching can go a long way. The biggest mistake we see in early rehearsals is on the that people move their bodies too much. They sway from paul side to college essays side, or shift their weight from one leg to the other. Paul? People do this naturally when they’re nervous, but it’s distracting and makes the speaker seem weak. Simply getting a person to college application with keep his or her lower body motionless can dramatically improve stage presence. There are some people who are able to walk around a stage during a presentation, and that’s fine if it comes naturally. But the vast majority are better off standing still and relying on hand gestures for paul emphasis. Perhaps the war most important physical act onstage is making eye contact.

Find five or six friendly-looking people in different parts of the audience and look them in the eye as you speak. Think of them as friends you haven’t seen in a year, whom you’re bringing up to paul date on your work. That eye contact is incredibly powerful, and it will do more than anything else to help your talk land. Even if you don’t have time to prepare fully and have to read from a script, looking up and making eye contact will make a huge difference. Another big hurdle for inexperienced speakers is nervousness—both in advance of the talk and with while they’re onstage.

People deal with this in different ways. Many speakers stay out in the audience until the moment they go on; this can work well, because keeping your mind engaged in the earlier speakers can distract you and limit nervousness. Essay? Amy Cuddy, a Harvard Business School professor who studies how certain body poses can affect power, utilized one of the more unusual preparation techniques I’ve seen. She recommends that people spend time before a talk striding around, standing tall, and extending their bodies; these poses make you feel more powerful. Essay On Dream? It’s what she did before going onstage, and she delivered a phenomenal talk. Paul? But I think the single best advice is simply to breathe deeply before you go onstage. It works.

In general, people worry too much about nervousness. Nerves are not a disaster. Grading System Than? The audience expects you to paul be nervous. It’s a natural body response that can actually improve your performance: It gives you energy to perform and keeps your mind sharp. Just keep breathing, and for future essay you’ll be fine. Nerves are not a disaster. The audience expects you to be nervous. Acknowledging nervousness can also create engagement. Showing your vulnerability, whether through nerves or tone of voice, is one of the essay most powerful ways to win over an audience, provided it is authentic.

Susan Cain, who wrote a book about college essays, introverts and spoke at our 2012 conference, was terrified about giving her talk. You could feel her fragility onstage, and it created this dynamic where the audience was rooting for her—everybody wanted to paul essay hug her afterward. The fact that we knew she was fighting to keep herself up there made it beautiful, and grading system is better marks essay it was the most popular talk that year. With so much technology at our disposal, it may feel almost mandatory to use, at paul, a minimum, presentation slides. By now most people have heard the advice about PowerPoint: Keep it simple; don’t use a slide deck as a substitute for notes (by, say, listing the bullet points you’ll discuss—those are best put on dissertation data analysis plan note cards); and don’t repeat out essay, loud words that are on the slide. Not only is reciting slides a variation of the teleprompter problem—“Oh, no, she’s reading to dream essay us, too!”—but information is interesting only paul essay once, and is better than marks essay hearing and seeing the same words feels repetitive.

That advice may seem universal by paul essay now, but go into any company and you’ll see presenters violating it every day. Many of the best TED speakers don’t use slides at all, and many talks don’t require them. On Dream School? If you have photographs or illustrations that make the topic come alive, then yes, show them. Paul Essay? If not, consider doing without, at least for some parts of the thesis presentation. And if you’re going to use slides, it’s worth exploring alternatives to PowerPoint. For instance, TED has invested in the company Prezi, which makes presentation software that offers a camera’s-eye view of a two-dimensional landscape. Instead of a flat sequence of images, you can move around the landscape and zoom in to it if need be. Used properly, such techniques can dramatically boost the visual punch of a talk and enhance its meaning.

Artists, architects, photographers, and paul designers have the best opportunity to use visuals. Slides can help frame and essay on dream pace a talk and help speakers avoid getting lost in jargon or overly intellectual language. (Art can be hard to talk about—better to essay experience it visually.) I’ve seen great presentations in which the artist or designer put slides on an automatic timer so that the image changed every 15 seconds. I’ve also seen presenters give a talk accompanied by video, speaking along to it. That can help sustain momentum. The industrial designer Ross Lovegrove’s highly visual TED Talk, for instance, used this technique to bring the audience along on a remarkable creative journey.

Another approach creative types might consider is to build silence into their talks, and just let the work speak for itself. The kinetic sculptor Reuben Margolin used that approach to powerful effect. The idea is not to think “I’m giving a talk.” Instead, think “I want to give this audience a powerful experience of my work.” The single worst thing artists and architects can do is to retreat into abstract or conceptual language. Video has obvious uses for many speakers. In a TED Talk about the intelligence of college crows, for instance, the scientist showed a clip of a crow bending a hook to fish a piece of food out of paul a tube—essentially creating a tool. Mexican? It illustrated his point far better than anything he could have said.

Used well, video can be very effective, but there are common mistakes that should be avoided. A clip needs to be short—if it’s more than 60 seconds, you risk losing people. Don’t use videos—particularly corporate ones—that sound self-promotional or like infomercials; people are conditioned to essay tune those out. Anything with a soundtrack can be dangerously off-putting. And whatever you do, don’t show a clip of on dream yourself being interviewed on, say, CNN. Paul Essay? I’ve seen speakers do this, and it’s a really bad idea—no one wants to analysis plan go along with you on your ego trip. The people in your audience are already listening to you live; why would they want to simultaneously watch your talking-head clip on a screen? We start helping speakers prepare their talks six months (or more) in advance so that they’ll have plenty of essay time to practice. We want people’s talks to be in application with essays, final form at least a month before the essay event.

The more practice they can do in essay on dream school, the final weeks, the better off they’ll be. Ideally, they’ll practice the talk on paul essay their own and in front of an audience. The tricky part about rehearsing a presentation in front of other people is that they will feel obligated to essay offer feedback and constructive criticism. Often the paul feedback from different people will vary or directly conflict. Essay? This can be confusing or even paralyzing, which is paul why it’s important to college application be choosy about the essay people you use as a test audience, and whom you invite to offer feedback. In general, the more experience a person has as a presenter, the college application essays better the criticism he or she can offer. I learned many of paul these lessons myself in 2011. My colleague Bruno Giussani, who curates our TEDGlobal event, pointed out that although I’d worked at TED for nine years, served as the emcee at our conferences, and introduced many of the speakers, I’d never actually given a TED Talk myself.

So he invited me to give one, and I accepted. It was more stressful than I’d expected. Even though I spend time helping others frame their stories, framing my own in dissertation data analysis plan, a way that felt compelling was difficult. I decided to memorize my presentation, which was about how web video powers global innovation, and that was really hard: Even though I was putting in a lot of hours, and getting sound advice from my colleagues, I definitely hit a point where I didn’t quite have it down and began to doubt I ever would. Paul Essay? I really thought I might bomb. I was nervous right up until the moment I took the stage. But it ended up going fine. It’s definitely not one of the all-time great TED Talks, but it got a positive reaction—and I survived the stress of going through it. As hard as it may be to give a great talk, it’s really easy to on dream school blow it.

Here are some common mistakes that TED advises its speakers to avoid. 1. Take a really long time to explain what your talk is about. 2. Speak slowly and dramatically. Why talk when you can orate? 3. Make sure you subtly let everyone know how important you are. 4. Refer to your book repeatedly. Even better, quote yourself from it. 5. Cram your slides with numerous text bullet points and multiple fonts. 6. Use lots of unexplained technical jargon to make yourself sound smart.

7. Speak at great length about the history of your organization and paul its glorious achievements. 8. Don’t bother rehearsing to check how long your talk is essay running. 9. Sound as if you’re reciting your talk from paul memory. 10. Never, ever make eye contact with anyone in the audience. Ultimately I learned firsthand what our speakers have been discovering for three decades: Presentations rise or fall on dissertation data analysis plan the quality of the idea, the narrative, and the passion of the paul essay speaker. For Future? It’s about substance, not speaking style or multimedia pyrotechnics. It’s fairly easy to “coach out” the problems in a talk, but there’s no way to “coach in” the basic story—the presenter has to have the raw material.

If you have something to say, you can build a great talk. But if the central theme isn’t there, you’re better off not speaking. Decline the invitation. Go back to work, and wait until you have a compelling idea that’s really worth sharing. The single most important thing to essay remember is that there is no one good way to do a talk. The most memorable talks offer something fresh, something no one has seen before. The worst ones are those that feel formulaic. So do not on any account try to emulate every piece of advice I’ve offered here.

Take the bulk of it on application board, sure. But make the talk your own. You know what’s distinctive about you and paul essay your idea. Play to your strengths and give a talk that is truly authentic to you.

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Alcohol Abuse Thesis Essay Sample. 1.1 Project Background. This Alcohol Abuse among Teenagers Campaign has been organized by World Health Organization (WHO) Malaysia. WHO also has worked with National Association of the Prevention of Drug Abuse (PEMADAM) in conducting seminars about on “Promote Healthy Lifestyle: Reduce Alcohol Harm” organized by the Kuala Lumpur and Selangor Chinese Assembly Hall (KLSCAH). Alcohol abuse has become very common in Malaysia.

Alcohol abuse is the re-occurring consumption of alcohol over essay, short periods of time and usually in large quantities. This may also be called binge drinking. Binge drinking leads to a lot of problems in a young person’s life. Problems that is physical such as intentional or unintentional injuries, personal problems such as troubles with the family and political problems such as going against the law. According to a study carried out, issues that are often associated with alcoholism is an issue of health risk such as “Anemia” which is can cause the number of oxygen-carrying red blood cells to be abnormally low. Mexican Drug War? Other issue that associated is sexually transmitted disease like having sex with a number of different people and can cause unplanned pregnancy. Vandalism is essay a common illegal act among those under the essay influence of alcohol. School, homes, businesses and park are all affected by essay, vandalism. This is one of the issues associated with alcohol problem also issues about injury which is a type of hazard which can be associated with alcohol use. Types of accidental injuries caused by alcohol abuse or addiction include burns, injury from a car or boating accident (caused by drunk driving), drowning, and injury from falling. In this alcohol abuse among teenagers awareness campaign, the essay on dream school motivational illustration concept is used and there are several types of media and items used to carry out this campaign.

For the print advertisement, the researcher comes out with a series of poster, newspaper advertisement, brochure and flyers. Essay? The researchers also come out with outdoor advertisement such as bunting and grading is better than essay, banner. By developing this campaign, it can help the teenagers to paul, live a healthy non-alcoholic and bring awareness to teenagers that caught with alcohol abuse. This campaign is not only recommended for teenager, but to the parent and the local community that should also play an important role to lead them a healthy life. 1.2 Problem Statement. Malaysia is the tenth largest consumer of alcohol in the world and so few studies have been carried to find the precise magnitude of the system essay problems caused by this consumption. Essay? The facts and figures show that it is increasing each year.

Alcohol abuse in Malaysia is mainly heavy intake in the form of application, drinks, underage drinking and driving under the influence of alcohol. There are THREE(3) Problem Statement:- a) Lack of information and education toward teenagers about the harmful alcohol. b) Influence of peers. c) Alcohol abuse awareness campaign is less popular in Malaysia. Essay? 1.3 Objective of the Project. The objective of alcohol abuse among teenagers campaign is to than essay, create awareness among teenagers about the danger of alcohol to them and it is also a danger to paul essay, the other people by providing info about the danger of excessive alcohol intake. 1.3.1 To give more information and education towards the on the public and increase awareness concerning the causes and negative consequences of teenagers alcohol abuse. 1.3.2 To encourage teenagers practice healthy lifestyle to avoid becoming alcohol abuse. 1.3.3 To intensify and paul, highlight he awareness campaign on alcohol abuse in application with, Malaysia. 1.4 Scope of the paul essay Project. Therefore the powerful campaign advertisement and education special programmed should be carried out to dream for future, inculcate or cultivate carried attitudes towards the issue. For the first stage in the awareness campaign about alcohol abuse among teenagers the researcher will advertise the item campaign: 1.4.1 Print ads.

1.4.1.1 Series of paul essay, poster. The researcher will put the series poster at the booth area during the event. Essay? 1.4.1.2 Newspaper ads. Newspaper ad will be placed in the News Strait Times. The researcher will provide information about the cause of alcohol abuse in the brochure. 1.4.1.4 Flyers. The researcher will provide details about the venue, date and activity of the paul campaign. 1.4.2 Outdoor Advertisement.

Bunting will be placed adjacent to the booth. Banner will be hung on on the mexican drug, a pole near the booth. 1.4.3 Promotional Items. Provide a paper bag to facilitate the audience to put other promotional items. 1.4.3.2 Car sticker. Shows that the audience supports this campaign by pasting stickers on their cars. 1.4.3.3 Badges. Show support to stop alcohol abuse. Paul Essay? 1.4.3.4 Interactive Card. Delivered a message through the visual. 1.4.3.5 Drinking bottle.

Mineral water is provide for audience with its own design. 1.5 Significance of the Project. The significance of this project is to bring awareness to the Parent and especially the Teenagers. For Future Essay? The significance is more directed to target audience for this campaign. The target audience for this Alcohol Abuse among Teenagers Campaign is: 1.5.1.1 Encourage teenagers from not doing unhealthy activities and doing more physical activities 1.5.1.2 By knowing the risk of drinking alcohol, teenager will be more careful in taking alcohol. Paul? 1.5.2 Parents.

1.5.2.1 By doing this campaign, parents will get more knowledge and information about this issue and will make them aware about the negative effect of alcohol. System Than Marks? 1.5.2.2 Parents will more concern about this issue and paul, will take it as a serious issue. 1.5.2.3 Parents will take actions of this issue. 1.6Limitation of the Project. Essays? 1.6.1The target audience age range for this project is teenagers aged 16 to 20 years old, parents and public 1.6.2 The area coverage for this project is at section 13 Shah Alam, Selangor. 1.6.3 Teenagers do not have deep knowledge on this issue (low level education). CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW. 2.1 Review of Current Situation.

The EU-Malaysia Chamber of Commerce and Industry has issued a press statement* on paul, alcohol consumption in Malaysia. #8220;On 22 May 2011, Mr. Yong Yew Wei, Secretary General of the Kuala Lumpur and writing, Selangor Chinese Assembly Hall, delivered the opening speech at a seminar in Kuala Lumpur to paul essay, launch the #8220;Promote a Healthy Lifestyle, Reduce Alcohol Harm#8221; campaign. In his speech, Mr. Yong claimed that Malaysia ranks as the world#8217;s tenth largest consumer of alcohol despite its small population, adding that Malaysians spend US$500m on writing, alcohol. This claim was backed up by a Working Paper provided to journalists which stated that per capita consumption of alcohol in Malaysia is seven liters while beer consumption stands at 11 liters per capita, figures misleadingly attributed to the WHO (2011). Deputy Women, Family and Community Development Minister Heng Seai Kie said the problem of alcohol consumption in the country was getting serious. “Alcohol is not only causing a lot of health issues but is also contributing to a significant number of paul, accidents,” she said here yesterday. Heng was speaking to reporters after launching booklets and plan, seminars on “Promote Healthy lifestyle: Reduce Alcohol Harm” organised by the Kuala Lumpur and paul, Selangor Chinese Assembly Hall (KLSCAH) and preface thesis, supported by IOGT International, a worldwide community of non-governmental organisations, and the National Association of the Prevention of paul essay, Drug Abuse (Pemadam). KLSCAH secretary-general Yong Yew Wei said the Road Safety Council estimated that drinking and driving caused 30% of road accidents nationwide, with 38% of these resulting in writing thesis, fatalities. “A study also shows that absenteeism from workplace among alcoholics is 16 times higher than others,” he said, adding that non-governmental bodies played a vital role in promoting a healthy lifestyle. 2.2 Review of Related Products. There have been some programs that have been created and implemented to help decrease the rate of alcohol abuse among teenagers in Malaysia. 2.2.1 Pernod Ricard Malaysia Initiates Long Term ‘Responsible Drinking’ Campaign.

Pernod Ricard Malaysia on paul essay, 30 September launched its corporate social responsibility (CSR) programmer, ‘Be in Control. If You Drink, Don’t Drive’, in a move to encourage consumers to adopt a more responsible drinking habit by making them aware of the risks associated with inappropriate drinking, particularly, driving while under influence. The said CSR programmer, launched as part of college with essays, Pernod Ricard’s global Responsible Drinking campaign, seeks to encourage consumers to take the pledge to stay in essay, control and to not drive under the influence. This campaign delivers a very clear message in which it pointed out that when you are under the influence of alcohol, then do not drive. 2.2.2 Promote a Healthy Lifestyle, Reduce Alcohol Harm.

On 22 May 2011, Mr. Yong Yew Wei, Secretary General of the Kuala Lumpur and Selangor Chinese Assembly Hall, delivered the opening speech at a seminar in Kuala Lumpur to launch the college application essays #8220;Promote a Healthy Lifestyle, Reduce Alcohol Harm#8221; campaign. It represents a continuing effort by the World Health Organization (WHO) to support Member States in collecting information in order to assist them in their efforts to reduce the harmful use of alcohol, and its health and social consequences among teenagers. The report was launched in paul essay, Geneva on Friday 11 Februray 2011 during the first meeting of the WHO global counterparts for implementation of the global strategy to reduce the essays war harmful use of essay, alcohol. This campaign is full of info on application with, how to avoid getting stuck with the consumption of paul essay, alcohol and also said the spirit and encouraging words for mexican drug, a healthy lifestyle. 2.2.3 Drinking Alcohsl Go To Hell by essay, (ALCON) This injustice has prompted Deepak to on the mexican drug, set up a virtual group on Facebook called the Alcohol Consumer Rights Group Malaysia (ALCON). His mission: to paul essay, protect the interests of alcohol consumers in essays mexican, Malaysia and be their voice. “Although we contribute billions to the economy every year, there is not a single association or body that protects the fundamental rights of these consumers and drinkers. So we held a press conference and started a petition. We wanted to paul essay, hand a memo to the Finance Ministry, telling them to reduce the prices,” says Deepak.

This campaign give benefit to teenagers because it tells us about the waste of money on the purchase of alcohol. This campaign also shows that it is also one of the reason why alcohol consumption does not bring any benefits. Plan? 2.2.4 Dont Drink and Drown by Royal Life Saving Society Malaysia The Royal Life Saving Society Malaysia launched its centenary year in 2009 with a shock print advertising campaign designed to remind adults about the dangers of mixing alcohol with aquatic activities. Two print advertisements show a man drowning in a glass of beer, and a woman slumped on the rocks in her glass of vodka and paul essay, cranberry. “Almost half of all adult drowning deaths involve alcohol. Don’t drink and data plan, drown.” This campaign succesfuly impact the audience about the dangers of alcohol consumption by the use of a deep visual. With such creative visual campaigns, they have their own way to convey message to attract audience attention. CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY. 3.1 Project Methodology. 3.1.1 Determine the advertising objectives. Paul? This step the researcher doing some research about alcohol abuse among teenager in Shah Alam section 13 and how to dissertation analysis plan, raise the level of paul, awareness among Malaysian.

3.1.2 Make a creative decision. The researcher have to writing preface thesis, create a creative ideas for make advertisement to highlight the importance of alcohol abuse among teenagers awareness and to make more people especially teenagers interested about this issue. 3.1.3 Make a media decisions. The researcher have to choose the venue, the media (newspaper, magazines, etc) used for this campaign. This step is paul essay where the researcher has to change the public’s perception towards alcohol abuse among teenagers and persuade teenage to come forward and do not ashamed of their alcohol abuse problem. 3.1.4 Evaluate the campaign. Provide a questionnaire to MSU student about college application with, alcohol use. The campaign is more to give awareness to teenager, parent and essay, public about drug war, alcohol abuse. Alcohol abuse among teenagers is not being highlighted compare to paul essay, anti-alcohol campaign. Not many campaigns have been done for this issue because people were not concerned on this issue. 3.2 Tools and Software Requirement.

Laptop Lenovo Y310 series. 3.3 SWOT Analysis. Teenagers will live healthier lives. Teenagers will do better at school without the distraction of dissertation plan, alcohol Inspire people to quit drinking as the essay campaign could help them realize its dangers Help teenagers to make sound decisions in their everyday lives without the writing preface thesis effects of alcohol Help teachers and parents relate better with students. To improve awareness.

The campaigns are small. Lack of paul essay, exposure. Awareness is increasing. Less competition because of few campaigns. Ignorance from teenagers as they take drinking lightly. Lack of interest because teenagers consider drinking #8220;cool#8221; CHAPTER 4: CONCLUSION. Overall conclusion of this project is to bring awareness to youth and the people that alcohol abuse causes many disadvantages to all people.

With the with essays campaign like this in our country, it is possible to reduce the cases of alcohol abuse among teenagers. Other than that the parties responsible should be more concerned in this case and lacked to take for granted. This project can also add youth and community knowledge about the dangers of this alcoholic beverage. This problem is too hard to essay, solve it but at least with this campaign we can help to saved teenagers from caught with alcohol abused. In this alcohol abuse among teenagers awareness campaign, the on the drug motivational illustration concept is used and there are several types of media and items used to carry out this campaign. The researchers use the emotional appeal as a concept to deliver the message to audience. For the print advertisement, the researcher comes out with a series of poster, newspaper advertisement, brochure and paul essay, flyers. The researchers also come out with outdoor advertisement such as bunting and banner. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Alcohol Abuse Thesis. Writing Thesis? essay editing for only $13.9 per page.

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Information for Readers and Authors. No registration is required and paul essay, access is free. There is no online submission or registration. Authors wishing to submit a piece of work should review the author guidelines and essay on dream, then email submissions to [emailprotected] An Argument for essay, Terrorism. It has become something of a cliche to note that there are over 200 definitions of terrorism in existence within broader terrorism studies literature; that many terrorism scholars have given up on the definitional debate and use the term unreflectively; and that such a state of affairs hampers theoretical progress and skews terrorism research in unhelpful ways. However, the significance and consequences of the definitional debate go far beyond such narrow academic confines, important as they are to grading system is better than essay, the field. Rather, the issue of essay definition is dissertation, central to the way in which the essay, Global War on Terror is prosecuted by the authorities both domestically and overseas. It also affects the way in which terrorism is understood and dealt with as a criminal act under international and domestic law. For Future. In the academic and cultural realms, the definition of terrorism has important implications for the way knowledge and commonsense about the subject is constructed and reproduced socially. Furthermore, it has substantial indirect consequences for individuals and groups labelled as terrorists – who may then be legally subject to torture, rendition and internment without trial – and for the suspect communities they belong to.

This paper argues that despite a number of serious political and ontological obstacles to the definition of terrorism, it should be possible to agree on a clear set of criteria that can be employed to distinguish and paul essay, conceptualise terrorism as a unique form of political violence. There are a great many advantages to adopting these definitional criteria. More importantly, there are political-normative imperatives for retaining terrorism as a central organising concept for the field. The paper begins by dissertation data plan discussing some of the main challenges in defining terrorism and the kinds of essay knowledge practices this has resulted in to date. The second section outlines a set of criteria that analysts can employ to distinguish terrorism from other forms of political violence. The final section of the paper attempts to demonstrate how this approach to terrorism can play a role in strengthening rules and norms against illegitimate and oppressive forms of preface thesis political violence, whether it is committed by state or non-state actors. The Constitution of Terrorism. I have already noted that the paul essay, definitional debate in terrorism studies has reached something of a stalemate.

Not only is application essays, there no agreed definition among scholars, but an analysis of 490 articles published in the leading terrorism studies journals between 1990 and 1999 revealed that only essay eight, or 1.6 percent of grading is better than them, could be regarded as conceptually-oriented papers.[2] This suggests that many scholars have largely given up on essay, the challenging theoretical debates surrounding the central concept of the field. Thesis. An examination of broader terrorism studies literature suggests four main approaches and practices towards the definition and conceptualisation of terrorism.[3] Arguably the most frequent practice—particularly amongst scholars who are newly arrived to the subject—is to simply use the term without defining it, on the misguided assumption that it is widely understood and accepted. Such an approach is problematic for paul essay, a number of very obvious reasons, not least because terrorism is a highly emotive and divisive concept which different scholars and societies have often understood in very different ways. A second approach, confined mainly to political leaders and security officials, but also to a surprising number of essays drug war researchers and media pundits, is to define terrorism as an ideology or movement. Although groups specializing solely in terror do sometimes form, they are extremely rare and typically remain highly unstable and ephemeral. There are very few such groups operating today. In reality, most terrorism occurs in the context of wider political struggles in which the use of paul essay terror is one strategy among other more routine forms of contentious action.[4] As Charles Tilly puts it, Properly understood, terror is a strategy, not a creed. Grading System Is Better Than. Terrorists range across a wide spectrum of organizations, circumstances, and beliefs.[5] Third, it is essay, not uncommon to essay, see researchers adopt an paul essay actor-based definition in the literature, whereby terrorism is defined as a particular form of political violence committed by non-state actors who attack civilians. Bruce Hoffman, for essays on the mexican drug war, example, argues that terrorism involves violence perpetrated by paul essay a subnational group or non-state entity .[6] This is in dream, keeping with the U.S. State Department's highly influential definition of terrorism, which conceives of paul essay terrorism as premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetuated against dream essay, non-combatant targets by essay subnational groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience.[7] For scholars who adopt this definition, terrorism is largely indistinguishable from insurgency, militancy, guerrilla warfare and the like.

More importantly, inherent to this approach is an assumption that while states may commit atrocities, engage in political repression or torture opponents, this nonetheless does not constitute terrorism, in large part because states have the sovereign right to use force.[8] From this perspective, definitions of terrorism hinge on questions of legitimacy and sovereignty and the nature of the actor who employs the violence. Essays Drug. As I will argue below, actor-based approaches to the definition of terrorism are both analytically untenable and politically suspect. Lastly, and most commonly among the leading scholars in the field, terrorism is paul essay, defined as a violent strategy or tactic that actors employ in pursuit of particular political goals. That is, terrorism is defined and understood by the nature and characteristics of the act itself, rather than the nature of actor, and system, is conceived as a particular kind of political action directed towards certain strategic goals rather than as a broad ideology or movement. Louise Richardson for example, defines terrorism as politically motivated violence directed against non combatants or symbolic targets which is designed to communicate a message to a broader audience.[9] Crucially, such a definitional approach accepts that states are also actors who can and frequently do adopt strategies of terrorism and commit terrorist acts. This is essay, a useful formulation that provides the basis for the identifying criteria I present below. Partly due to essay, these definitional approaches, research on terrorism in paul essay, the broader field has been characterised by a number of unfortunate tendencies. An initial tendency widely noted by some critics of the field is the selection bias of much terrorism research. School. In this case, the terrorism label is applied almost solely to non-state groups opposed to Western interests. It is usually not applied to those groups supported by essay Western states – even when they commit identical acts of civilian-directed violence such as hijackings, bombings, kidnappings and assassinations.[10] Thus, while left-wing groups have always received an inordinate amount of attention in terrorism studies literature, right-wing groups like the Contras, anti-Castro groups, US- and South African-supported movements in Angola and Mozambique, various Afghan factions, numerous Latin American death squads, and today a number of Iraqi death squads, have remained scandalously understudied.

Although this is in part the result of the definitional practices noted above, it is also the result of an understandable but avoidable ideological bias amongst many Western scholars who adopt the interests of their own governments. A more serious issue is that the field has been widely criticised for its failure to provide sustained analysis (and moral condemnation) of state terrorism. Indicative of the plan, almost exclusive focus on terrorism from below as opposed to paul, terrorism from grading system marks, above is the finding that only 12, or less than two percent, of articles from 1990 to 1999 in the core terrorism studies journals focused on state terrorism,[ 11] and that only 12 of the 768 pages in the Encyclopaedia of World Terrorism (1997) examined state terrorism in essay, any form.[12] In part, this is grading system than marks, due to the not infrequent practice noted above of paul essay defining terrorism exclusively as a form of non-state violence. However, there are also many prominent scholars who accept that, objectively, terrorism is a strategy of political violence that any actor can employ, including states, yet simply refuse to examine cases of state terrorism in their research. Walter Laqueur, arguably one of the founders of terrorism studies, is emblematic of this practice: he openly accepts that states have killed many more people and mexican drug, caused far more material and social destruction than terrorism from below, but then argues that this is simply not the type of terrorism he wishes to examine.[13] It is perfectly understandable that scholars would wish to focus on particular subjects, but when an entire field neglects what is a very important dimension of the phenomenon, it raises troubling questions about the ideological orientation and political objectivity of the overall field. Clearly, there are reasons for concern over paul, this state of affairs. On The Drug. From a political-normative perspective, the paul, field appears biased towards Western state interests and preface, complicit in paul, the terroristic practices Western states have regularly employed over the past two hundred years.[14] The well-documented use of political terror by thesis Western states during the colonial period, the paul essay, terror bombing during World War II and other conflicts, cold war counter-insurgency and pro-insurgency campaigns, the active sponsorship of essay right-wing non-state terrorist groups and paul essay, the widespread use of torture during certain counter-terrorism campaigns, among others, are only the most prominent examples of the kind of terrorism that many Western states have employed.

The failure to analyse state terrorism or to condemn it in the same morally assured terms as non-state terrorism appears to many observers as pro-Western bias and a toleration of certain forms of data analysis state-practiced terrorism.[15] In addition, it represents a breakdown of scholarly procedure and paul, a self-imposed intellectual blindness. It is data analysis plan, intellectually unsustainable to paul essay, argue that states cannot practice terrorism against their own people and against other states. For example, such an approach would argue that a car bomb detonated on a city street by clandestine state agents is not an act of terrorism, but an identical attack by non-state actors is. Or that the writing preface thesis, kidnap, torture and murder of a civilian by agents of the state are not terrorist acts, but the paul, same act by grading is better marks a non-state group is terrorism. Accepting that terrorism can only really be described according to the nature and quality of the particular act of violence—rather than the purported legitimacy of the actor who commits it [16]—has a number of serious consequences and implications. In the first place, the acceptance that states are not exempted from employing terrorism raises serious questions about the paul essay, broader focus of the field and the empirical foundations it is based on. That is, while non-state terrorists have killed tens of thousands and caused significant damage during the with essays, past century and paul, a half, the acceptance that states can be terrorists, too [17] reveals that some individual states have been responsible for grading system than essay, more terrorism than all non-state terrorist groups put together.

A conservative estimate of state-instigated mass murder, forcible starvations and genocide against civilians for example, suggests that governments have been responsible for 170-200 millions deaths in the twentieth century alone.[18] Even if only a small proportion of these deaths can be strictly defined as state terrorism, the few hundred deaths caused every year by non-state terrorists pales beside the massive death, destruction and de-stabilisation caused by some states. Moreover, a great many states continue to paul, employ terrorism on a considerable scale against their people today in college essays, places like Colombia, Haiti, Algeria, Zimbabwe, Myanmar, Pakistan, Uzbekistan,[19] Egypt, Kashmir, Palestine, Chechnya, Tibet, North Korea, Indonesia, the Philippines and elsewhere. And yet, the broader terrorism studies field does not include statistics on state terrorism in any of its recognised databases, nor does it expend any real effort trying to understand the nature, causes, strategies and outcomes of state terrorism.[20] A serious analytical breakdown occurs when an entire field largely fails to examine what is arguably the most serious aspect of the subject. It would be comparable to paul, an imaginary situation in which criminologists focused most of their research on anti-social behaviour and burglaries, and on the mexican drug, failed to study in any systematic way the extent and causes of domestic violence, rape, murder, sexual abuse or other serious crimes. Another important consequence of accepting state terrorism as terrorism (and not just repression) is the need to re-conceptualise some of the accepted truisms in the field regarding the essay, nature of terrorist behaviour. It is not the case for example, that terrorism is solely the 'weapon of the weak'; it can also be true that the stronger the state, the stronger the temptation to essay, rule through a regime of terror.[21] In fact, an objective look at paul the history of terrorism would suggest that strong actors have used terror far more frequently than weak ones. Moreover, it is clear that contrary to popular beliefs, terrorism can be employed during war as well as during peace. For example, when states bomb civilian targets of no military value for the sole purpose of terrorising a population into surrender—a case of frightening one group of people in order to college essays, produce a political change in another—they are clearly committing a terrorist act.[22] Similarly, counter-terrorism itself can become terrorism under certain conditions: · When it fails to distinguish between the innocent and the guilty; · When it is essay, highly disproportionate; · When it aims to system than marks, terrify or intimidate the wider population or a particular community into submission; · When it is co-opted to essay, serve a political agenda.[23] Ultimately, there are important ethical-normative implications for the notion that states employ terrorism too, often under the guise of counter-terrorism. On The Drug War. In the current climate, virtually every state and international organisation has adopted new anti-terrorism legislation, and military force—including strategic bombing—is frequently being used as a tool of counter-terrorism.

At the very least, scholars should be highly suspicious of any and all attempts by states to define terrorism in ways that conveniently absolve what they or their agents do from being considered terrorism. Paul Essay. They should refuse to dream for future, accede to the common practice of exempting state officials from charges of terrorism, if for paul, no other reason than that: There is something morally suspicious, however, about people making laws that apply to everyone else accept [ sic ] themselves. The sheer fact that politicians have entered into application, a mutual-protection pact not to prosecute one another as 'terrorists' cannot change any logical or deontological facts of the matter. If what they do is otherwise indistinguishable from what is done by non-state actors that we would deem to be terroristic, then the acts of the state officials doing the same thing would be morally wrong for just the same reasons.[24] It is not as if there understandable reasons exist for the continuing failure to agree upon paul a definition of the field's central concept. In the first place, some of the key concepts at the heart of the definition of college application with essays terrorism are extremely subjective and difficult to determine objectively. Most definitions of terrorism by leading scholars for example, describe it as a form of paul essay illegitimate violence directed towards innocent civilians that is essay, intended to paul, intimidate or terrify an audience for political purposes. The question of essay on dream school what makes an act of violence legitimate or not, who is considered a civilian, how innocence can be measured, what the real intentions of often clandestine actors might be and what counts as a political aim, are all highly contested and subject to paul, competing claims. As a consequence, in practice it is often the politically and culturally determined legitimacy of the particular group under scrutiny that determines whether its actions are labelled as terrorism and dissertation plan, not necessarily the characteristics inherent to the violence itself.

Much more significantly however, terrorism is essay, not a causally coherent, free-standing phenomenon which can be defined in terms of marks characteristics inherent to the violence itself. It lacks a clear ontological status—which actually makes an objective definition impossible. As two leading figures in the field put it, The nature of paul terrorism is not inherent in the violent act itself. One and the same act… can be terrorist or not, depending on grading system than essay, intention and circumstance.[25] The bombing of civilians for essay, example, is not always or inherently a terrorist act; it may be the unintentional consequence of a military operation during war. The reality is that terrorism is a social fact rather than a brute fact. Although acts of violence are experienced as brute facts, the wider cultural-political meaning of those acts as terrorism for example, is writing preface, decided through symbolic labelling, social agreement and a range of inter-subjective practices. That is, as a phenomenon, terrorism is constituted by and through the paul, discursive practices which make it a concrete reality for politicians, law enforcement officials, the media, the public, academics and so on.

We can identify a number of processes by which certain acts and individuals are constructed as terrorism and essays mexican, terrorists, including: · The labelling of certain acts and groups as such by authoritative actors, such as the annual State Department reports; · The legal definitions contained within criminal and paul essay, international law; · The compiling of statistics on terrorism by the CIA, RAND, and various academics and think-tanks; · The ascriptions of different groups and acts as terrorist in the media; Actions and actors are constituted and reconstituted as terrorism in mexican, a continuous flow of social and political discourse. Essay. Moreover, analyses of these discourses reveal significant variation and instabilities between and within institutions, as well as shifts over time in the way terrorism is discursively constructed and delineated.[26] For example, before the late 1960s, there was virtually no terrorism spoken of by politicians, the media or academics; there were instead numerous references to on the mexican drug war, bombings, kidnappings, assassinations, hijackings and so on.[ 27] The current discourse of terrorism used by paul essay scholars, politicians and the media is in fact, a very recent invention. Similarly, in the 1980s, the Afghan Mujahidin were described as freedom fighters[28] before they were later reconstructed as Islamic terrorists. Numerous other groups and states have experienced the same kind of discursive transformation from terrorist or state-sponsor of terrorism to freedom fighter, political leader or ally in the War on Terror.

In an important sense, terrorism does not exist outside of the college with essays, definitions and practices that seek to enclose it. In the same way that races do not exist objectively as a meaningful way of assigning identities and behavioural characteristics to individuals, but classifications of humankind do, so too terrorism does not exist as a kind of paul essential marker—even if classifications of different forms of political violence do.[29] A pertinent illustration of the ontological instability of the terrorism label is the observation that there are no less than four recognised terrorists who have gone on to win the Nobel Peace Prize: Menachim Begin, Sean McBride, Nelson Mandela and Yassir Arafat.[30] In other words, even within the confines of contemporary terrorism discourse, once a terrorist, is not always a terrorist.[31] It depends upon the current political context and the dominant discourses which determine and constitute it. It is for this reason, among others, that some scholars argue that the term should be avoided or eschewed altogether in academic research. These scholars suggest that the appropriate focus of study is not the terrorism that exists out there in reality, but the discourses of terrorism and the discursive practices that construct terrorism as a political and cultural subject.[32] Another set of writing thesis scholars argue more prosaically that terrorism is a political-cultural label and an act of de-legitimisation, and that no group ever accepts its designation as terrorist. They suggest that as a concept, terrorism has been greatly abused by political interests and has too many negative cultural and political connotations to retain any real analytical value. While these are cogent and challenging arguments, I do not accept that this means we should abandon the attempt to carefully and consistently determine which acts should be considered terrorist, or that we cannot agree on a set of fairly clear identifying criteria which can be employed for research purposes.

An Argument for Terrorism. It is essay, my argument here that in spite of its insecure ontological status, its negative cultural-political baggage and its frequent misuse by political and academic actors, there are a number of important political and normative reasons for retaining the term terrorism as an organising concept for the field. I want to further suggest that the term can serve a useful function within a broader progressive political project to restrict and eliminate the use of certain kinds of illegitimate and oppressive forms of political violence. However, in order to achieve these lofty goals, scholars need to adopt the aims and essays on the drug, commitments of a more 'critical' approach to terrorism. Politically, there are a number of reasons why we should retain the term terrorism and engage in sustained and rigorous discursive struggle over its constitution and knowledge production. Most obviously, the term now has widespread political and cultural currency. It is the organising concept for a vast array of powerful political institutions, processes and practices in contemporary society, and scholars who refuse to employ or engage with it risk marginalising their views and their access to power. The term also clearly retains a great deal of academic currency. There is now a whole field of research, teaching and advocacy surrounding the concept of terrorism, with numerous journals, conferences, teaching programmes, think-tanks, research centres, funding opportunities and advisory posts in existence. Paul. To refuse to employ the term or engage in debates about its definition and application in research is again, to risk marginalisation and irrelevance within this broader scholarly context.

Most importantly however, there is a compelling normative imperative to essay, retain a term that de-legitimises particular kinds of violence directed against civilians and essay, which instrumentalises human suffering for the purposes of influencing an audience.[33] Of course, the normative power of the terrorism label is highly dependent upon essay on dream school its consistent application to all qualifying cases, including cases involving Western states or their allies. The selectivity and bias of terrorism scholars and political leaders in the past has seriously undermined this project by making it appear that the essay, term is reserved solely for enemies of the West. Mexican Drug. However, I would argue that this provides a reason for critical engagement rather than withdrawal and paul, capitulation in the discursive struggle. Although terrorism can never be adequately defined due to its unstable ontological status, I want to argue that it can, and should, be described according to a set of identifiable and unique characteristics, which delineate it from other forms of political violence. Furthermore, a review of broader terrorism studies literature would suggest that the following conception of terrorism has broad support from many leading scholars in the field and could form the basis of dissertation a consensus over how to conceptualise it. Such an approach moreover, has several advantages over most of the essay, existing approaches I outlined above. I suggest that as a form of political violence, terrorism can be described according to four main characteristics.

First, terrorism is an intentional and pre-determined strategy of political violence. This suggests its rational and instrumental basis. It also implies that any actor (states, groups or individuals) can employ it in pursuit of strategic goals. More importantly, it implies that actors can abandon its use at any time, and that being a terrorist is not a determinant of future behaviour or an is better than marks essay indication of some kind of paul essential evil nature. Terrorists can choose to adopt non-violent strategies instead; they can even become statesmen and peacemakers. Importantly, it also implies political motivations, as a way of distinguishing terrorism from other forms of violence designed to terrify, such as the intimidation of communities by organised criminals seeking to obtain financial reward, the essay, terror caused by a serial killer, or the fear caused by a one-off mass killing. Lastly, it implies forethought and intentionality, as opposed to the terror induced by rioting or communal disturbances, for example. Second, the targets of terrorist violence are not necessarily the paul, victims of the violence, but rather the audiences to the violence. From this perspective, terrorism is essays, a form of political communication rather than direct military action.

An important distinction here is that terrorism instrumentalises its victims. Unlike the actions of soldiers in war who seek to directly degrade the material ability of the enemy to continue fighting, the victims of terrorism are chosen instead for symbolic reasons. An important point here is that states which try to hide their involvement in civilian-directed violence may still be sending a powerful message to the society or social groups they wish to intimidate. Essay. The use of disappearances as a strategy of terrorism for example, sends a message that the state is omnipotent, omnipresent and ruthless in rooting out opponents,[34] as does kidnap and torture. In other cases, state terrorism may be both instrumental and essays, direct: killing a union organiser for paul essay, example, both weakens the union and sends a message to potential union leaders and the society they come from. Third, and related to the previous point, terrorism is intended to data plan, cause fear and intimidate. This is the essay, central purpose of the grading system marks essay, violence and not just the unintended consequence, although it can be argued that there is essay, a certain kind of intentionality when actors engage in actions they can be sure which will cause terror and intimidate, such as using airpower to writing preface thesis, bomb civilian areas. Moreover, the essay, intention to cause fear can usually be deduced from the targets, context and dream essay, foreseen consequences of the violence.

Bombs in public places or the widespread use of torture against regime opponents for paul essay, example, are clearly intended to terrify the wider society. Lastly, terrorism is aimed primarily but not solely at civilians. Here I differ with some scholars in that I argue that it is often unhelpful to try and maintain civilian-military or combatant-non-combatant distinctions in conceptualising terrorism. I agree with Goodin in this regard that such distinctions can in fact, be counter-productive, as they allow actors to claim legitimacy for other forms of equally abhorrent violence.[35] A violent campaign aimed at essays drug war police officers or off-duty military personnel that was intended to cause fear and intimidate the essay, wider society or a certain section of grading system is better than marks essay society for example, would still constitute terrorism even though it avoided targeting civilians. Similarly, certain actions during war which were aimed solely at terrorising enemy soldiers and their civilian audience, rather than for military-strategic reasons, could also be considered terrorism. The use of certain types of militarily ineffective but demoralising chemical weapons or the paul, bombing of civilian areas in data analysis, which there were no real strategic targets, for example, would qualify as terrorism. There are a number of clear advantages to employing such a conception of terrorism. In the first instance, it does not artificially and illogically limit the phenomenon by the nature of the paul essay, actor (as some definitions do), but includes state terrorism, gender-based terrorism,[36] and non-state terrorism. Second, it does not limit the dream for future essay, analysis to peace, but also includes the behaviour of actors in paul, war—the site of a great deal of concentrated political violence.

Lastly, as mentioned, it can be argued that there is already a consensus on these criteria among the leading terrorism scholars, as their definitions tend to incorporate all these elements. From this perspective, the main issue is not that we do not know what terrorism is or that we cannot clearly identify it; it is rather that the on dream school, application of the definition is paul essay, too often restricted—for whatever reason—to a narrow set of actors that most often happens to coincide with the current strategic interests of Western powers. During the cold war, most terrorism research focused on left-wing non-state groups; today, most terrorism research focuses on so-called Islamist terrorism. This inconsistent application both distorts the focus of the dream for future essay, field and undermines attempts to restrict and eliminate oppressive forms of political violence. Terrorism and Emancipation. In addition to essay, its analytical advantages, the terrorism label could be employed as means to advancing a progressive political project aimed at protecting marginalised and dream, vulnerable populations from indiscriminate and oppressive forms of violence. That is, at the most basic level, employing the above criteria can have the effect of de-legitimising any and all forms of violence that seek to instrumentalise human suffering for the sole purpose of sending a message to paul essay, an audience. Dissertation. Related to this, it also de-legitimises all forms of civilian-directed violence, including the essay, direct targeting of civilians during war. Most importantly, however, this approach to terrorism brings back states as a subject for analysis and holds them accountable for actions that many recognise as terrorism but which are rarely acknowledged as terrorism, even by terrorism scholars.

This is a critical task, given that the known effects and consequences of state terrorism —in terms of deaths, human suffering and material, social and political destruction—are far more serious than non-state terrorism. In this sense, the college with, identifying criteria described above functions to set the limits of legitimate state violence, despite the frequent attempt to justify terroristic forms of violence by reference to doctrines of state sovereignty and the legitimate use of political violence. The criteria can also be used to scrutinise state practices during counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency operations to essay, ensure that they do not morph into terrorism themselves by failing to distinguish between the innocent and the guilty or being highly disproportionate, for example. Similarly, it can be used to evaluate state practices during times of war, identifying those occasions when military actions go beyond strategic necessity to the use of force for dream for future essay, the purpose of intimidating and demoralising civilians. In short, these criteria provide a strict set of criteria for the evaluation of actions by any and all actors who are in conflict. As such, they have the potential to strengthen the norms relating to the limits of political violence, thereby improving human and social security. Importantly, the broad social and academic consensus, as well as the relevant legal precepts, is paul, already in place for proscribing and de-legitimising actions that fall within the categories of illegitimate, terrorist violence outlined above. However, in order to make this work in everyday scholarly practice, I would argue that terrorism scholars in particular would need to dream for future essay, adhere to a set of core ontological, methodological and normative commitments. These have been outlined in detail elsewhere,[37] but would include, among others: · An acute sensitivity to the politics of labelling in the terrorism field and paul essay, an acceptance of the insecure ontological status of the term; · Transparency about their own values and political standpoints, particularly as they relate to college with essays, the geo-political interests of Western states; · A willingness to expand their focus of paul research to include the use of terrorism by states, including Western states engaged in operations overseas; · Adherence to school, a set of responsible research ethics, including a commitment to refusing to cooperate with state counter-terrorism projects that include the use of torture, illegal practices such as rendition or the essay, victimising of dream essay whole suspect communities; · A commitment to normative values which reject any and all forms of civilian-directed violence and which promotes a broad notion of paul essay human security. In particular, terrorism scholars must recognise the cultural-political biases they hold and aim for with essays, consistency of essay application of the criteria set out. Specifically, they must demonstrate a willingness to dream essay, scrutinise and condemn the actions and essay, intentions of their own states when they cross the line into terrorism.

This is in fact, the than essay, biggest problem facing the field in this area. It is not that terrorism scholars do not recognise the use of terrorism by states; it is rather that they limit the paul essay, focus of their research largely to non-state groups that are opposed to analysis, Western interests and fail to paul essay, acknowledge the long history of involvement of their own states or allied states in terrorism. In this paper, I have attempted to demonstrate that even though terrorism is impossible to define and the study of terrorism is dissertation plan, beset by some unhelpful biases and knowledge practices, it is both possible and necessary to retain the term as a focus for research. I have further suggested that as an analytical term, terrorism can potentially also play an important normative function. However, in order to realise this potential, terrorism scholars need to acknowledge and accept the ethico-political content of their subject and paul essay, commit themselves to a number of transparent principles. The consequences of thesis failing to do so are that the field remains unbalanced, politically biased and highly limited in its focus. More importantly, unless these imbalances are addressed, the field is in danger of reinforcing the view that terrorism is solely a problem of non-state groups and individuals, and that states are immune from condemnation or sustained scholarly analysis. As such, there is a danger that terrorism studies will continue to be seen by some as simply an arm of the state security sector and a bastion of support for paul, the Global War on essay on dream school, Terror.

Considering some of the paul, morally questionable and counter-productive policies at writing preface thesis the heart of current state security practices in the global counter-terrorism campaign—such as extraordinary rendition, the paul, widespread use of torture, internment at Guantanamo Bay, pre-emptive war, extra-judicial killing of terrorist suspects, shoot-to-kill policies, intrusive surveillance, aid and support for authoritarian regimes and the like—this should sound a clarion call for on the, concerted action to scholars in the field. About the essay, Author: Richard Jackson is Reader in International Politics at Aberystwyth University and the Founding Editor of the journal, Critical Studies on dream for future, Terrorism . Paul. He gained his PhD from the grading system is better than marks essay, University of Canterbury, New Zealand. Paul. His current research focuses on the discourses of grading system is better terrorism and the development of 'critical terrorism studies'. [1] An earlier version of this paper was presented at the British International Studies Association (BISA) Annual Conference, 17-19 December, 2007, University of Cambridge. [2] Silke, A. Paul Essay. (2004) 'The Road Less Travelled: Recent Trends in Terrorism Research', in system than, A. Silke, (ed), Research on essay, Terrorism: Trends, Achievements and Failures . London: Frank Cass, p. 207. [3] For an excellent overview of the main definitional approaches in the field, see Raphael, S. (2007) 'Putting the State Back In: The Orthodox Definition of Terrorism and the Critical Need to Address State Terrorism', Paper Prepared for application with essays, British International Studies Association (BISA) Annual Conference, 17-19 December, 2007, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom, available online at: http://www.bisa.ac.uk/2007/tuesday.htm. [4] Tilly, C. (2004) 'Terror, Terrorism, Terrorists', Sociological Theory , vol. 22, no. 1, p. 6; Schmid, A. (2004) 'Frameworks for Conceptualising Terrorism', Terrorism and Political Violence , vol. 16, no.

2, p. 199. [5] Tilly, 'Terror, Terrorism, Terrorists', p. 5. [6] Hoffman, B. (1998) Inside Terrorism , New York: Columbia University Press, p.43. [7] Emphasis added. Quoted in Martin, G. (2003) Understanding Terrorism: Challenges, Perspectives, and Issues , Thousand Oaks: Sage, p. Paul. 33. [8] See Raphael, 'Putting the State Back In'. [9] Richardson, L., quoted in system marks essay, Taylor, M. and Horgan, J. (eds) (2000) The Future of Terrorism London: Frank Cass. [10] I explore this problem in Jackson, R. (2007) 'Critical Reflection on Counter-sanctuary Discourse', in Michael Innes, (ed), Denial of Sanctuary: Understanding Terrorist Safe Havens , Westport, CT: Praeger Security International. [11] Silke, 'The Road Less Travelled', p. Essay. 206. [12] Quoted in Goodin, R. (2006) What's Wrong with Terrorism? Cambridge: Polity Press 2006, p. 55. [13] Laqueur, W. (1977), Terrorism . London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, p. 6. [14] Western state terrorism is discussed in more detail in Jackson, 'Critical Reflection on Counter-sanctuary Discourse'.

[15] See for example, George, A. (1991), Western State Terrorism , Cambridge: Polity Press; Herman, E. (1982) The Real Terror Network: Terrorism in Fact and Propaganda , South End Press. [16] In any case, it can be argued that states who employ terror as a mode of governance lack legitimacy. [17] Goodin, What's Wrong With Terrorism? , pp. Preface Thesis. 50-77. [18] See Rummel, R. Essay. (1994) Death by Government . Somerset, NJ: Transaction Books; see also Goodin, What's Wrong With Terrorism? , p. 67).

[19] The former British ambassador to Uzbekistan reveals the nature and college with essays, extent of Uzbek state terror and Western complicity in Craig Murray, Murder in Samarkland: A British Ambassador's Controversial Defiance of Tyranny in the War on paul essay, Terror (Mainstream Publishing, 2006). [20]This is not to say that there are no scholars who examine state terrorism, simply that they are few and far between and grading system is better marks, tend to paul, exist on data plan, the margins of or even outside of the main field. There has been some outstanding research on state terrorism, including: Sluka, J. (ed.), (2000), Death Squad: An Anthropology of essay State Terror (Penn: University of Pennsylvania Press); Stohl, M. and analysis plan, Lopez, G. Essay. (eds.) (1986), Government Violence and Repression: An Agenda for Research , ed. Bernard Johnpoll, Contributions in dissertation data, Political Science, New York: Greenwood; Gareau, F. (2004), State Terrorism and the United States: From Counterinsurgency to paul, the War on Terrorism , London: Zed Books; and Grosscup, B. (2006) Strategic Terror: The Politics and Ethics of mexican drug Aerial Bombardment . London: Zed Books. [21]Goodin, What's Wrong With Terrorism? p. 52. [22] On the paul, issue of terrorism during war, an excellent example is Grosscup, B. Essays Mexican. (2006) Strategic Terror: The Politics and Ethics of Aerial Bombardment . London: Zed Books. Grosscup provides a thoroughly convincing and eloquent argument about why the doctrine and paul essay, practice of strategic bombing constitutes a form of state terrorism – not least because its original formulation was as ' terror bombing' aimed at civilians and intended 'to create such terror, destruction and misery as to undermine civilians' morale and in swift order break their fragile will to resist' (p. 24). He goes on college with, to document the use of 'terror bombing' against civilian populations in numerous European colonies, in the Spanish Civil War and during World War II, and essay, then in its new formulation as 'strategic bombing' in numerous conflicts since such as Korea, Cambodia, Vietnam, Lebanon, Chechnya, Kosovo, Afghanistan and analysis plan, Iraq. Furthermore, Grosscup demonstrates that the two most common justifications for strategic bombing – that unlike non-state terrorism it does not deliberately target civilians and that when large numbers of civilians are killed it is not intentional – are in fact, highly specious (p. 179).

[23] Goodin, What's Wrong With Terrorism? pp. 69-73. [25] Schmid, A. and A. Jongman, (1988) Political Terrorism: A New Guide to paul essay, Actors, Authors, Concepts, Databases, Theories and Literature , Oxford: North Holland, p. 101. [26] See Zulaika, J. and W. Douglass, (1996) Terror and Taboo: The Follies, Fables, and system is better than marks essay, Faces of Terrorism , London: Routledge; Jackson, R. (2005). Writing the War on Terrorism: Language, Politics and Counterterrorism , Manchester: Manchester University Press; Jackson, R. (2007) 'Constructing Enemies: Islamic Terrorism in Political and essay, Academic Discourse', Government Opposition , vol. Dream For Future Essay. 42, no. 3, pp. 394-426; Winkler, C. (2006) In the Name of Terrorism: Presidents on Political Violence in the Post-World War II Era , Albany, NY, State University of paul essay New York Press; Collins, J. and Glover, R. (eds.) (2002) Collateral Language: A User's Guide to plan, America's New War (New York University Press, 2002); and Croft, S. Essay. (2006) Culture, Crisis and America's War on Terror , Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

[27] See Zulaika and Douglass, Terror and dissertation analysis plan, Taboo . [28] Livingston, S. (1994) The Terrorism Spectacle , Boulder, CO: Westview Press. [29 ]Sluka, J. (2002) 'Comment: What Anthropologists should know about the Concept of Terrorism', Anthropology Today , vol. 18, no. 2, p. 23. [30] Zulaika and Douglass, Terror and Taboo , p. x. [31] Schmid, A. (2004) 'Frameworks for Conceptualising Terrorism', Terrorism and Political Violence , vol.

16, no. 2, p. 205. [32] See Zulaika and Douglass, Terror and Taboo . [33] This point was made to me in conversation with Ken Booth, Aberystwyth University. [34] See Sluka, 'Introduction'. [35] Goodin, What's Wrong With Terrorism? p. 15.

[36] See Sharlach, L. (forthcoming) 'Veil and Four Walls: A State of essay Terror in Pakistan', Critical Studies on Terrorism , vol. Writing Preface. 1, no. 1. [37] See Jackson, R. (2007) 'The Core Commitments of Critical Terrorism Studies', European Political Sci ence, 6(3), 244-51. ENHANCING SECURITY THROUGH COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH. Perspectives on Terrorism is paul essay, a journal of the Terrorism Research Initiative and the Center for on dream school, Terrorism and paul essay, Security Studies.

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