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Case Study Method - Center for Innovation in Research and Teaching
Bibliometrics, Citation And Citation Analysis. Chapter 3: Bibliometrics, Citation and Citation Analysis. Dr. Ranganathan S. R. (1969) coined the term 'Librametry' and presented his concept in ASLIB conference held at Leamington Spa. He used the term to include statistical approaches to study library and its services. However, the practice of using quantitative method to measure information sources were made even before Dr.
Ranganathan but under different terms or without any particular term but 'Statistical Analysis' was in case study, common use before the term Librametry. Cole and Eales (1917) graphically mapped the literature and called this method of analysis as 'Statistical analysis'. Hulme (1923) studied the literature and called it 'statistical bibliography', but the terms were found to be clumsy as it could easily be mistaken. Later the term was coined as bibliometrics by Pritchard (1969). 3.2 Different Terminologies in Use:- Many attempts have been made to define the term bibliometrics and french essay editor its analogous terms since the case method use of the term 'statistical bibliography' by Hulme (1923), and according to him 'the purpose of statistical bibliography is to throw light on the process of written communication and the nature and course of what goes of a research paper development of a discipline (in so far as this is displayed through written communication) by means of counting and analyzing its various facets of written communication'. Raising (1962), in study method, his article clearly defined the term statistical bibliography as 'the assembling and interpretation of statistics relating to books and periodicals to demonstrate historical movements and to determine national and universal research, use of books and what abstract of a journal, and to ascertain in many local situations the general use of books and journals'. This definition is also treated as one of the case study method classical definitions of bibliometrics. The term Bibliometrics was first coined by Pritchard (1969) in preference to existing terminology 'statistical bibliography' as he felt there is essays on personality psychology, fair likelihood to misinterpret it as bibliometrical methods to books and other media of communication'. According to case study, Fairthorne (1969), statistical bibliography was 'Quantitative treatment of students not wear properties of recorded discourse and behaviour appertaining to case study method, it'.
British Standard Glossary (1976) of documentation explained the term bibliometrics as 'the study of use of essays psychology documents and patterns of publication in which mathematical and statistical methods have been applied' which is basically similar to Pritchard's original definition of case study method bibliometrics. Hawkins (1977), in his on-line bibliometrics study interpreted bibliometrics term as 'The quantitative analysis of the habit essay bibliographic features of a body of literature'. Nicholas and Ritchie (1978), in their books entitled 'Literature on Bibliometrics' opined that bibliometrics provided information about the structure of knowledge and how it is communicated? They further added that bibliometrics studies fall mainly into two broad groups, describing characteristics or features of a literature (descriptive studies) and those examining the relationship formed between the components of literature (behavioural studies). More recently Plotter (1981) had defined bibliometrics as 'the study and measurement of the publication patterns of all forms of written communication and their authorship'. Schrader (1981), has also tried to case study, define the term in what in the research paper, a more simplified manner and stated that bibliometrics is 'the scientific study of recorded discourse.' Broadus (1987b) presented a historical overview of various definitions of bibliometrics and proposed an alternative definition for bibliometrics. According to study, him, bibliometrics is the quantitative study of physically published units or of bibliographic units or of surrogates of either. More explicitly Sengupta (1990), defines the term as 'organization, classification and quantitative evaluations along with their authorship by mathematical and statistical calculus'. A more elaborate concept of bibliometrics has been recently explained by Egghe (2000), as 'development and application of mathematical models and techniques to all aspects of communications.' From these definitions it is concluded that statistical bibliography is replaced by bibliometrics and it means study of measurement of the students should not wear school persuasive essay publication patterns of case study all forms of on personality psychology written communication and their authorship by means of using citation studies.
3.3 What is Bibliometrics? The term 'bibliometrics' was first used by Pritchard (1969) in his article 'Statistical Bibliography or Bibliometrics' published in case method, the 'Journal of Documentation'. 'Biblio' means book and 'Metric' means a scale or measure. Bibliometric means application of statistical studies in library and information science. According to Pritchard (1969), bibliometrics is defined as 'the application of mathematics and statistical methods to books and other media of communication.' Potter (1981) defines bibliometrics as 'the study and measurement of the publication pattern of all forms of written communication and their author'. In Bibliometrics and Librametry as an area in which studies 'information process and information handling in libraries and information canters by quantitatively analyzing the characteristics and behaviour of documents, library staff, and library users.' The study of bibliometrics and habit essay Librametry include bibliometric distribution, citation analysis, library use studies, etc. It is also a quantitative study of literatures as reflected in bibliographies. Bibliometrics is the use of quantitative analysis and statistics to describe patterns of publication within a given field or body of literature. Bibliometrics is study, a set of methods to quantitatively analyze scientific and technological literature (Bellis 2009). French Essay Editor? The commonly used bibliometric methods are citation analysis and content analysis. Content analysis or textual analysis is study, a methodology used in the social sciences for studying the content of communication. Students School? Earl Babbie (2010) defines it as the study of recorded human communications, such as books, websites, paintings and laws.
According to Farooq Joubish (2011), content analysis is considered a scholarly methodology in the humanities by which texts are studied as to case study, authorship, authenticity, or meaning. Later subject includes were philology, hermeneutics, and semiotics. Lasswell (1951, p.525 ) formulated the core questions of content analysis and stated that 'Who says what, to whom, why, to what extent and with what effect? Ole Holsti (1969) offers a broad definition of content analysis as any technique for making inferences by objectively and habit systematically identifying specified characteristics of messages. Kimberly (2002) offers a six-part definition of content analysis:Content analysis is a summarizing, quantitative analysis of messages that relies on the scientific method (including attention to objectivity, inter subjectivity, a priori design, reliability, validity, generalisability, replicability, and case study hypothesis testing) and is not limited as to the types of variables that may be measured or the context in which the messages are created or presented. Garfield (1983) and Richard (2010) defined citation analysis as 'the examination of the what abstract paper frequency, patterns, and graphs of case study citations in articles and books'.
Content analysis uses citations in scholarly works to establish links to other works or other researchers. Citation analysis is one of the french essay editor most widely used methods of bibliometrics. Martyn (1976), defined citation analysis as, 'Analysis of the citations or references or both which forms of part of the scholarly publication.' According to Baughman (1974), 'Citation study is a systematic enquiry into the structural properties of the literature of the subject' he explains that the case study method structure of literature is of a good quality. Bibliometric method is most often used in the field of library and information science; as well it has an equal applicability in other areas also. In fact, in term, many research fields use of bibliometric methods is case study method, carried out to explore the impact of their field, the impact of a set of researchers, or the impact of a particular paper etc. Bibliometrics are now used in quantitative research assessment exercises of what goes in the of a academic output (Henderson et al 2009). The UK government is considering using bibliometrics as a possible auxiliary tool in its Research Excellence Framework, a process which may assess the quality of the study method research output of UK universities and on the basis of the assessment results, allocate research funding (http://www.ref.ac.uk/) Bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationships amongst academic journal citations. Citation analysis, which involves examining an item's referring documents, is psychology, used in searching for materials and study analyzing their merit. Essay? Citation indices, such as Institute for Scientific Information's Web of Science, allow users to search forward in case method, time from a known article to more recent publications which cite the known item.
Today citation analysis tools are easily available to compute various impact measures for scholars based on data from citation indices. These have various applications, from the identification of expert referees to review papers and grant proposals, to providing transparent data in support of academic merit review, tenure, and promotion decisions. Nicholas (1978) in his article 'Literature and Bibliometrics' explained the importance of citation analysis and its applications in LIS. He pointed out that information scientists and librarians use citation analysis to quantitatively assess the core journal titles and watershed publications(less used or border lined publications) in particular disciplines; interrelationships between authors from microeconomic paper, different institutions and schools of case study thought; and related data about the academia. Some more pragmatic applications of this information includes the planning of retrospective bibliographies, finding the age of material used in a discipline (Half life) , and comparison between use of recent publications versus older ones, comparing the coverage of secondary services which can help publishers gauge their achievements and competition, and fences essay can aid librarians in evaluating the effectiveness of case study method their stock. There are also some limitations to the value of citation data. They are often incomplete or biased; data has been largely collected manually (which is expensive), though citation indexes can also be used; incorrect citing of sources occurs continually; thus, further investigation is required to truly understand the rationale behind citing to allow it to be confidently applied. Thus it is revealed that bibliometric method is very useful to analyze the impact of literature in any subject areas and in LIS it is useful to decide the habit policies for different activities like acquisition, organization, stacking, introduction of new service, ranking of periodicals, half life of literature in any subject discipline formatting and collection development policies and related policies etc. 3.4 Laws of Bibliometrics:-
The three most commonly used laws in bibliometrics are. 1) Bradford's Law of Scatter: - which describes how the literature of a subject area is distributed in its journals and which forms the basis for study calculating how many journals contain a certain percentage of published articles? 2) Lotka's Law of in the abstract paper Scientific Productivity: - A formula for measuring / predicting the productivity of scientific researchers. 3) Zipf's Law of Word Occurrence: - which describes the frequency of the method appearance of certain words or more specifically, suggests that people are more likely to select and fences essay use familiar rather than unfamiliar words. Among all these three laws, Bradford's Law is more useful to LIS professionals and related to citation analysis. 3.4.1 Bradford's Law of Scatter:- Bradford (1934), pointed out case, that if scientific journals are arranged in order of decreasing productivity of articles on habit, a given subject, they may be divided into a nucleus of periodicals more particularly devoted to case, the subject and several groups and zones containing the same number of articles as the nucleus when the number of periodicals in the nucleus and succeeding zones will be 1: n: n2. Bradford's Law states that journals in french editor, a single field can be divided into three parts, each containing the same number of articles: * A core of study method journals on the subject, relatively few in number, that produces approximately one-third of all the articles; * A second zone, containing the same number of articles as the first, but a greater number of smoking essay journals, and. * A third zone, containing the same number of articles as the second, but a still greater number of journals.
The mathematical relationship of the number of journals core to the first zone is case method, a constant n and to the second zone the relationship is n. Bradford expressed this relationship as 1 : n : n. Bradford formulated his law after studying a bibliography of geophysics, covering 326 journals in the field. He discovered that 9 journals contained 429 articles, 59 contained 499 articles, and 258 contained 404 articles. So it took 9 journals to contribute one-third of the articles, 5 times of habit essay 9, or 45, to case, produce the next third, and 5 times 5 times 9, or 225, to produce the last third. Bradford's Law serves as a general guideline to librarians in determining the number of core journals in any given field. Microeconomic Term? Bradford's Law is not statistically accurate, but it is still commonly used as a general rule of case study thumb. 3.4.2 What is Citation:- Citation is a reference to a published or unpublished source (not always the original source).
More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression (e.g. Newell84) embedded in the body of an intellectual work that denotes an entry in the bibliographic references section of the work for the purpose of acknowledging the should school persuasive relevance of the works of case others to the topic of discussion at the spot where the essays on personality citation appears. Generally the combination of both the in-body citation and the bibliographic entry constitutes what is case study, commonly thought of as a citation (whereas bibliographic entries by themselves are not). A prime purpose of a citation is intellectual honesty to french editor, attribute prior or unoriginal work and ideas to case method, the correct sources and to allow the reader to determine independently whether the microeconomic term referenced material supports the author's argument in the claimed way. 3.4.3 What is Reference:- Reference is derived from Middle English referren, from Middle French rfrer, from Latin referre, to method, carry back, formed from the habit smoking essay prefix re- and ferre, to bear. A large number of words derived from this root, including referee, reference, referendum, all retaining the study basic meaning of the original Latin as a point, place or source of origin.
A referee is the provider of this source of origin, and a referent is the possessor of the source of fences essay origin, whether it is knowledge, matter or energy. Because of its meaning, the word reference is used in every sphere of human knowledge, adopting shades of meaning particular to the contexts in method, which it is used. References can take on many forms, including: a thought, a sensory perception that is audible (onomatopoeia), visual (text), olfactory, or tactile, emotional state, relationship with other, space-time coordinate, symbolic or alpha-numeric, a physical object or an energy projection; but, other concrete and abstract contexts exist as methods of defining references within the microeconomic scope of the various fields that require an case study method, origin, point of departure, or an original form. This includes methods that intentionally hide the reference from some observers, as in cryptography. Citations are measured to on personality psychology, find the case method different use patterns like author, chronology, geography, subject, forms etc in LIS.
An essential part of research papers, particularly in science is the list of references indicating towards prior publications. Ziman (1968) has rightly indicated 'a scientific paper does not stand alone; it is embedded in the literature of the subject'. Similarly Nann (1976) defines 'A reference is the acknowledgement that one document gives to another; a citation is the essay acknowledgement that one document receives from another'. Malin (1968) says 'A citation implies a relationship between a part or the whole of the cited document and a part or the whole of the case study citing document.' From these statements of stalwarts it is very clear that citation has an importance while publishing scientific or research communications. It is must to cite the author from which data is used. The research activity built on citing papers and using previous knowledge. The use of citation and its study reveals many concepts useful for developing libraries properly. Citation analysis is the area of in the abstract of a bibliometrics which deals with the study of their relationships which might be useful for bridging research. Case Study Method? Weinstock (1974) identified reasons for citing and quoting references in goes in the of a paper, research study as under. 1. Giving homage to pioneers. 2. Giving credit for related works (Homage to Press.)
3. Identifying methodology, equipment etc. 4. Providing background reading. 5. Correcting one's own work. 6. Correcting the work of others. 7. Case? Criticizing previous work and adding quality and innovation.
8. Substantiating claims. 9. Alerting to forthcoming work. 10. Providing leads to poorly disseminated or poorly indexed or uncited work. 11.
Authenticating data and classes of fact-physical constants etc. 12. Identifying original publications in which an idea or concept was discussed. 13. French Essay Editor? Identifying original publication or other work describing a concept or term (e.g.HODGKIN'S Disease Pareto's Law, Friedel-Crafts reaction etc.) 14.
Disclaiming work or ideas of others. (Negative Claims) 15. Disputing priority claims of others. Case? (Negative Homage) Apart from these points references appended in the research study is valid indicator of its significance. The facts stated in french essay, the research needs to be supported by earlier citations (studies) and there is always a relation between citing theses or book or an article indicating similarity of the research. 3.4.4 Importance of Citations:- Ziman (1968), Price (1968), Narin (1976), Marin (1968) had opened that citations plays an important role in research. Father they added that scientific paper or scientific research does not go alone, but it is embedded in the subject of literature, as a reference (citation) which is acknowledgement for the use of information by the another author who cites in his writing. The relation of cited and citing document stating 'a citation implies relationship between a part or the whole of the cited document and a part or the whole of the citing document.' Citation analysis is the area dealing with the bibliometrics and deals with study of relationship of cited and citing document and such studies are essential to track the scholarly development in any subject field. 3.5 Citation Analysis:- When one author cites another author, a relationship is established.
Citation analysis uses citations in case study, scholarly works to establish links. Many different links can be ascertained, such as links between authors, between scholarly works, between journals, between fields, or even between countries. Students Uniforms? Citations both from and to a certain document may be studied. One very common use of citation analysis is to determine the impact of a single author on a given field by counting the number of times the author has been cited by others. One possible drawback of this approach is that authors may be citing the single author in a negative context (saying that the author doesn't know what s/he's talking about (Osareh 1996). 3.5.1 Co-citation Coupling:-
Co-citation coupling is a method used to establish a subject similarity between two documents. If papers A and B are both cited by case method, paper C, they may be said to be related to one another, even though they don't directly cite each other. If papers A and B are both cited by many other papers, they have a stronger relationship. The more papers they are cited by, the stronger their relationship is. 3.5.2 Bibliographic Coupling:-
Bibliographic coupling operates on paper, a similar principle, but in a way it is the mirror image of co-citation coupling. Study? Bibliographic coupling links two papers that cite the microeconomic term same articles, so that if papers A and B both cite paper C, they may be said to be related, even though they don't directly cite each other. The more papers they both cite, the stronger their relationship is. 3.6 Reasons to conduct Bibliometric Studies:- Historically bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationships amongst academic journal citations. Study Method? The bibliometric research uses various methods of citation analysis in order to establish relationships between authors or their work.
The Bibliometric studies are conducted to identify the peers, social change and the core journal, etc. indexing and Thesaurus, research, formulating search strategies in case of automated system, comparative assessment of the secondary services, Bibliographic control, preparation of retrospective bibliographic and library Management. Collection development includes planning, implementation and evaluation of collections (Baughman, 1977): Planning is to essay, map information needs, to develop aims and make decisions about priorities. Knowledge about the structure of a subject field and about the information resources used in the field is needed for planning the collection. Bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, bibliographic coupling, co-word analysis and co-citation analysis can be used to map the knowledge structure and the use of literature. Implementation of the collection includes library routines, communication and information provision. Study Method? A working indexing language, which reflects the modern terminology, is needed to organise the collection. Knowledge about the what in the abstract of a paper important themes in a field gives a base for case study method developing the microeconomic paper terminology. These themes are based on the knowledge structure received by bibliometric methods. Collection Evaluation is analysis and assessment of the collection according to its aim and functions. Different bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, analysis of the scattering of articles to journals and analysis of the obsolescence of literature are used for this purpose.
Application of bibliometric research identified by method, Wallace (1989), indicated that the use is for developing libraries. - Improving the essays bibliographic control of literature. - Identifying a core literature especially journals. - Classifying a literature. - Tracing the spread of ideas and growth of method a literature. - Improving the efficiency of information handling services.
- Predicting publishing trends and needs. - Describing patterns of book use by patrons. - Developing and evaluating library collections. 3.7 Strengths of Bibliometrics as a Research Approach:- Bibliometric studies are useful and french have a quantitative base. The method helps analysis status and case method strength is in: ' Methods are objective and repeatable. ' Results have a wide range of psychology potential practical value.
' Does not require human subject interaction. ' High reliability in data that are collected unobtrusively, from the case study method published record, and can be easily replicated by essay, others. 3.7.1 Limitations of bibliometrics as a research approach:- Following few limitations of the study are observed by. Results are only valid to extent that citations are assumed to represent significant link between citing and cited documents. ' Technical issues related to data obtained from citation indexes and bibliographies. ' Variations and method misspelling of author names, authors with same name, incomplete coverage of non-English publications. 3.8 Application of Bradford's Law in Library and Information Science Research:- Bradford's law is used to solve problems in journal collection management as well as resource development in any libraries.
The basic concept is to conduct Bradford analyses of journals i.e. to sort the journals in Bradford zones and thus identify which belong to the core and which does not. Any Bradford analysis involves three steps. 1. Identify many or all items (usually articles) published in this field; 2. List the sources (usually journals) that publish the articles (or items) in rank order beginning with the source that produces the most items; 3. While retaining the order of the sources, divide this list into groups (or zones) so that the number of students should not wear school items produced by each group of sources is about the same. The 'most obvious potentials' of Bradford analyses are: ' Defining the core. ' The law of diminishing returns. ' Calculation of case study method cost based on various coverage. ' Setting priorities among journals. Bradford's law is used to solve practical problems related to information seeking and retrieval. An automatic option for sorting the essay editor output from study method, online searches of journal literature, which he argued would help online users. 'Computerized sorting of hits by the journals in which they appear, and then of journals, high to low, by the number of french essay hits appearing in each'.
Special libraries and information officers make good use of data generated using bibliometric techniques in selecting and maintaining collections of the case study method most needed serials. Bradford's law, Lotka's law, Zipf's law, and french editor citation analysis have contributed to case, the effective operation of of a special libraries' From the various studies it is analysed major thrust areas of research in Library and Information Science are using application of bibliometrics and the reasons are: 1. Identify the quantum and structure literature on a specific subject during a particular period. 2. Case? Examine the growth literature output in a subject during a period of essays on personality time. 3. Identify the source and country-wise distribution of research literature in a particular subject. 4. Compare and case study measure the growth rate of literature on school uniforms persuasive, a particular subject in various countries. 5. Analyze the authorship pattern of method literature on a particular subject published from various countries.
6. Analyze the degree of single versus multiple author publication and study the trend in authorship pattern. 7. Apply Lotka's authorship productivity concepts on the frequency distribution of authorship productivity. 8. On Personality? Track the development of research literature on a particular subject and its language of publication during the period of coverage and analyze the trend in the language of publication. 9. Study the language of the publication in the context of quantum of pages. 10. Case Study? Study the frequency distribution of applications in the context of country-wise breakdown. 11. Analyze quantitatively the annual literature output on a specific subject. 12. Identify the variety of research publication on a particular subject.
13. Analyze the trend among the psychology various types of publication. The recent developments and methods used and developed the method techniques: 3.8.1 The impact factor:- The impact factor, often abbreviated as IF, is a measure reflecting the average number of citations to articles published in science and social science journals. It is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field. In case of journals with higher impact factors deemed to be more important than those of lower ones.
The impact factor was devised by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), now part of Thomson Reuters. Impact factors are calculated yearly for students not wear uniforms persuasive those journals that are indexed in case, Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Reports and in the of a paper listed in . In a given year, the study method impact factor of a journal is the goes in the abstract research average number of citations received per paper published in that journal during the two preceding years.[ For example, if a journal has an impact factor of 3 in case study method, 2008, then its papers published in students not wear school essay, 2006 and 2007 received 3 citations each on average in 2008. Study? The 2008 impact factor of a journal would be calculated as follows, 2008 impact factors are actually published in 2009; they cannot be calculated until all of the 2008 publications have been processed by the indexing agency. A = the school number of times articles published in 2006 and 2007 were cited by indexed journals during 2008. B = the total number of citable items published by that journal in 2006 and 2007. Case Method? (Citable items are usually articles, reviews, proceedings, or notes; not editorials or Letters-to-the-Editor.) 2008 impact factor = A/B. If is used by many libraries as a tool for selecting Journals for subscription, similarly researcher try to contribute in using it journals for credits. New journals, which are indexed from their first published issue, will receive an impact factor after two years of indexing; in this case, the citations to the year prior to Volume 1, and the number of articles published in the year prior to Volume 1 are known zero values.
Journals that are indexed starting with a volume other than the students should uniforms persuasive first volume will not get an impact factor until they have been indexed for three years. Annuals and other irregular publications sometimes publish no items in a particular year, affecting the count. The impact factor relates to a specific time period; it is possible to calculate it for case study method any desired period, and the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) also includes a 5-year impact factor. The JCR shows rankings of should school essay journals by impact factor, by discipline such as organic chemistry or psychiatry. The terminology used later and becomes popular is Infometrics which covers: The h-index is an index that attempts to measure both the productivity and impact of the case method published work of a scientist or scholar.
The index is based on fences essay, the set of the scientist's most cited papers and the number of citations that they have received in other publications. The index can also be applied to the productivity and impact of a group of scientists, such as a department or university or country. The index was suggested by Jorge E. Hirsch, a physicist, as a tool for study method determining theoretical physicists' relative quality and on personality is sometimes called the Hirsch index or Hirsch number. The h-index can be manually determined using citation databases or using automatic tools. Subscription-based databases such as Scopus and case study method the Web of Knowledge provide automated calculators. Harzing's (2011) Publish or Perish program calculates the h-index based on Google Scholar entries. In July 2011 Google trialed a tool which allows a limited number of scholars to keep track of their own citations and also produces a h-index and habit essay an i10-index (Google Scholar Blog, 2011), the I10 index indicates the number of academic papers an case, author has written that have at least ten citations from others.
It was introduced in July 2011 by Google as part of their work on Google scholar. A search engine dedicated to academic and microeconomic related papers. Each database is likely to produce a study different h for the same scholar, because of different coverage: Google Scholar has more citations than Scopus and Web of case Science but the smaller citation collections tend to be more accurate. In addition, specific databases, such as the Stanford Physics Information Retrieval System (SPIRES) can automatically calculate h-index for researchers working in High Energy Physics. Infometrics is the essays study of quantitative aspects of study method information. Goes In The Of A Research? This includes the production, dissemination and use of all forms of information, regardless of case study method its form or origin. As such, infometrics encompasses the students uniforms essay fields of. ' Scientometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of case study science; ' Webometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of the World Wide Web; ' Cybermetrics, which is similar to webometrics, but broadens its definition to include electronic resources; ' Bibliometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of essay recorded information.
Scientometrics and webometrics are the latest methods. Scientometrics covers quantitative fashion of the development of science and of the mechanism of scientific research. ' Emphasizes investigations in which the development of science and of the mechanism of scientific research is studied by case method, means of (statistical) mathematical methods. ' Publishes original studies, short communications, preliminary reports, review papers, letters to the editor and book reviews on scientometrics. ' Includes the editor Journal of Research Communication Studies.
Scientometrics is concerned with the case study method quantitative features and characteristics of science and scientific research. Emphasis is placed on investigations in which the development and mechanism of science are studied by statistical mathematical methods. The journal publishes original studies, short communications, and preliminary reports, and review papers, letters to the editor and book reviews on scientometrics. Due to its fully interdisciplinary character, the journal is indispensable to research workers and research administrators. It provides valuable assistance to smoking essay, librarians and study method documentalists in central scientific agencies, ministries, research institutes and laboratories. Scientometrics includes the Journal of Research Communication Studies. Consequently its aims and scope cover that of the latter, namely, to bring the results of such investigations together in one place. Bibliometrics and scientometrics are two closely related approaches to measuring scientific publications and science in general, respectively. In practice, much of the work that falls under this header involves various types of essay citation analysis, which looks at how scholars cite one another in publications. Study Method? This data can show quite a bit about networks of scholars and paper scholarly communication, links between scholars, and the development of areas of knowledge over time. Bibliometrics are also one of the key ways of measuring the impact of scholarly publications.
If an article is published in a journal with a high impact factor, which is determined in part by the number of case method citations to research paper, articles within a particular journal, this raises the publishing profile of the author. The number of case citations to that article over time is also a key measure of the productivity and the impact of that scholar. These techniques are very well developed for fences essay traditional citations among journal articles, but are much less clear for new types of outputs, including data sets, websites, and digitized collections. For items such as these, when researchers have used the materials to support their publications, they often don't have clear methods available to them to cite the material. Many of the case method style guides do not have clear guidance for how to cite a database, for instance, or whether to cite a digitized resource in a way to identify its digital location, or that cites the original item, whether or not the researcher actually consulted it. 3.9.2 Webometrics (Cyber metrics):- The concept of webometrics is french essay, based on bibliometrics, because like the study method bibliometrics study, one can measure the editor different quantitative aspect of the web in webometrics study. Secondly it is based on Infometrics. Case? The Infometrics study is not wear uniforms, such type of study, which measures the quantitative aspect of any type of case method information and through webometrics study one can get the information about web (web site). That's why the above phrase is used. The science of webometrics (also Cyber metrics) tries to microeconomic term, measure the World Wide Web to get knowledge about the number and types of hyperlinks, structure of the World Wide Web and usage patterns.
According to Bjrneborn and Ingwersen (2004), the definition of webometrics is the study of the quantitative aspects of the construction and use of information resources, structures and technologies on the Web drawing on bibliometric and Infometrics approaches. The term webometrics was first coined by Almind and Ingwersen (1997). A second definition of webometrics has also been introduced as the study of web-based content with primarily quantitative methods for social science research goals using techniques that are not specific to one field of study (Thelwall, 2009), which emphasizes the development of applied methods for use in the wider social sciences. The purpose of this alternative definition was to help and publicize appropriate methods outside the information science discipline rather than to replace the study original definition within information science. Similar scientific fields are bibliometrics, infometrics, scientometrics, virtual ethnography, and smoking web mining. One relatively straightforward measure is the Web Impact Factor (WIF) introduced by Ingwersen (1998). The WIF measure may be defined as the method number of microeconomic term web pages in a web site receiving links from case method, other web sites, divided by the number of web pages published in what goes in the abstract of a research paper, the site that are accessible to case, the crawler. Microeconomic Term Paper? However the use of WIF has been disregarded due to the mathematical artifacts derived from power law distributions of case study these variables. Other similar indicators using size of the institution instead of number of web pages have been proved more useful. There is one electronic journal, Cyber metrics published since 1997 by the Spanish National Research Council that is term, devoted entirely to this discipline.
Cyber metrics is a branch of study method knowledge which employs mathematical and what goes of a research statistical techniques of quantity web sites or their components and concepts, measure their growth, stability, propagation, and use examines the authenticity of content, establish laws governing these factors, studies the efficiency of cyber information services and systems, services and products and assesses the impact of cyber age on society. Citations in scholarly works are used to establish links to other works. It is one of the most widely used methods of bibliometrics and studies reference to and from documents Gooden (2001). The benefit of bibliometrics and method citation analysis is expressed by Van Raan (2003), which is reinforced by the studies (Lal and Panda, 1996, Aksnes 2006) that have used this method of french research enquiry to evaluate a library collection. Citation analysis reveals interesting information about study method, knowledge producers in terms their information seeking behaviour and usage of microeconomic paper various information sources. It can highlight the study method familiarity, awareness and usage of knowledge producers regarding the online and print information sources.
Citation analysis examines the frequency, patterns and graphs of citations in articles and books (Garfield, 1983). This chapter satisfy the objective set for the study i.e. 'To study the term significance of citations as well as citation study and case study method bibliometrics'. This chapter elaborates the detailed study of citations, reference, need of citation study and goes in the research laws etc. ' Aksnes, D.W. (2006), Citation rates and perceptions of scientific contribution. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 57(2), p.169-185. ' Bellis, De Nicola (2009).
Bibliometrics and citation analysis: from the Science citation index to Cybermetrics. Scarecrow Press, p.417. ISBN 0-8108-6713-3. Located at http://books.google.com/books/about/Bibliometrics_and_citation_analysis.html?id=ma4YjaKyM9cC accessed on 23.08.2011. ' Bhughman J C (1974), A structural analysis of the literature of sociology, Library Quarterly, Vol. Method? 44 (Oct), p.293-308. ' Birger Hjrland and Jeppe Nicolaisen 'Bradford's Law of Scattering: Ambiguities in the Concept of essay editor Subject Royal School of case study method Library and Information Science, Birketinget 6, DK-2300 Copenhagen S., Denmark @db.dk.
' Bradford, S.C. Sources of information on specific subjects. Engineering, 1934, 137 (3550), p.85-86. ' British Standards Institution. British standards of paper documentation terms. BSI; London; 1976, p.7.
' Broadus R N (1987a), early approaches to bibliometrics, journal of the American society for information science, 38, p.127-129. ' Cole, F J and Eales Nellie B (1917), the history of comparative anatomy: a statistical analysis of the literature, Science Progress (11), p.578-596. ' Earl Babbie (2010), the practice of case study method social research, 10th edition, Wadsworth, Thomson Learning Inc., ISBN 0-534-62029-9. ' Egghe L (2000), Lectures Potter, W G (1981) Introduction to Bibliometrics. Library Trends Vol 30, p.5. ' Egghe L (2000).
A heuristic study of the first-citation distribution. Scientometrics 48(3), p.345-359. ' Fairthorne, R. A. (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions (Bradford-Zipf-Mandelbrot) for microeconomic bibliometric description and prediction, Journal of Documentation, 25, p.319'343. ' Fairthrone R A (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions for bibliometric description and prediction, Journal of Documentation, 25, p.319. ' Farooq Joubish and Ashraf Khurram (2011), outlook on some concepts in the curriculum of social studies, World Applied Science Journal 12(9), p.1374-1377. ISSN 1818-4952. ' Garfield, E (1974), Citation Indexing: Its theory and application in science, Technology and Humanities, New York, Wiley, ' Garfield, E. (1983). Citation Indexing - Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology and Humanities. Philadelphia: ISI Press. Method? Retrieved November 4, 2011 from Located at http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/ci/contents.pdf. accessed on 12.04.2011. ' Garfield, E.(1983) Citation Indexing - Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology and Humanities Philadelphia's Press.
' Gooden, A.M. (2001). Citation analysis of goes in the of a research paper chemistry doctoral dissertations: An Ohio State University case study. Retrieved October 13, 2008 Located at http://www.istl.org/01-fall/refereed.html accessed on 27.12.2011. ' Google scholar blog (2011), Google scholar citations open to all, Google. Case Method? Located at http//en.wikipedia.ogr/wiki/I10-index accessed on 03.09.2011. ' Hawkins D T (1977), Unconventional uses of on-line information retrieval system on smoking essay, line British metric studies. Case Study Method? Journal of American society for information science, 28(1), p.13-18. ' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and Fernstrom, K. (2009). The quantitative crunch: the impact of smoking essay bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on academic development at small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. 3, p.149'167. ' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and Fernstrom, K. (2009).
The quantitative crunch: the impact of bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on academic development at small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. 3, p.149'167. ' Higher Education Funding Council for England, Located at http://www.hefce.ac.uk/Research/ref/. and http://www.ref.ac.uk/ accessed on 12th May 2012. ' Hjreppe, P (1982), Supplement to bibliography bibliometrics and citation indexing, 4, p.241-273. ' Hjreppe, R (1980), a bibliography of bibliometrics an case method, dictation indexing and analysis, Royal institute of Technology library, Stockholm, Sweden. Located at http://www.gslis.utexas.edu/ palmquis/courses/biblio.html#Laws and http://www.netugc.com/librametric-bibliometric-scientometrics-informetrics accessed on 25.08.2012. ' Hulme, E.W. (1923), Statistical Bibliography in Relation to the Growth of essay Modern Civilization, Grafton, London. p9. ' Kannappanavar, B U (1991), Citation analysis of the doctoral dissertation in case, library and information science accepted by the universities in Karnataka, Karnataka University, Dharwad, p. 88. (Ph. Fences Essay? D Thesis) ' Lal, A., Panda, S (1996). Research in plant pathology: A bibliometric analysis.
Library Science with a Slant to Documentation and Information Studies, 33(3), p.135-147. ' Lasswell Harold (1951), the analysis of political behavior: An empirical approach, Rautledge, London, p.525. ' Lotka A J (1926), the frequency distribution of scientific productivity, Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, Vol. 16 (12), p.317-323. ' Malin M V (1968), the science citation index: A new concept in Indexing, Library trends, Vol.
16, p. 376. ' Martin, M U (1968), Science citation index: A new concept in indexing, Library Trends, Vol. 16, p.376. ' Martyn L A (1976), Use studies in library planning, Library Trends 24(30). ' Nann F et al (1976), Evaluative bibliometrics: The use of publications and citation analysis in the evaluation of case study scientific activity, cherry Hill, N J, Computer Horizon Inc, p.334-337. ' Narin, Francis and et. Al. School Uniforms? (1976), evaluative bibliometrics: the use of publication and citation analysis in the evaluation of case scientific activity, Cherry Hill, New Jercy, Computer Horizon Inc. p.334-337. ' Neuendorf, Kimberly A. Fences Essay? (2002), the Content Analysis Guidebook Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. ' Nicholas, David and Maureen Ritchie (1978), Literature and Bibliometrics London: Clive Bingley, p.28-29.
' Nicholas, David and case study method Maureen Ritchie (1978). Literature and Bibliometrics London: Clive Bingley, p.12-28. ' Ole R. Holsti (1969(, Content Analysis for the Social Sciences and Humanities. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. ' Potter W G (1981), Introduction to bibliometrics, Library Trends, Vol. 30, p.5. ' Pritchard A (1969), Statistical bibliography an interim bibliography, New Western Polytechnic school of Librarianship, London. ' Pritchard A (1969), statistical bibliography; an interim bibliography, North-western polytechnic, school of Librarianship, p.60. ' Pritchard, A and what in the research paper Witting, G R (1960), Bibliometrics: A bibliography and index (1874-1959), Aaih Books, Westford, ' Raising L (1962), Statistical bibliography in the health sciences, Bulletin the medical library Association, 50, p.450-461.
' Ranganathan S. R. (1969) Librametry and its scope. Case Method? DRTC Seminar (7) paper DA Bangalore: DRTC, ISI and Sarada Ranganathan Endowment of Library Science. Habit Smoking Essay? Reprinted in : JISSI : The International Journal of Scientometrics and method Infometrics; Vol.1, No.1 (1995), p.15-21. (ISSN-0971-6696) ' Rubin, Richard (2010). Foundations of students should not wear school uniforms essay library and information science (3rd ed.). New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers. Method? ISBN 978-1-55570-690-6. Should Uniforms Persuasive Essay? Accessed at http://books.google.com/books?id=Pk1TSAAACAAJ accessed on 09.02.2012. ' Von Sara Ungern-Sternberg Applications in teaching bibliometrics, PhD, Senior lecturer, Abo Akademi University, Department of Library and Information Science, FINLAND.
' Schrader, Alvin M. (1981) Teaching Bibliometrics, Library Trends 30, p.151-172. ' Sengupta I N (1990), Bibliometrics and case method its application in information science and libraries, Atlantic, New Delhi, p.256. ' Swapna Kumar Patra and Prakash Chand (2006), 'Library and Information science Research in fences essay, India: a Bibliometric Study' Annals of Library and Information Studies, Vol 53, December, p.219-223. ' Van Raan, A.F.J. (2003). The use of bibliometric analysis in case, research performance assessment and monitoring of interdisciplinary scientific developments. Technikfolgenabschatzung, Theories und Praxis/ Technology Assessment- Theory and Practice, 12(1), p.20-29. ' Weinstock M (1974), Citation Index, Encyclopedia of library and information science, Vol.5, New York, Dekker, p.19. ' Ziman John M (1968), Public knowledge: An essay concerning the social dimension of science, Cambridge, Cambridge university press, p.58. ' Zipf, G. K. Fences Essay? (1949) 'Human Behavior and the Principle of Least Effort' Reading, MA: Addison- Wesley Publishing co, p.34. Chapter 4: Progress of Education and Research in LIS. Chapter/ Section Description Pages.
4.1 Introduction 104. 4.2 LIS Education : Global Overview 104. 4.3 Library and Information Science Education in India 105. 4.4 Historical Development 107. 4.5 Present Scenario of LIS Education in India 108. 4.6 Objectives of method Library and Information Science Education 109. 4.7 Levels of Education 110. 4.8 First Course of Library Science in India (Certificate, Diploma and Training Courses) 112. 4.9 Post Graduate Diploma Courses 113.
4.10 Degree Courses 114. 4.11 Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC) 114. 4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in LIS 115. 4.13 Present Status of students should persuasive LIS Education in India 115. 4.14 Specialization 116. 4.15 Syllabus 116. 4.16 ICT as an study method, Integral Part 116. 4,17 Practical Exposure 117.
4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and Research 117. 4.19 LIS Research in India 117. 4.20 LIS Research: Global Overview 119. 4.21 Research Trend in Indian Universities 128. Chapter 4: Progress of Education and Research in LIS.
Higher education in each country has its own unique form of system and fences essay varies from streams or branches of knowledge. Higher education is study, imparted by universities and in colleges having equal facilities. Academics in higher education plays an important role in making the society strong as stated different policies are adopted in different countries similarly LIS is a specific subject discipline which support in all educational branches through library systems. Schools of library science provide useful professional education universally and students school persuasive develop library and information professionals to case method, manage the libraries efficiently. The LIS schools have more emphasis towards developing technical and managerial skills through the LIS education. Following paragraphs briefly narrated the status of french essay editor LIS education. 4.2 LIS Education: Global Overview: Tsuji et al (2006), pointed out it in his study that the method main theme in french essay editor, LIS education Japan was developed qualified librarians (Shisho) and assistant librarians (Shisho-ho) for public libraries and as well as qualified teacher librarian (shisho-kyouyu) for school libraries. Study? There is no formal education system for academic and special libraries. In education field life line learning, library management, information reference service, information retrieval, library organization, copy right, information literacy etc. were more focused. Wilson (2012), in his article 'Fifty years of LIS education' in USA and conducted a survey of research productivity and LIS educators during the period 1959-2008.
Author narrated the fences essay progress of LIS education in USA and stated that prior to 1960s practicing librarians were teaching LIS education according to study, syllabus and french essay editor examination conducted by library associations and similar status was also in Australia and Library Association Australia (now Australia library and information association (ALIA) was taking care of the education system.. Latter LIS education moved to higher education institute since 1980. Chu (2006) in his paper 'Curricula of LIS programs in the USA: A content analysis' in which the syllabi was reviewed by author from 45 ALA accredited LIS master programs in case method, USA. Essays? This study brought to the notice that more elective courses offered in LIS education in USA, while number of core requirement is reduced to few. Case Method? Author has also pointed that 10% of the LIS courses in USA are designed in such a way to deal will emerging subject and latest development in the field of LIS. Thus subjects covered in the syllabus deals with knowledge organization, reference and information sources services, management, research in LIS, ICT, collection development, information use etc. As indicated by author in USA education system is giving more emphasis on elective subject like ICT, librarianship, resources and services, technical services etc. to manage latest situation. Now LIS courses clusters were introduced, which covers: - Information seeking behaviour. - Digital publishing etc. 4.3 Library and Information Science Education in India:- LIS education in India is french, completing a century of its existence during the period progress have been achieved in developing LIS education to tune with current practices.
Radhakrishanan Commission, Kothari Commission, National Knowledge Commission, UGC, NAAC put more efforts in education sector including LIS by establishing advisory commission for libraries, national policy for library etc. Curriculum Development Commission (CDC) continues grading and upgraded of LIS education in India. The progress from certificate courses to research level through regular and distance mode took leading developing education in India (Joshi, 2010). There has been enormous growth in education and higher education around the globe. Every country worth its name and has developed a system of education and case infrastructure to educate its people, and India is no exception. There has been a fast growth in institution of essay editor higher education since the dawn of twentieth century and study method more particularly, after India attained independence in 1947. The new India started its development program to achieve the new educational, cultural and editor economic objectives at the national level. Such developments at these institutions contributed to the development of more libraries, which in turn had to accept new responsibilities to meet society's changing needs and demands. Libraries are recognized to play an case study method, important role in fences essay, education, scientific research and social-economic development of a country. This envisages the need for study professionally qualified personnel to students not wear school essay, manage and run the libraries and information centres effectively and efficiently.
In order to feed the growing number of libraries, more trained library professionals were needed. For this purpose, library science departments started springing up, and study method library science developed into essays on personality psychology a distinct field of specialization with its own normative principles, theories, techniques, and practices that were deemed sufficient to meet the growing dimensions of library services. Handling of recorded knowledge in modern libraries has given birth to the functional aspects of collecting, organizing and promoting the use of reading materials relevant to the users through information transfer activities. These activities, no doubt, assist in defining the spectrum of studies for librarianship. The basic tenet of method LIS education is to french essay editor, provide balanced training, integrating theory with practical exercises, and to cover all aspects of professional work with equal emphasis embracing new frontier of librarianship. LIS education aims at providing trained manpower to manage different types of libraries, information and documentation centres which, over case a period of time have undergone changes in essay, terms of needs, functions, types and range of services offered as well as tools and techniques being used when offering the services. Research in library and information science in case study, India is not deep rooted. French? In the beginning it was in the form of a trial and error method. Study Method? It was Padamashree S R Ranganathan (1889-1972) father of library science who lifted trail librarianship to the level of a science with the formulation of laws of library science, and goes research paper establishment library schools and research centres. He even graded them as normative principles, fundamental laws, canons, principles and postulates. Ranganathan cut new grounds and study blazed new practices in library and information science initially by solo research.
This is evidence from the published literature that Ranganathan era's is characterized by a period of intellectual contribution to the library and information science, particularly library classification. Editor? The root of the library and information science research in case, India were off shoots from the country first LIS intellectual workshop (i.e., Department of Library and Information Science, University of Delhi) instituted by Dr S R Ranganathan a day of french library science profession in India in 1946. The first research degree in the library and information science in the country and even in case study, the commonwealth countries was awarded by the University of Delhi in 1957 to D B Krishna Rao for his thesis 'Facet Analysis and Depth Classification of Agriculture' under the in the of a paper supervision of Dr. Case? S R Ranganathan. 4.4 Historical Development:- The modern period in the history of education for librarianship began in the mid-1800s as librarians around the fences essay world recognized that systematic education and training were required so that proper order could be brought to the collections that had been growing in all libraries.
The need for case professionally qualified personnel to manage these libraries effectively and efficiently was duly recognized during the first half of the present and consequently, the library education programme had been started at several places much before Independence. The history of the habit smoking education of library science in India may be traced far back as the year of 1911 with the starting of case a short term training programme in library science in the Baroda State, under the patronage of Maharaja Sayajirao Gaikwad of Baroda, who, impressed by smoking essay, the splendid work done by public libraries in the West, secured the services of an American librarian Mr. Case Study? W. Abstract Of A Research? A. Borden as Director of the State Library Department. Mr. Bordon had been a pupil of Mr. Case Study Method? Melvil Dewey, who established the first library school in the Columbia College, New York in 1887. In 1915, another student of Dewey, Mr. A Dickenson, the then librarian of Punjab University, Lahore started a three months apprentice training programme for working librarians. Before Independence, only five universities namely the Andhra University, Banaras Hindu University, Calcutta University and Madras University were offering diploma course in library science. Library education was given a new status and design by Professor S. R. Ranganathan in 1920, when the first systematic programme in library education was started under the fences essay auspices of the Madras Library Association in collaboration with the Madras University. This library school was subsequently taken over by the Madras University in 1931 and in case, 1937 the course was converted into Postgraduate (PG) Diploma in Library Science.
This was the first diploma programme in Library Science in India. University of Delhi was the first university to establish a full-fledged Department of Library Science just before independence in 1946, and started admitting students to the PG Diploma in 1947. In 1951, the diploma was changed to Master in Library Science (M.Lib.Sc). Later, between 1956 to 1959, six new LIS departments were established at Aligarh Muslim University, M.S.University of Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and Vikram University. Since 1960s, the paper number of LIS departments has continued to increase. After Independence the case study method stimulus for fences essay the growth and study method development of libraries and library science education has come from the progress in and extension of education, scientific research and on personality programmes of case study method socio-economic development which started in 1951 with the commencement of the First Five-Year Plan. What Goes Abstract Of A Paper? As a result of these developments, Library and Information Science today is a well-recognized discipline of case method study and microeconomic term paper research at the post-graduate level in more than hundred universities in the country. The Baroda and case study method Nagpur universities started training course in library science in 1956 and the Vikram University in 1957. 4.5 Present scenario of LIS Education in India:- Since its inception decades ago, LIS education has grown and what goes abstract of a developed into a full-fledged multi-disciplinary subject.
LIS courses at bachelors, masters and research level are being impacted by different institutions ' university departments, colleges, library associations and specialized institutions. There are now 96 universities in India imparting Library and Information Science education as independent departments in different levels. The list is shown in appendix. Case Study Method? Apart from these departments, there are also specialized RD organizations imparting library and information science education. Worth mentioning is the two years Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (ADIS) imparted by Documentation Research and Training Institute (DRTC), Indian Statistical Institute, Bangalore (Karnataka) and National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR) formerly INSDOC, New Delhi which is equivalent to paper, Mater degree of Library and Information Science (LIS). In addition to, these universities/departments there are several other open universities imparting library education as distance education. Method? The professional associations such as Delhi Library Association (DLA) and the polytechnic institutions throughout the country are also imparting LIS education as lower level such as Certificate/Diploma in Library and Information Science. With the fences essay realization of the importance of higher education and research, research in Library education is not lagging behind like other disciplines. The University Grants Commission (UGC) and the Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) are promoting to research activity in library and information science by awarding scholarships to research and doctoral students. 4.6 Objectives of Library and Information Science Education:- The goal of library and information science education is the preparation of personnel for the task of successful performance at different levels of competence in different types of study libraries with an insight into the role of french editor these libraries in a fast changing society.
It should impart a thorough grounding in the intellectual foundations of the profession and competence in the technical and case technological skills required for their day-to-day practice in term paper, different positions. In other words, education for case method library and information science should be both knowledge and theory oriented task or practice oriented. The two aspects of theory and practice blend harmoniously in psychology, a sound programme of library and information science education because on this aspects LIS education depend the effectiveness and success of the programme. In achieving this objective the case study method methods of teaching and evaluation employed are as important as the quality of the faculty. The main objectives of LIS profession are to provide training for building up leadership qualities among the fences essay LIS profession develop knowledge on the latest techniques of information storage, transfer and retrieval of case study information help to smoking, acquire necessary skills in handling information, accessing and application of case study electronic resources, tools and media; and help to goes abstract research, know the latest developments in the Information Technology (IT) To sum up, the basic aims of library and information science education may be as follows. ' To develop necessary technical skills; ' To develop administrative skills; ' To develop service orientation; ' To develop thorough knowledge of various sources of study method information, necessary to give traditional and modern library services. ' To develop professional awareness. 4.7 Levels of Education:-
Out of the 96 university departments, 56 departments conduct one-year Bachelors degree and one year Masters Degree in Library and Information Science at the postgraduate level. Thirteen of these universities conduct two years integrated Masters Degree in Library Science. These programme further leads to M.Phil. and PhD levels. The levels of LIS education in India are discussed as follows in brief: 1.7.1 Certificate/Diploma in Library Science (C/D. Lib. Sc.):- Many polytechnic colleges, schools and should uniforms Library Associations impart the low level of library science courses in India having duration of six months to one year. The basic qualification for these courses is 10+2. This course prepares students for low level professional positions in libraries such as Library Attendant, Library Clerk, etc.
1.7.2 Bachelor of Library and Information Science (BLIS) after any graduation:- This is a one-year post graduate degree course. The basic eligibility is a three years degree from any discipline. This course prepares students for case junior professional positions at all types of libraries and they perform technical libraries. 1.7.3 Master of Library and Information Science (MLIS):- In the microeconomic early 19th Century, young people learned librarianship by working under the more experienced practitioners. But, gradually the tasks performed by librarians became more complex and more dependent on technology. As a result, the study of library science has moved from the work-setting to professional schools in Universities. Case Method? The first ever library school was started by Melvil Dewey in USA in 1887 at Columbia College (now Columbia University). In 1889 the programme moved to the New York State Library in Albany when Dewey became the goes in the of a paper Director there. The success of Dewey's training programme and the publication of Training for Library Service, a book by the economist Charles Williamson in 1923, led other universities, institutes of case technology, and large public libraries to establish their own professional degree programmes in library science.
Master of Library and Information Science is imparted as a one-year post graduate degree course in some universities while in some, it is conducted as a two years integrated course. Many universities which offered one year BLISc and MLISc courses are now switching to two years integrated MLIS course in the line of other masters degree courses. The North East Hill University (NEHU), RTM Nagpur, Punjab University Chandigarh, Karnataka University, Dharwad, etc are now offering two years MLISc course. This course trains persons for senior professional position in libraries, documentation centres and/or information centres and teachers as well. 1.7.4 Associateship in Documentation and essays Information Science (ADIS):- The Documentation Research and case method Training Centre (DRTC), Bangalore (Karnataka) offers two years Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (Now know as Master of Science in Information Science). The National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR), New Delhi , formerly INSDOC also impart two years documentation programme i.e., Associateship in Documentation (AID) after graduation. The course offered by the DRTC and fences essay NISCAIR have upper age on the courses as offered by the university departments in terms of ICT syllabus and case study method intake of the enrolments.
1.7.5 Master of Philosophy in in the of a research paper, Library and Information Science (M.Phil):- In Library and Information Science prepares a student for further advanced research in LIS. Case Study? The basic eligibility for admission for habit essay this programme is minimum 55% MLISc or any equivalent degree recognized by the UGC. With candidates having more qualifications are being preferred for superior position, many students are opting for M.Phil. Courses to better equip them for better positions and develop research activity. 1.7.6 Doctor of Philosophy of Library and case method Information Science:- This is an advanced level of research programme being offered after the completion of MLISc or M.Phil.
The general aim of fences essay a research degree, whether M.Phil. or Ph.D. is to provide training in doing research as well as to case study, develop in the candidate a critical and fences essay analytical process of thinking with the purpose that they would be able to provide leadership in the profession. They would also be able to help librarians and information scientists to develop techniques and skills required to meet their requirements of the fast changing society. They should be able to identify the case study needs, set objectives, identify and analyze the problems and find appropriate solutions. They would also be in a position to participate in the planning, organization and essays psychology implementation of case programmes at various levels. 1.8 First Course of psychology Library Science in study, India(Certificate, Diploma and Training courses):- In India the existence of in service training was initiated by John Macfarlane, the fences essay first librarian of the Imperial Library (Now National Library) at Calcutta from 1901-06, as mentioned in study method, some reports.
In subsequent years, the training programme was opened to the staff of other libraries and even those interested in librarianship who deals with books and other documents. 1.8.1 Baroda School:- In 1911, Sayajirao Gaikwad (1862-1939), the ruler of Baroda state called the American librarian Mr. William Allenson Borden (1853-1931), a disciple of smoking essay Melvil Dewey to create a cadre of men for the newly established libraries in the state library system. In 1912, he initiated the first training school in library education in India. In 1913, another training class for working librarians of town libraries was started. These classes continued even after the case departure of Borden.
1.8.2 Lahore School:- In 1912, the Punjab University called another librarian Mr. Microeconomic? Asa Don Dickinson (1876'1960) from USA. Case Study? He started the second educational course of three month duration in library science in the year 1915. This happens to be the first university course in India. Microeconomic? Mr. Asa Don Dickinson later becomes the Librarian of study method Panjab University, Lahore (now Pakistan) during 1915'1916.
1.8.3 Andhra Desha:- The Andhra Desha Library Association (founded in editor, 1914) started conducting 'training classes for the library workers' at Vijayawada in 1920. Case Study? The classes covered a module on running adult education classes in addition to library technique. 1.8.4 Mysore State:- In 1920, a course for microeconomic term the training of librarians was conducted at Bangalore under the 'program of library development' initiated by the then Dewan of Mysore Mr. M. Visweswaraya. 1.8.5 Madras Library Association:- A summer school for study college librarians and lecturers in charge of should persuasive essay college libraries in Madras was held in 1928 and repeated in 1930.
The Madras Library Association also organized a regular certificate course in library science from 1929. Then in 1931, University of study method Madras took up the training course of MALA in 1931 and started offering the course on a regular basis. 1.8.6 Andhra University:- Andhra University started a certificate course in what in the abstract of a research paper, 1935, which was letter abandoned. 1.8.7 Imperial Library, Calcutta:- The Imperial library, Calcutta started a training class under the supervision of its librarian Mr. K. M. Asudulah in 1935. It was a full time regular Diploma course in librarianship at study, the Imperial Library, Calcutta (now National Library, Kolkata). It continued till 1946.
4.9 Post Graduate Diploma courses:- University of Madras, in 1937, introduced a one year Post Graduate Diploma course in place of the certificate course of three month duration. This was the first P G Diploma in what of a research, library science in India. The second university to start a post graduate diploma course was the Banaras Hindu University in 1942. University of case Bombay initiated a diploma course similar to Banaras Hindu University in 1943.
A training course for the staff working in various government organizations was started in 1953. This course was recognized as equivalent to the university diploma courses. 4.10 Degree Courses:- In 1947, Aligarh Muslim University started B.Lib. Science Course for the first time in term, the country. University of Delhi was the first university to establish a full fledged Department of study method Library Science in 1946. It also instituted the first post diploma degree course in 1948. In 1949, the structure was changed. The programme of Master of Library Science was introduced as a two year course with the what abstract paper first year leading to Bachelor of Library Science. In between 1956-59, six new LIS departments were established at Aligarh Muslim University, MS University of Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and Vikram University. In 1960, Madras University replaced its full time one year diploma course to B.Lib.Sc.
Degree course. By mid 1960, many other universities had fallen in the line of university of Madras following the study method recommendation of Review Committee Report of UGC in introducing different degree courses. French? The Government Polytechnique for women, Ambala, Bangalore, Chandigarh, Delhi, Jullandhur, and Rourkela started post matric (class X) diploma courses of case two years duration in late 1960s. 4.11 Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC):- In 1962, Dr. S. R. Ranganathan established Documentation Research and Training Centre at Bangalore. Previously DRTC courses were of 14 month duration which was later on moved to two years programme. INSDOC conducted a short term course for Asian Documentalists in 1963. In 1964, it started a one year post graduate course in Documentation and Reprography leading to 'Associateship in Documentation and Reprography'. In 1977, the programme was renamed as 'Associateship in Information Science (AIS)'.
On September 30, 2002, INSDOC merged with the National Institute of Science Communication (NISCOM) and was renamed as National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR). At present, it is conducting 'Courses in Information Science'. The DRTC and NISCAIR concentrate on the training of professionals for special and industrial libraries and information centres. Essays Psychology? Their course contents are biased toward information science and technology. The programme of these two institutes are class apart from other similar programmes offered by study method, various institutes. In India advanced professional education has remained attached to french editor, universities, though there are some regional library associations conducting certificate courses of a few months duration and women polytechnics offering post-masters two year diplomas in library science to train paraprofessionals.
At present, about 107 institutions, mostly university colleges and polytechnics, have library science education courses. Out of these, M. Lib. I. Study Method? Sc. What Goes Of A Research? course is case study, being offered by essays on personality, more than 75 universities. 4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in LIS:- In 2010, University of Calcutta introduces five year integrated course in case method, Library and fences essay Information Science and thus becomes the first university to study, launch such course in LIS domain. The entry qualification for this course was set at Higher Secondary (10+2) in Arts / Science or Commerce. Launching of this course will force the learners to choose the LIS by choice and not by microeconomic term paper, chance. It will again help the students to grasp and understand the contents for LIS in a better and study method exhaustive way. 4.13 Present Status of LIS Education in India:- Only few departments and associations now provide Certificate Courses in Library and fences essay Information Science (CLIS) and Diploma in Library and study method Information Science (DLIS).
The others provide BLISc and MLISc courses. In most of the universities, the prerequisite for admission into the Bachelor or Master degree course in Library and on personality psychology Information Science is 10+2+3 years of education from any faculty (arts, science, commerce etc). The majority of the universities generally conduct two separate courses for the Bachelor's degree followed by method, the Master of Library and Information Science of one year (or two semesters) duration each. In recent years, some institutions have offered two years of integrated courses of four semester duration. Should Not Wear School Essay? The University of Calcutta went a step ahead and study method introduced five years integrated course in microeconomic term paper, LIS with entry qualification as 10 +2. Similarly IGNOU and YCMOU are also playing major role in imparting LIS education along with deemed and formal universities. Students in most schools of library and information science have the opportunity to develop at least some degree of specialization. Some may take advanced courses in particular library functions, such as reference work, while others may take courses related to a particular type of study method library, such as a course in medical librarianship or public librarianship or academic librarianship.
In simple, there are many different courses available in LIS. It makes the not wear uniforms professionals available to work at all levels of library irrespective of type, structure and function. The University Grants Commission (UGC), from time to time recommended the broader outlines of courses of Library and Information Science. The latest effort has been through a UGC Curriculum Development Committee (1993). The UGC and case study other higher bodies now give emphasis to semester system rather than annual system, and credit-based rather than marks-based system.
Every university being autonomous is free to frame its own course of fences essay studies, and syllabi of many universities / schools are quite modernized. All programmes to educate librarians share certain characteristics. Programmes typically offer courses in the history of books and librarianship to method, give students a background in the profession's past. It also includes courses in knowledge organization (classification, cataloguing, bibliography, indexing abstracting, Metadata, semantic syntactic analysis, controlled vocabularies, etc.), collection development (acquisition), information seeking behaviors of users, search strategies, library services (dissemination of the acquired library materials, reference), and management of the collection (preservation conservation of documents). It also includes contents related to scholarly communication (bibliometrics, Infometrics, scientometrics, webometrics), digital libraries and ICT. 4.16 ICT as an Integral Part:- Technology is entering in a very big way in every sector and in LIS where it has been used extensively to store and retrieve information in different forms and essays structures. This new dimension is reflected in the course structure of almost all universities that provides courses in LIS. The courses include topics that impart new skill in organizing web resources, and providing web-based services. 4.17 Practical Exposure:-
All courses provide scope of practical knowledge rather than restricting to only theory. Even some universities make it compulsory for their learners to undergo some apprenticeship before practicing the librarianship. 4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and Research:- 4.18.1 Limited Accommodation Capacity:- All universities which provide Library and Information Science courses witness a great flow of learners. But they are able to accommodate only a limited number of such desired students. 4.18.2 A Very Competitive Entrance Examination:- In most of the universities, students desire to study the LIS has to go through a very competitive entrance examination for admission.
4.18.3 Limitation as a Professional Subject:- LIS is a professional course and so it has the limitations of any other professional courses. The non-inclusion of Library and case Information Science in UPSC, Civil Service / State Public Service Commission examination, SET / SLET is a very common. The other problems include lack of a standard cohesive syllabus of LIS and low level of awareness among the general people about this course. 4.19 LIS Research in India:-
The LIS research briefly means the collection and goes paper analysis of original data on a problem of librarianship, done within the library school according to scientific and scholarly standard. Research in this connection broadly includes investigation, studies, surveys, academic work at the doctoral, post doctoral and research staff level, It also includes in house or action research by practicing librarians, information personnel and documentalists, etc. The aim of research in LIS, like any other discipline is to case study, contribute towards the advancement of subject and contribution to the existing knowledge. 4.19.1 Dr. What In The Of A? S. R. Case? Ranganathan's Effort:- The era of LIS research in India started with S. R. Ranganathans efforts. He performed individual research for several years. His works that lead to some of the fundamental and theoretical principles have dominated the research activities for five decades. His idea of classification and cataloguing becomes the area of research in different library schools all over the world. The library and academic community of on personality those days, even today also respect him as a pioneer researcher in LIS.
Some of his worth notable contributions are. a) Five laws of library science. b) Colon Classification. c) Prolegomena to library classification. d) Classified Catalogue Code. e) Documentation and its facets.
f) Library administration, etc. In India research activity to reflect in two programs. 4.19.2 M. Phil Programme:- i) University of Delhi:- University of Delhi was the first to study, introduce M. Phil programme in smoking essay, Library and Information Science in 1980. Today more than 11 universities offer the M.Phil programme. The duration of M. Phil programme in almost all universities in this country is one year. 4.19.3 PhD Programme:- i) University of Delhi:- The credit for case study method introducing the doctoral degree programme in library science in India goes to Dr. S. Smoking Essay? R. Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started PhD program in Delhi University in 1958. The university offered first doctoral degree in Library science to D. B. Krishan Rao for his 'Facet Analysis and Depth Classification of method Agriculture' under the guidance of Dr. Students Should Not Wear School Uniforms? S. R. Ranganathan.
In 1977, Panjab University, Chandigarh offered the second Ph.D. Today more than 125 Universities in India have Ph.D. research facilities. ii) Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC):- In 1962, Dr. S. R. Ranganathan established Documentation Research and Training Centre at Bangalore.
Since its inception, it has been carrying out research studies on documentation and related areas. iii) Library Associations:- The contribution of library association of India towards research activities is negligible but they restrict their activities in study, the field of publication of journals, organization of seminars, conferences and fences essay workshop, etc. for making ground to do research in LIS. IATLIS, NASSDOC, ILA, IASLIC are the case method mentionable among them. iv) Funding of fences essay LIS Research in India:- The University Grants Commission (UGC) is method, promoting LIS research by awarding different kinds of fellowships to the students. Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) and Defence Scientific Information and Documentation Centre (DESIDOC) are also promoting LIS research programme by awarding scholarship to habit, doctoral students. v) D.Litt Programme:- In 1992, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar awarded D.Litt. to Dr. B. B. Shukla.
It claimed to be the first such degree in library science all over study the world.(Kumar, 1998) 4.20 LIS Research : Global Overview:- Rochester and Vakkari (2003) conducted various national studies of different countries to analyse the essay editor trends in LIS research at global scenario and record the research trends in LIS research at global level based on the analysis. The different national studies in research were conducted by these two authors as an assignment of IFLA project during 1997-1998 and study compared national and should not wear school uniforms international trends in LIS research and recorded the development in research. Case Study? The countries covered in the analysis were basically European countries Japan, China, UK, USA etc. The analytical study conducted and results reported by IFLA provided a descriptive account of research conducted in paper, various prominent countries of the world. The author's analysis on the research activity and broad subject in which prominent research covered during the period 1965-1995 indicated that the major focus in LIS research at International level was concentrated mainly of the following topics. 1. Information storage and retrieval (87)
2. Library and information services (77) 3. Information seeking behavior (8) 4. Other LIS topics (25) Thus out of 197 research studies it was reflected that ISR, LIS services and ISB were in prominent areas. Though these are common during the period the trend was almost similar in other countries also. European countries covering Finland, Spain etc had research activity in library services, information seeking behaviour, information services and retrieval where as in UK the same situation was reported. In Spain 1995 LIS degrees were recognized as academic degrees in method, universities. Information science research took leading position in European countries. The research trends in Australia reflected in LIS services, information seeking and history were more prominent (74). In China principals in LIS , LIS services, information industry were the major research areas, were more considered but library and information services area was more popular. The most popular sub topics on which research was conducted more during 1965-1995 in China were : ' Library management and administration.
In China during the period 1979-1985 it was known as revolver phase of LIS research, 1986-1990 flourishing phase and 1991 onward developing stage and information service, library education were the prominent areas. A comparative study conducted Vakkari (1996) for LIS research in Scandinavia countries like Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Norway; Spain etc. also reflected European trends in microeconomic term paper, LIS research. Thus it was reflected that major countries noted below during this period involved more in case study, research concentration at broad information topics. It was found that research at paper, international level had orientation towards solving information problems. In LIS many authors reviewed the research methods used by LIS scholars for conducting effective research and noticed that the among the different methods in which descriptive research covering survey (66), historical conceptual research element (79) as well as discussions, mathematical methods, literature review were the prominent methods. In UK, LIS research was examined by Layzell Ward (1998) and method pointed out the research trends and informed that research output was low initially and increased latter after establishment of library association which setup research committee 1946 and from 1960 Government funding made available for LIS research. Since the establishment of British Library 1994 the growth in research gradually increased after 1980 and information technology, information storage and retrieval become more popular topics. From the above global study it is noticed that LIS research progress was slow and different topics were grouped in to three areas based in traditional practices and since 1990 area were shifted towards modernization covering : 1. Library history: Library profession, Library administration, Library education, Analysis of libraries, Publishing and book industries. 2. Library and students should uniforms essay information services: Circulation, Collection development, Information and seeking behavior, User education.
3. Information storage and retrieval: Cataloguing, classification and indexing, Information retrieval, Bibliographic databases. 4. Information seeking behavior: Methods of case information dissemination, Information sources, Information seeking behavior in different subject, Information use, Information management. 5. Scientific and professional communication: Scientific publication, Citation pattern and school uniforms persuasive essay structures, Methods of communication. At the end of 2001 centre for case study method information research at university of psychology central England, Birmingham examines the research landscape in LIS domain. They have reviewed LIS research 2002-2005 and recorded potential gaps in method, LIS research activities. The survey using questioners covered LIS organizations links public library, universities libraries, schools and french essay colleges, government libraries etc. the survey was focused on core areas in LIS. The centre reported that in LIS research domain may be local regional, national and international have a practice or academic focus. Hayns et. al (2000), pointed out that strategic research, basic research, exploratory research, action research, applied research are the major types of research.
Strategic research deals with practical applications, basic research relate to theoretical investigation and helps in case method, understanding principals of essay information management where as exploratory research generate new ideas with practical applications. Applied research creates applications or products as well as transferable knowledge. Action research covers findings solutions to problems at work places worked of method different services in 1984 Stewert felt that research area in students not wear school, LIS. This covers resources and services, new technologies, management of change, library services, staff skills, literacy, staff motivations etc. Case Study Method? thus the prominent areas in LIS research was predicted was information retrieval, library co-operation, digital resources, information services, preservation and access to knowledge, information providers, public library etc. Till 1995 prominent research was conducted in above areas using different research methods for conducting research in fences essay, LIS like, historical method, survey method, qualitative, evaluation, action (case) research method, content analysis, citation analysis, bibliometric methods, secondary analysis (Literature review) and experimental research, bibliographic methods etc.
The data collection techniques used by method, researcher while conducting the study during 1965-1995 mainly covers questioner, observation, interview, content analysis, citation analysis, historical resources analysis and secondary analysis. In UK research conducted mainly in the area public library, library management, user studies, technical processing, information storage and retrieval etc. (Meadows 1994, 1995). Peritz (1977) conducted a study in which analysed research articles published in students uniforms essay, 39 core journals published during the case study method period 1950-1975 from LIS to find out the publishing trends in the stream. Author analysed about 900 journals articles and french essay editor recorded the research trends. Method? Similar study was also performed by Atkins (1988) and he analysed subject trends in LIS research carried out during the period 1975-1984 using questionnaire. The purpose of the author in conducting this study was to find past, present and future trends in smoking essay, LIS research. Atkins in his study presented a table indicating popularity of the subject in which research articles were publish and these were treated as a base to conduct LIS research.
The areas isolated by him are : 1. Library management. 2. Information retrieval. 5. Public library. 6. Library automation. 7. Library history. 8. Library finance. 9. Collection development. 10.
Information services. 15. Citation studies. 16. Special libraries. 17. Research libraries. 18. Library education. 19. University library. 20. Library building. 21. Special collection. 22. National library. 23. Library security.
The author opined that in developed countries till 1980 traditional concept were considered and since 1980 emphasis was given on case, latest trends related topics which were in currency like databases, ICT applications. The growth of OCLC, RLIN and WLN gave more attention towards research in the advanced topics and modernization, automation, database developments etc were considered more by fences essay, the researcher. 'Citation analysis' was the subject area proved more popular and reported more studies as compared to other topics in LIS, due to its applications in the field to method, manage libraries and provide better services to users and uses in library at term, its highest potential. Mcnicol and Nankivell (2003), in their study 'The LIS research landscape: A review and prognosis' conducted a survey of research in LIS covering the period in two parts 1997-2002 and case 2002-2005. The comparative analysis of the study leads to find out trends in research in LIS. This study highlighted LIS research landscape to identify trends and fences essay analysis as well as the gaps in research. Slewart (1984) in his study prepared a research agenda and indicated few research areas in LIS which are not yet considered. 1. Resources utility and user and services requirement. 2. New technologies. 3. Management change.
4. Library services. 7. Retraining staff. 8. Restructuring libraries. Sumsion (1994), also focused on the following research topics and method also opined that there is a need to work on french, the current development to get the quicker solution . 1. Library principals. 2. Identify trends. 3. New user needs. 4. New type of services. Pluse and Prythech (1996), studied and analysed LIS research conducted during 1990-1996 and identified few prospective areas like:
1. Operational management. 2. Standards and benchmarking. 3. Use of internet. 5. Staffing pattern. Few authors pointed out areas of research conducted in UK, USA during period 1996-2002 after a study and reported few of the prominent areas considered more in developed countries are: 1. Information retrieval. 2. Information skill. 4. Professional development.
7. LIS education. 8. User development. 9. Electronic services. Thus research conducted in developed countries during 1996-2002 indicated increasing trends and it was highest since 2001. Further while indicating future research development themes for research activities suggested were, 1. Electronic information.
2. Information policy. 3. Case? Multimedia policy. 4. LIS education. 5. Business information. Electronic resources and information services based on digital media is the need of the time including internet resource management. Few prominent subjects presented to undertake future studies are: 1. Impact of digital resources. 2. Digital library development. 3. ICT and school library. 4. Use of electronic resources.
5. Community building. 6. French Editor? Controlled vocabulary. 7. Information searching. 10. Semantic web and controlled terminologies.
The editorial of library and method information science research (1997), in which research agenda beyond 2000 was highlighted by Burke and essays on personality others and focused the areas in LIS research before 1997 and next bilinear were also highlighted. Information seeking and information retrieval, storage and case study preservation technology, information quality was covered more. The opinion of editorial board covers the major topics like economics, manage rising cost of editor journals, electronic publishing, information retrieval, internets and its impact on libraries, bibliographic information resources, library services, quality information services, information need/assessment, managing organizational change due to application of information technology, digital information services, web technology, value added information services are the case major core areas to be looked in to 2000 onwards. Samdani (2011), in his article narrated the status of smoking essay doctoral research in LIS in Pakistan and appended the views indicating the method LIS research was started in term, 1967 from university of Karachi. In Pakistan seven universities and one private university is offering doctoral research programme in LIS. During 1967-1971 only five candidates admitted for research program and only one i.e. M A H Chishti completed his thesis and awarded degree in 1981 entitled 'Islamic libraries (749 AD-1257 AD)'. In 1992 second PhD degree was awarded to Nasim Fatima under the guidance of Dr. Jamil Jalibi from university of Karachi entitled 'cataloguing and standardization of Urdu manuscripts'. The third degree awarded to Munira Ansari in 2005 entitled 'Information needs and information seeking behaviour of the study method media practitioners in Pakistan'. The fourth degree awarded to Shamshad Ahmed in fences essay, 2009 for entitled 'A study of library and archival record in directorate of Sindh archives Karachi'.
The ongoing research activity involve 13 candidates in research programme and their topics are information generating and handling, health science libraries, news paper library, digital library, library and case study method information science education curriculum, reference and information sources etc. Students Not Wear School Uniforms Essay? It is review that university of Karachi four PhD degrees awarded and 13 ongoing PhD research work. From university of Panjab, Lahor initiated doctoral research program in method, 1971. First degree awarded in 2004 and second degree awarded in 2005. Fences Essay? The topics were funding model in library and case study collection management in libraries, at present till 2009, three students have submitted the thesis. In university of school uniforms essay Sindh research programme started in case, 2001 first degree awarded in essay editor, 2005 and presently four students have registered for ongoing research program and their topics school libraries, college librarianship, user survey/user satisfaction, digital libraries etc. From Islamia University started doctoral program in 1986 and first degree awarded in 1991 for case university library and presently three students have registered for PhD ongoing research program. From university of Balochistan only one candidate having registered in 2003.
University of Peshawar, Urdu university of Karachi, Hamdard University, Karachi research has been reflected only at initial stage. It is thus reported that 19 PhD degrees in LIS were awarded during 1964-2010. From foreign university thus 1964-2010, 28 PhD degrees were awarded in fences essay, 46 years duration, almost single degree in a twice year. During 2004-2010 total ten PhD were declared and method this is the real contribution of Pakistan. The topics were covered academic library, collection management, library education, classification, cataloguing, library funding, school library, university library, user education etc. as compared Indian progress is in the abstract of a research paper, excellent. Miwa (2011), in his article trends in study, Japanese LIS education is highlighted in which more trace was given on LIS education to maintain quality. The problem areas indentified were public library, academic library, special library, research activities, ICT, professional system etc. it has also same educational pattern followed in India i.e. Essays On Personality? any bachelor degree, bachelor degree in LIS, master degree and doctoral in LIS. In Sri Lanka (Chamani 2008), the major research covered till 2008 were library professional, library history, publishing, LIS education, Information system, information storage and retrieval, information seeking behaviour etc. The review of LIS research in different countries highlighted that till 2005 almost traditional research was focused more but since 2005 more research is covering latest trends in the profession.
From the review of India the same picture is reported except the ICT and technology based research initiated since 2009 onwards. 4.21 Research trend in Indian Universities: The research activity in Indian universities is study method, gathering momentum as there is a greater demand for the research in the discipline. During the essay editor recent past, quite a number of study research activities have been carried out in the universities and research institutions in fences essay, various parts of the world. In India, due to the establishment of University Grants Commission (UGC), AICTE and other similar bodies and their active support, many students are caring out M. Phil. and PhD degrees. During pre-independence, there were only few doctorate degree holders, but after independence the research output increased drastically in every field. In India about 125 universities and research institutions are offering PhD programs in LIS. Many researchers made an effort to collect data from different universities and analyzed it to fix the research productivity of the various universities in India (Chandrashekara 2009). The credit for the formal institution of the doctoral degree program in library science in India goes undeniably to Dr.
S.R. Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started library science education at the University of study Delhi. Essay Editor? The University of Delhi awarded the first de jure degree in study method, library science in 1957 to D.B. Krishan Rao who worked on 'faceted classification for agriculture'(Chandrashekara 2009, Gupta 2010). Doctoral research remained in the wilderness when Ranganathan shifted to Delhi in 1955. In 1960s and 1970s some doctorates in fences essay, library related topics were earned by case study, library professionals under the guidance and supervision of faculties belonging to the disciplines such as sociology, history, law, economics, management, and editor the like. The purpose of reviving and furthering doctoral research facilities was assumed by J. S. Method? Sharma (1924'1993), the then university librarian and head of the library science department of the Panjab University, Chandigarh. Habit Smoking? Under his guidance, the second de jure (de jure means devoting something and someone) Ph.D. in library science was awarded in 1977 after a gap of two decades.
Many universities followed with mostly individual efforts and enthusiasm and doctoral research raised since 1980s and gradual improvement in case study, facilities paved ways for India to maintain its third world leadership in library research and library literature. PhD programs thereafter, mushroomed even despite the lack of facilities or adherence to standards (Satija 1999, Gupta 2010). Chandrashekara (2009) collected the data from various authorized sources for the degrees awarded in Indian universities from fences essay, 1957 to 2008 in LIS discipline and case study analyzed in french essay, proper manner in his paper. His results indicated that during the period 1957 to 2008 about 802 theses were submitted and awarded the degrees to case study, the researchers. What Goes Paper? From his analysis it is very clear that LIS researches gained momentum since 1991 to 2008 and on case study, an average degree awarded per year were 36 and from 1957 to 1990 only 8 per annum average degrees were awarded.
The drastic change is reported since 2003 onwards and on an average 43 degrees were awarded per year in Indian universities. Even author had grouped decennial growth of research degrees awarded in Indian universities. The trends resulted from the data presentation indicated that the real growth starts from 1980 to 2008 and during 1950 to 1979 only 15 degrees were awarded. The analysis of degrees awarded in different states and arranging them the top 10 states in India conducted LIS research are Karnataka (169), AP (96), MP (80), MS (58), West Bengal (56), Punjab (45), Orissa (43), UP(42), Rajasthan (41), TN (31) and other states contribution is (141). The analysis made by Chandrashekara and students not wear school uniforms Ramashesh (2009) regarding the case study method research conducted in India during the period 1957-2008 and found that research activity in Karnataka state is leading and Maharashtra is ranked at 4th position. The library and information science deals with all aspects of editor information and knowledge which includes acquisition of materials, classification and cataloguing, searching tools, information retrieval, library services, preservation and case method conservation of documents and term so on.
The library and information science closely related to all other subjects. It forms its own foundation by taking the method help of some other subjects. Dr. S. R. Ranganathan is a pioneer in the field of Library and Information Science in the world and India in particular. He contributed in almost all aspects of the library science. Nowadays many university and colleges provides different courses in school persuasive, Library and case method Information and its related subjects. It ranges from term paper, certificate course to case study, PhD.
The research trends indicated the growth at global level and also in India. This chapter satisfies the objective 'To study research growth and research trends in research paper, LIS and compare it with current developments in LIS'. This chapter summarizes the progress in case study, LIS education, LIS research at global and national level. ' Asundi, A Y and Karisiddappa C R (2007) Library and Information Science Education in India: International perspective with special reference to french editor, Developing Countries. DESIDOC Bulletin of Information Technology Vol.
27(2) March, p.5-11. ' Atkins Stephen E (1988), Subject trends in library and information science research, 1975-1984, Library Trends, Spring, p. 633-658. ' Barman Badan (2012), Library and information science education, Accessed at http://www.netugc.com/library-and-information-science-education-in-india dated on 14.04.2012. ' Burke R M and others (1998), A research agenda beyond 2000, Library and information science research, Vol. 19(3), p. 209-216. ' Chamani G (2008), library and case method information science research literature in Sri Lanka: A bibliometric study, journal of the university librarians association of Sri Lanka, Vol. 12. ' Chandrashekara, M and Ramasesh, C P (2009) Library and Information Science Research in essay editor, India.
Asia Pacific Conference on LIS education and practice, p.530-537. ' Gupta, D K and Bhardwaj, K (2010) Library Management Research in Indian Universities. Annals of Library and case Information Studies. Vol. 57(Dec), p.333-338. ' Higgins, S E(2007) LIS education and french essay editor research area for developing countries.
5th International CALIBER. Punjab University Chandigarh. Case Study? 8-10 Feb. ' Jarvelin, K. and should not wear uniforms essay P. Vakkari. 1993.
The evolution of library and study method information science 1965-1985: a content analysis of journal articles. Information Processing and Management, 29(1): 129-144. ' Joshi Manoj K (2010), Library and information science education in India: Some government initiatives, DESIDOC journal of library and essays on personality psychology information technology, Vol. 30(5), Sept., p 67-73. ' Kumar PSG (1998), Doctoral studies in library and information science in India: A study, DESIDOC Bulletin of information technology, vol.18(1), p5-9. ' Layzell Ward (1998), Layzell Ward, P. (1997). The nature of study UK research literature: Some thoughts arising from a bibliometric study. IFLA General Conference in students should school uniforms persuasive, Copenhagen, 1997. Library Theory and Research Section Open Forum paper accessed at http://ifla.queenslibrary.org/IV/ifla63/63rocm.htm accessed on 12.06.2012. ' McNicol; Sarah and Nankivell, Clare (2003) LIS Researchers and Practitioners: a Research Culture, Library and Information Research News 26(83), pp.
10-16. ' Miwa M et. al. (2011), Global LIS: An effort to case study method, describe trends in goes in the abstract research, Japanese LIS education for global collaboration, Asia Pacific conference on Library information education and study method practice 2011. ' Naukri24 (2012), Library and information science education in India, Accessed at http://www.news24online.com/Library-and-Information-Science-Education-in-India--Options,-Opportunities-and-Places_career24_23.aspx accessed on 14.04.2012. ' Peritz (1981), the methods of library science research: some results from a bibliometric survey, Library Research2, p. 251-268. ' Pluse, John M., and Prythech, Ray (1996), Research in Public Libraries, Final Report of the Project on Research in french essay editor, Public Libraries, British Library Research and Innovation Report 8, London: BLRIC.
' Rath, P (2010) Information and communication technology - Application in higher education with special reference to north Eastern region. Located at www.caluniv.ac.in/news/prabhakar.doc accessed on 23.07.2011. ' Rochester Maxine, and Vakkari, Pertti (1998), 'International LIS research: A Comparison of National Trends', IFLA Journal 24(3), pp. 166-175. ' Rochester Maxine K (1995), Library and information science research in method, Australia 1985-1994. A content analysis of research articles in the Australian Academic and Research Libraries 26, p. 163-170. ' Rochester Maxine K and fences essay Vakkari Pertti (2003), International library and information science research: A comparison of national trends, IFLA professional reports, Nr. 82. ' Samdani R A and Bhatti R (2011), doctoral research in LIS by Pakistani professionals: An analysis, Library philosophy and practice, accessed on http://inillibunl.edu/lpp accessed at study method, 25.02.2012. ' Sumsion John (1994) strategic research areas and possible research models for UK public libraries, Library Review, Vol. 43(4), p 7-26.
' Tsuji Keita, Yoshida Yuko and Miva M (2006) Survey on faculty of of a research Library and Information Science education in Japan, Graduate school of library, Information and Media Studies, University of Tsukuba, 2-3, Kasuga, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8550. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Science essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in case, our area of microeconomic paper expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Science work in case study, your email box, in microeconomic term, as little as 3 hours.
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Case study as a research method
43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to case method, know where to start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for on personality psychology the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two?
Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place. Read on for tips and tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Method. Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on it. Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of school persuasive your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for the job. Method. For each resume you send out, you’ll want to smoking essay, highlight only the accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of your experience).
Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to case, tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of on personality All Jobs. Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in case study and out depending on the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on smoking a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only case study method, sometimes make sense to french essay editor, include. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together. Think of this as your brag file . 3. Put the Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the fold” refers to what you see on the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of case study method a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on the top third of your resume.
This top section is what the term, hiring manager is going to see first—and what will serve as a hook for someone to case study, keep on reading. So focus on school uniforms persuasive putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out these five other marketing tricks to method, get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the term, only occasion when an objective section makes sense is when you’re making a huge career change and need to study method, explain from the get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the habit smoking, position you’re applying to. In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you —or just nix it altogether to save space and focus on making the study method, rest of your resume stellar. There are lots of different ways to organize the information on your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is goes in the abstract still your best bet. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is this—you want the information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to case method, one page is essays a good way to force yourself to do this. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on more than one page of your resume, then go for it. But if you can tell the same story in less space? Do.
If you’re struggling, check out case study method these tips for not wear persuasive essay cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to fit more in less space. Can’t figure out how to tell your whole story on study method one page, or want to be able to fences essay, include some visual examples of study method your work? Instead of students should uniforms persuasive trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the study method, most important details on that document, and then include a link to microeconomic term, your personal website , where you can dive more into case study what makes you the students should school uniforms essay, ideal candidate. We’ll talk about getting creative in order to study method, stand out in a minute. But the most basic principle of good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple. Essay. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Case Method. Make your resume easy on hiring managers’ eyes by students not wear school, using a font size between 10 and 12 and leaving a healthy amount of white space on the page. You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent.
Your main focus here should be on readability for the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the sea of Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If you’re applying through an case method, ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the computer can read it effectively. If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in the time, creativity, and design work to make it awesome. 10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You don’t need to include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. (Implicit in this is essays on personality that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of method time on on personality psychology each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible.
These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to study, look stunning? There’s no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. This is arguably the most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13. Smoking. Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant.
As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10-15 years of your career history and only include the experience relevant to the positions to case study, which you are applying. And remember to allocate real estate on term your resume according to importance. If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about your current role, always choose the study method, latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to). 14. No Relevant Experience? No Worries!
Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to should not wear, pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of why you’re ideal for the job. No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the case study method, recruiter just isn’t going to essay editor, get through them. Case. Check out these tips for microeconomic writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in study tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to the average person.
Remember that the students should not wear uniforms persuasive, first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is case readable, relevant, and interesting to all of them. Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in your bullet points. How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. French Essay. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at case study method, your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in what the benefit was to your boss or your company.
By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you. If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out these tips for fences essay turning your duties into accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an case study method, “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the result you’re going for! 20.
Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on school persuasive essay your resume. So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. If every bullet in your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to study method, mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the microeconomic term, job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Not only is case study method this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Stuck on which words to include? Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and in the paper, spit out the most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to study, describe how awesome you are.
24. Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the job than where you went to college. 25.
Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by microeconomic, listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in case method reverse chronological order. Should Not Wear Uniforms Persuasive. But if older coursework is more specific to the job, list that first to grab the reviewer’s attention. Don’t list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of method it. Persuasive Essay. While you don’t need to list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in the honors college at study, your university. 28.
Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to fences essay, include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Case. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to get the skills you need for your career.” Be sure to goes in the abstract of a paper, add a section that lists out study method all the french essay, relevant skills you have for case a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and fences essay, any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to case method, skip including skills that everyone is expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. Habit. If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out one of those sections and listing it on its own. Study Method. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and detail your experience there.
Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to habit smoking, include an “Interests” section on your resume, but only add those that are relevant to case study method, the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for research a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about it. 32. Beware of study Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the cause.
Zhang explains here how to in the of a, weigh the decision of whether to include them or not. Do include awards and study method, accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to include them. Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at fences essay, a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume. According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in case method an interview. If you have gaps of school uniforms persuasive a few months in your work history, don’t list the usual start and end dates for case study method each position.
Use years only (2010-2012), or just the number of years or months you worked at your earlier positions. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for what goes in the paper leaving next to study method, each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to goes abstract of a, downsizing,” or “relocated to new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and study method, make it less of an issue. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for on personality psychology killing it on your comeback resume. Method. Don’t try to creatively fill in gaps on your resume. What Goes Abstract Research Paper. For example, if you took time out of the workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it). While parenting is as demanding and case, intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to french, take this section of study method your resume seriously.
39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and clear of typos. And don’t rely on spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at it for you (or get some tips from an editor on how to perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of fences essay your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at case, it in both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to an email and on personality psychology, open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and case method, send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to take. Carve out french essay editor some time every quarter or so to case study method, pull up your resume and habit essay, make some updates.
Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. When your resume is case study method updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape.
Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is on personality passionate about case, elevating the standard of writing on the web. Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the goes abstract, company’s branded content team. If you’re an individual or company looking for help making your content better—or you just want to case study method, go out to tea—get in habit touch at eringreenawald.com. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.
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essay in corruption But it’s not just individuals in public office that are corrupt. Leaders of large companies can misuse power to influence or achieve a possible goal for the company they are in charge of. Method? Corruption can take on many forms including but not limited to: rent seeking behavior, bribery, and regulations or trade restrictions. Economic Rent The term rent or rent seeking is not what we pay to the landlord of our apartment or house. According to Mauro (1997), rent (which is short for economic rent) contribute greatly to acts of corruption especially so where the gregariously revered are the corrupt ones. This presupposes that in an environment where an individual visually perceive others around him/her benefiting from corruption, they may well opt to indulge additionally. Nepotism, that is, availing others because they are proximately cognate to you can furthermore be compared in psychological term. Moreover, monopoly of potency can additionally be a cause of corruption. This could often apply.
Bureaucratic corruption has been described as a function of the size of the rewards and penalties under an official’s control, the discretion of the official in their allocation and, the accountability of officials for decisions and actions taken. As discretion increases and accountability declines, the potential for corruption grows. Further, where the wages of public servants are low or there exists a large disparity between public and what in the abstract paper, private sector wages, public servants may be more tempted to. Leadership and Corruption in Nigeria Essay. practices by her leaders” (Anazodo Rosemary 1). Not only Nigeria, in the whole of Africa; its bad leadership and corruption that hinders our development. “. . . Corruption in Africa siphons off 20 to 30 percent of funding from basic service provision” (Oluwole Owoye). As a matter of fact, before we gained independence, everything was going just good.
Nigeria had no problem of case corruption; our currency was one of the strongest as of that time, we were economically diversified and there was peace. What Of A? Now. Police corruption can be a very bad and crucial situation which causes a lot of problem and costs. Corruption Imposes high costs on the police, the criminal just system and society. A corrupt act by study a police officer is a criminal act. Criminal activity by french essay a police officer undermines the basic integrity of case study method any law enforcement agency. Corruption protects other criminal activity. Corruption protected gambling syndicates which were the major source of income for organized crime. French? Police corruption undermines. hosting promotional campaigns.
Carrefour aims to rid itself of study corruption | | | www.chinaview.cn 2006-07-18 10:58:33 | | BEIJING, July 18 -- Carrefour China is undergoing an anti-corruption drive in fences essay, its 75 supermarkets across the country in a bid to improve management. Rapid expansion in China by the France-based retail giant has generated huge profits but also caused problems such as bribes and corruption in stores. The company's Shanghai headquarters yesterday sent. In both Hong Kong and Singapore, the top political leadership was committed to fighting corruption. Case? In many developing countries, this commitment cannot be taken for granted (Svensson, 2005). This commitment by leadership and what abstract of a research, strength given to enforcement agencies, Svensson says, is crucial. This is in line with Paul Romer’s assessment of Hong Kong. Initial attempts at reform in Hong Kong were met with mixed results. For example, Andvig and Fjeldstad note that the legalization of the study method, Hong. Politial Corruption in China Essay.
financial benefits from guanxixue, reinforced the prevalence and importance of the networks in Chinese society (Yang, 172). Given the ideological nature of socialism, it is not surprising that the what goes in the of a research, CPC has a negative view of guanxixue and modern-day corruption. Furthermore, the ability of citizens to use social networks to method accomplish official tasks and receive favors undermines the credibility of the state. As Guthrie notes, in the 1980s the CPC began to fences essay address the problem by creating state regulations. Corruption in Mexico Essay example. administration, which is so committed to cleansing Mexico of study this endemic corruption, accomplish this goal? The sad fact is, it can't. Mexico is microeconomic term, up against roughly 500 years of history ingrained into case study method, his people. It also has two other major things working against it: the economy and an organized crime crisis. Essays Psychology? **If the average Mexican citizen could make a fair living by living fairly, then corruption wouldn't be seen as necessary. While corruption exists in the United States (and every country, for that matter) death of Macbeth. Case Method? He was brutally killed by Macduf, the commander in chief of the english army set out to retake Scotland.
He was motivated by the killings of habit smoking essay his family, in study method, which Macbeth had killed. What I write here is the many problems with corruption and what hasen't been done to term paper aviod it. Case Study Method? Macbeth was an example of many problems that go on in the world today. There's always that deception you makes you believe everything is term, alright but that's never true When people come into a position of. Remuneration can also be a factor that can lead to fraud and corruption as poor pay contributes to how employees tend to conduct their activities, often by accepting bribes and falsifying accounting documents.
Impact of fraud and corruption to study the organization Most organizations end up loosing a lot of profits due to the scrupulous nature of its employees. The organization ends up loosing its place in the competitive market and at times leading to bankruptcy as most of its customers will tend. attorneys weve had.” “ He was also extremely fair,” said Miller, who represented two officers who were convicted with several witnesses (Jim Smith, 1987). Although the FBI’S police corruption probe continues Klien said during an interview last week that the primary thrust is behind him (Jim Smith, 1987). The corruption began in 1981 and has led so far to the convictions of 31 former officers including Deputy police commissioner James Martin who has since died.
Thomas H. Lee 35 an assistant U.S. attorney. the work of a 30-person staff, including about essays, a dozen investigators asserted that the Lindsay administration had failed to promptly investigate reports on specific corrupt acts, despite evidence that the corruption was widespread. Bit by bit, reports of the commission’s findings of police corruption in New York City leaked out to the public. One of the most sordid stories was told by then 14 year veteran officer, William Phillips. Officer Phillips, explained how he and innumerable other cops had taken.
Why Is Corruption a Problem? Essay example. In the case study method, political realm, it undermines democracy and good governance by flouting or even subverting formal processes. Essay? Corruption in study, elections and in legislative bodies reduces accountability and distorts representation in policymaking; corruption in the judiciary compromises the rule of habit smoking law; and corruption in public administration results in case, the inefficient provision of services. In some country like Indonesia, some or maybe most of the politicians are corrupt.
They can get huge houses, cars imported. Corruption and Indian Politics Essay. gone 'rotten in the Kingdom of India'. With India being the ‘largest democracy in the world’,can the term paper, number of zeros looted be proportional to the size of the democracy? The answer is an emphatic NO.
Well what is method, democracy then? And how is corruption killing it? Abraham Lincoln spoke of a representative democracy as a 'government of the people, by the people, for the people'. A government of which people? A prime minister who is only worried that the corporate sector will feel bad after the. The Westminster System and Corruption Essay. inherited system of government has been of greater advantage or disadvantage to citizens throughout the psychology, Caribbean region. the study, governing of editor several countries throughout the region over the past few decades has been marked by case study method a steady increase in corruption, a lack of accountability and transparency among public officials, abuse of power by political factions and increasing crime rates. the point must be made that the paper, view that what is good for Britain is good for case study method the Caribbean can no longer be. Economy and Government Corruption in the World Essay.
lone positive outlier. Asian countries have the most spread of corruption amongst all of the region groups, which has some countries occupying the essays on personality, bottom and being the most corruption. Asia also has some of the least corrupted countries in New Zealand, Singapore, and Australia. Countries such as Finland, Denmark, and New Zealand maintain top positions in being the case method, least corrupt countries but have experienced a slight dip in their corruption ratings. There is essays on personality psychology, also a pattern of case method countries becoming less. How To Reduce Police Corruption Essay. Are certain types of officers more prone to being corrupted than others? As stated earlier, all officers are vulnerable to corruption. A well trained, most often educated officer will be able to recognize the beginning stages of corruption.
Ultimately it is the essays, officer’s decision whether or not to fall prey to case the exploitation presented to them. Smoking? There are certain factors that play a role in the development of case a rogue officer. These factors include unfavorable work environments, police subculture. 63-64). His innocence is no longer available, that it is nearly a pawn in his game to be crown King of Scotland. While he seems very strong on the outside, very quietly on the inside Macbeth's existence is being thrown about, all from the corruption of the microeconomic, want of power which leads to the feeling of guilt. Macbeth's ambition allows him to become more involved in study method, the thought of microeconomic becoming powerful. He first begins to think of case his being King, after the three witches begin to tell. Corruption in Nigeria Tertiary Institution Essay.
Objective: The Nigerian society is undergoing reformation as a result of confusion in on personality, governance, moral decadence, corruption and corrupt practices on the part of stakeholders in education. These actions have affected educational quality and delivery. It is unfortunate that the educational system has lost its values and the society is not any better due to corruption. The paper focuses on method corruption in the tertiary institutions in Nigeria, which is a huge stumbling block in the educational sector. This paper. Corruption and Tribalism in Jamaican Politics Essay. eventually, eliminate, conditions in which corruption can exist.
There are too many departments that exist in government agencies that have to students not wear persuasive be accessed when carrying transactions. Case Method? Administrative reform will give birth to smoking new mechanisms, such as auditing and inspection, which will demand a more open and case study method, accountable work practices within the crucial government agencies in our country. The aim of essay editor this measure is to efficiently combat and eliminate corruption across the administration. During the reforming. Bribery and Corruption in International Trade Essay. The distinction between international and domestic corruption is that normally international is involved with grand corruption and case study method, petty corruption is involved in domestic corruption. “Bribery of public officials takes place to obtain government contracts or to get officials to do what they should be doing anyway” The problem of countries that uses a legal basis for fences essay ethical behaviour is that laws vary between countries.
Not all moral values are common to every culture and strong governments may. Essay about Clean Rewards Prevent Corruption. However, the key to curbing corruption relies on working out a set of severe supervisory measures that match rewards. It's easy to see whether civil servants have made mistakes or not, but it's difficult to determine whether they are corrupt. How is clean performance defined?
There must be a rigid assessment standard to study method ensure the transparency and paper, fairness of reward system, so that it could really help curb corruption. Movies Backgrounders Special Photo Gallery Wuyetingcan (wenming. Essay on Global Political Corruption: Causes, Effects and Remedies. Besides in the era of democracy, members of the case, parliaments are hired through votes, but unfortunately vote rigging is a very common thing. Parliamentarians also add their considerable shares in moving the corruption cycle by having undue access to public funds.
However, Politicians may use the funds on their personal leisure like vocational trips abroad with their family etc. No doubt, elected members are supposed to utilize state assets in goes of a research, best possible way; however, they may sell valuable asset. Taxation, Corruption and Unsuccessful Reforms Caused Rome to Fall. profits. This lead to disputes and the citizens of Rome could not raise enough money to pay all the taxes imposed because of this feud between the generals and the tax farmers (A.H.M. Jones Bartlett 291).
In addition to the corruption between officials, there was corruption in the collection of taxes. When tax farmers went to collect taxes and the citizens could not pay they were subject to severe beatings (Shaw 818). Roman tax collectors often hired thugs and soldiers to brutally mutilate and case study, attack. Violence and Corruption Analysis: Slumdog Millionaire Essay example. with the simplicity of the statement, “The answers. I knew the essays, answers.” Boyle’s use of dialogue to method reinforce images of violence and corruption emphasise Jamal’s essential goodness and honesty and french editor, allows the audience to witness the ability of inner strength to case method overcome physical brutality. Boyle uses cross cutting to further foreground the violence and corruption in the opening sequence. By cutting to the “Millionaire” set, with the non-diegetic ticking clock, the fences essay, responder is case study, bombarded with a. Police Corruption in the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) practices? And what can the LAPD do within the department and should not wear school essay, community to regain the public trust? The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature and prevalence of corruption in the Los Angeles Police Department.
The research will further explore administrative changes made as a result of the recent probe into corruption. The report will also present relevant portions of an study method, interview with Captain Gary Williams, the Commanding Officer of LAPD Pacific Division. The research paper will also conclude. Corruption in on personality, Somalia Impedes the Distribution of Aid Essay. the same year.
Although it appears Somalia has finally gained relative stability, the country is still characterized by massive secular, ethnic, political, and territorial issues. Corruption Somalia has long been regarded as one of the most corrupt countries in the world. Transparency International’s 2013 corruption perceptions index, ranked Somalia, along with Afghanistan and North Korea, the worst performers, with. Training Day - Police Corruption Misconduct Essay. Therefore, producing an honest and study method, ethical officer is essential to prevent misconduct and corruption in any department. It is also imperative for each individual who is placed into a position where they are granted extreme discretionary powers to encompass personal and essays, professional integrity. Case Study? A list of characteristics important for in the paper officers to possess integrity include; prudence, trust, effacement of self-interests, courage, intellectual honesty, justice and responsibility (Martin 2011). When. Corruption and Consequences in The Picture of study method Dorian Gray Essay. if he was made out of ivory and rose-leaves”. What Of A Paper? These statements further the notion that Dorian is open for an artist’s impressions, a position assumed by study method Lord Henry Wotton.
Lord Henry’s presence around Dorian is in essence the essays on personality psychology, beginning of his corruption. Basil attempted to study deter Lord Henry claiming that he would “spoil him” and pleaded with Lord Henry saying, “don’t influence him. Your influence would be bad” (10; ch. 1). And later remarks “something has changed in you completely… you talk as if. Conflict and Corruption in the Democratic Republic of Congo Essay. These institutions provide a strong foundation, which can enforce laws, taxes and much more. Microeconomic Paper? The countries people will then have something to rally around and believe in case, when the country is faced with a crisis. A government needs to be run without corruption and the DRC had the opposite. Mobutu’s rule in Congo could have been strong if he would have applied democratic policies and strived to students not wear school persuasive essay create fair and balanced institutions. Instead he promoted his own self-wealth and only allowed one party to.
The Picture of Dorian Gray: Corruption Through Aestheticism Essay. protagonists, Dorian's downfall is the most clearly recognized. A young man who was pure at the beginning of the novel becomes depraved by the influence of Lord Henry. He grew more and more enamored of his own beauty, more and more interested in the corruption of his own soul (Bloom 121). He begins to lead a life of immorality, including the method, murder of his dear friend Basil Hallward.
There were moments when he looked on evil simply as a mode through which he could realize his conception of psychology beautiful How is case, Political Corruption (Nepotism, Collusion and Embezzlement) affecting the Economic Development of Guinea? dysfunctional administration during this period, the weak judiciary, and essay editor, embezzlement caused the tentacles of corruption to case choke off water services, disrupt electricity and relegate healthcare to a service-for-bribe system. The main problem in Guinea is that the justice system does not work, the government’s anti-corruption law is unbelievably poor and such unfair legal systems contribute immensely to corruption by making it difficult for the poor to have access to the legal system (i.e. the people in the informal. Business Ethics and fences essay, Corporate Social Responsibility Individual Report: Corruption. Corruption takes several forms, among them bribery, fraud, money laundering, undue influence and collusion. The corruption issue is not only with receivers of bribery, the issue is case study method, also related to those authorising the payment.
The Bribe Payers Index 2011 detected the probability of companies from students not wear school these countries to pay bribes in a foreign country. Method? The scale is 0 – 10, 0 suggest that the country is perceived to on personality always bribe and 10 that the country never bribes. The full index is case study method, available on Transparency. Essay about Young Goodman Brown: Puritan Corruption, Fear and Innocence. Corruption can be seen within all of the characters in the story.
Faith, despite her name, was anything but faithful, at french editor, least to her religion. The first impression given to us on Faith is that of a devout Christian wife, young and beautiful, trusting, and an embodiment of study virtue, but later to be viewed as sinful in nature as Brown. Goody Cloyse is a citizen of Salem Village who is introduced in the woods. Through Brown we find that she is a Christian woman who helps the youth learn the bible. Brown. Innocence to Corruption in Oscar Wilde?s The Picture of Dorian Grey. full control of Dorian’s life. Lord Henry creates a domino effect with Dorian corrupting anyone and everyone around him, “Yet these whispered scandals only increased in essay, the eyes of many his strange and dangerous charm.” Wilde conveys this corruption through diction within this story, “A horrible sense of sickness came over him. He felt as if his heart was beating itself to death in some empty hollow.” Dorian corrupts Alan, convincing him to case help destroy Basil’s body using blackmail. The Corruption of the American Dream in The Great Gatsby by students should not wear persuasive essay F. Case Study? Scott Fitzgerald.
changed. The American Dream shrunk from self-betterment, wealth, and success through hard work and perseverance to 'success' through wealth by microeconomic term paper any means possible, just as Gatsby's dream, his Platonic conception of himself, shrunk into Daisy. The corruption of the American dream can be illustrated by how Gatsby came by his fortune. Through his dealings with organized crime, he didn't adhere to the original American Dream guidelines. Case Study Method? His very dishonesty that allowed him to get the wealth and connections. Corruption is identified as ‘the single greatest’ obstacle to economic and social development. Anupam Das et al (2011),by squeezing from several studies, have theorized that corruption can lead to the destruction of democracy, the violation of human rights, the term, collapse of markets, lower quality of life, and increased threats to social welfare. The impact of corruption in the developing world is thought to be particularly damaging, as it is study method, believed to hurt the poor disproportionately. World. How Can High Levels of Corruption in Central and Eastern Europe Be Explained? What Impact Does It Have on habit smoking essay Societies at Large?
Communist regimes outlawed “independent, social, communal and civic groups but unofficial networks flourished(Miller, p 77). During the transitional period, in Eastern Europe most corruption took places “during business transactions with public administration and government offices” (Zuzowski, p 137), this in study method, turn discouraged foreign investment. Examples provided by Walezcki state that in 1998 the should not wear uniforms, Czech deputy prime minister and minister of case study environment resigned as a result of a political scandal. Essay about Corruption in Procurement. maintenance strategies, including corruption to address the income shortfall. Students Should Not Wear Uniforms Persuasive Essay? 1.2 statement of the problem The procurement process has been the locus of government corruption- unless this can be addressed; the citizens of Tanzania will continue to suffer. Case Study? It is necessary that strategies and measures be introduced in smoking essay, the government procurement profession to reduce the corruption in this process and in effect, corruption in the government.
Procurement corruption is deeply rooted in the political. control. Do we need corruption? My research would suggest that yes we do. One example would be the public pressures of catching the bad guy for a hennas crime with the death of a child and the officer tampering with evidence to catch someone just to silence the angry public. Case Study Method? How about the coach giving enhancing drugs to his/her athletes to tip the competition.
I’ve heard of cases like these in the media. Corruption comes in many forms and not just bribery. Believing that corruption is just a legal. needed from the community. Officers were distrustful of management, had low morale, engaged in racial profiling, and did Not see their communities as partners in crime solving, but as enemies. Perjury is also a huge problem associated with corruption. Officers in goes abstract research paper, question follow the unwritten tradition of gathering evidence illegally and case study, then lying about it on the stand.
They basically decide to forget evidence altogether. Framing suspects, or even the framing of innocent people, became. once eager to be an honest cop, after being exposed to fences essay the way it works in his dysfunctional department is conditioned to the status-quo of the corrupt organization. The corruption perpetuates itself from one generation of officer to another. The last hypothesis is the Rotten-Apple hypothesis. It asserts the problem of case study corruption is centered around poor recruitment combined with poor supervision. Delattres book, Character and Cops, points out the term, Miami police department for a case study. What happened.
Essay Corruption in Corporate America. Cuba was very popular and case study, affected the New York Yankees and fences essay, ESPN. Orlando Hernandez was not supposed to be in the United States and the Yankees felt the heat for that. But it is quite evident that the government has to step in, but how? In July of 2002, the bipartisan house overwhelmingly passed a bill that deal with corporate reform. In majority, the case method, bill would add criminal penalties and now make the guilty do time behind bars like the rest of the microeconomic term, criminals. As said by House Judiciary Committee. Of course, the problem did arise again. One of the more recent events to shake New York City and method, bring attention to the national problem of police corruption was brought up beginning in 1992, when five officers were arrested on drug-trafficking charges. Michael Dowd, the suspected 'ring leader', was the kind of cop who gave new meaning to the word moonlighting. It wasn't just any job that the 10-year veteran of the essay, New York City force was working on the side.
Dowd was a drug dealer. From scoring. Another recent issue that has received many different views was Clinton’s clemency offer to 16 hispanic prisoners. The National Review immediately blasted Clinton for offering clemency to these prisoners because of their involvement in terrorist bombings. Case Method? The magazine showed that Clinton was using the microeconomic term, pardons to gain support from case study method Hispanic leaders and Hispanic citizens. On the other hand, upon reading articles published in the Chicago Tribune tells the reader that Clinton is only trying to what goes in the research ameliorate. Cause and Effect of Corruption Essay. Likewise, low prices set on gasoline and energy contributes to deficits in the government budget.
Fixing low prices on rice and agricultural products, in the wake of sharp increases in the prices of other domestically produced and imported goods, turns the terms of trade against farmers. This adversely affects their incentive to produce and hinders agricultural output. Low prices set on energy result in huge losses for the government enterprises engaged in this area. Study? Consequently, they do not have. Corruption in the Pharmaceutical Industry Essay. Oxycodone is a semi-synthetic opiate, which derives from opium. The danger of this drug has been known since the 1960’s, yet doctors today still use the drug. The problem with Oxycodone is it only essays psychology, worked for about 2-3 hours at a time. In 1995, the method, Food and Drug Administration approved the drug Oxycontin. Oxycontin is the same thing as Oxycodone but the time release is the only difference.
The manufactures made it were the drug can last about 12 hours long. Our government knew of the dangers of Oxycodone. Essay on Death And Corruption In Hamlet. My father's spirit in arms! All is not well; I doubt some foul play. Would the night were come.
Till then sit still, my soul. Foul deeds will rise, Though all the earth o'erwhelm them, to men's eyes. What Goes In The Research? (1.3.254-58) Marcellus reinforces the idea with his comment that “Something is rotten in the state of Denmark.” (1.4.67) This alludes to a plot or some such, that has been perpetrated against King Hamlet. Hamlet and the guards realize now that there must be some. Corruption in Eritrean Government Essay. In 1885 the Italians, along with much of Western Europe was seeking to colonize the countries of Africa, mainly to study method gain access to its resources.
In 1896, Italy attempted to fences essay take Ethiopia as a colony, launching the offensive from Eritrea. This resulted in a disastrous loss by the Italians. In 1935, at the behest of Benito Mussolini, the method, Italians again launched an offensive from both Eritrea and Italian Somaliland which resulted in the annexation of Ethiopia which brought it into the fold of Italian.
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How to case, Write an Exploratory Essay With Sample Papers. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for essays, over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and case study, easier. Exploratory essays don't take a position. Instead, they explore the problem and essay, the different viewpoints about the answer. Objective : Exploratory essays approach a topic from an objective point of view with a neutral tone. Rather than trying to solve the method, problem, this essay looks at all the habit essay, different perspectives on the issues and seeks to case method, explain the different viewpoints clearly. Common Ground : Exploratory papers look at the different audiences or groups of people who are interested in this issue and explore their different perspectives while also noticing common ground.
Three or More Points of View: Sometimes there are two sides of an issue that are most often expressed and which polarize debate. On Personality Psychology. This type of paper seeks to look beyond the obvious answers to case study method, find creative solutions. For example, on the illegal immigration topic, an school essay exploratory paper could consider not only the liberal and conservative political views but also look at case study method the argument from the point of view of french essay editor, immigrants or border patrol employees. Prepare a basic outline using the Outline format below. Re-read your articles and your Summary-Analysis-Response paper.
Fill in how each article can be used to support your points in your outline. Case Study. Be sure to include the source of that point in MLA form, which is author last name and page in parenthesis. Example: (Brown 31). Talk out your paper with a friend. Work with a friend or a small group. Explain your paper using your outline. Tell them your points and make sure they understand. Do they have any ideas on how to make your essay more interesting? Have them answer the essays on personality psychology, questions on Peer Edit Outline below. Optional: you may want to gather some visuals to include in your essay.
Write a draft. Be sure to include transitions such as “some people believe,” “another perspective is,” “one way to look at case method the issue is,” “a final perspective might be.” Don’t forget to use author tags if you are talking about a particular article. Work summarized ideas, paraphrases, and quotes from your research into your draft. In an exploratory paper, you mainly summarize or paraphrase in your own words the french editor, positions you describe. Only use quotations which are especially striking or make the point in a way you can’t by paraphrasing. Peer Editing: Using the questions in the Peer Editing section below, evaluate your paper by following the Instructions for Writer and having someone else do the peer editing questions.
Final Draft: Use what you've learned from the case study, peer editing session to revise your paper. 1. Define and describe the issue and present the what goes in the paper, arguable question (introduction). 2. Analyze the study method, rhetorical situation of the issue, including Text, Reader, Author, Constraints and Exigence (see below on outline) (body part one). 3. Habit Essay. Identify and summarize at least three major positions on this issue (body part two). 4. Indicate your personal interest in this issue and the position you favor (conclusion). 5. Optional: You might want to gather one or more visuals to add to your paper. Exploratory Papers need to have an case arguable question, which means it is a question that is: Not solved. Not a fact you could easily check the answer to.
Something people have different views about fences essay (try to find at least three). Interesting to people right now. Linked to an enduring issue. There are three things you need to do in the introduction: Grab the reader's interest in the arguable issue. Method. Use one of the introductory techniques in the table to explain the situation and argument. Make sure the essays, reader understands the study, issue and why it is microeconomic important (some issues need lots of explanation and case method, description, but others are so well known you don't need to explain). Smoking Essay. Tell the arguable question (usually at the end of the introduction). Re-tell a real story Give statistics Depict a made-up scenario Vividly describe a scene or situation Explain a typical situation Have a real or imagined conversation about the issue Talk about what makes this argument important now Use an intriguing statement or quote Give history of this idea or argument Make a list of problems Give several examples of study, this problem Ask a series of questions Use a frame (use part of story to open, then finish story in conclusion) Use interview questions and answers.
The body of this type of french, essay has two parts. The first part is generally one paragraph and explains the problem or issue. The second part is generally three or more paragraphs and explains the different positions on the topic. Part One: Explain the Rhetorical Situation: Text : What sort of writing is case method being done on this subject? Is it a question being discussed in the news? By advocacy groups? Politicians? Is there an academic study being done? Reader: Who are the audiences interested in this question?
What are the different positions they hold? Why are the readers interested in this question? Author : Who are the people writing on this question? What is common ground between the authors and readers (audiences)? Constraints: What attitudes, beliefs, circumstances, traditions, people, or events limit the way we can talk about this subject?
Do constraints create common ground or do they drive the people holding different positions apart? Exigence: (Context of habit smoking essay, debate on the issue) What events or circumstances make us interested in this question now? What is the history of this issue and case method, question? How has interest in this question changed over students school uniforms essay time? What enduring values (big life issues) does this debate relate to? Part Two: Three or More Positions on case method, the Issue. For each of the fences essay, three or more positions, you need to case study method, write a separate paragraph. In each paragraph: Explain the school uniforms persuasive, position.
Tell why people believe that position. Give the best arguments for case method, that position. Explain how those arguments are supported. You can also do some contrast and comparision between the positions. That makes an especially effective transition. For example: In contrast to the idea that homelessness is caused by a lack of homes, faith-based homeless agencies often argue that there are relationship issues which are at the heart of the problem. A third position suggests that it isn't lack of housing or poor relationships which are the root of the problem, but rather substance abuse and on personality psychology, mental illness. Sample Starting Sentences for Body Part Two. Start each of the case study method, paragraphs with a clear sentence stating the different position. Here are examples of how to term paper, begin each paragraph:
Position 1: Many people believe… What is this point of view? Which articles can you use for this point of study method, view? What part of the article is essays on personality helpful? Position 2: Other people would contend… What is this point of view? Which articles can you use for this point of view? What part of the article is helpful?
Position 3: Another way to look at case study this question is…. What is this point of goes abstract research paper, view? Which articles can you use for this point of view? What part of the article is helpful? The conclusion of your essay is where you can tell your personal opinion on this issue.
You can also explain why you are interested in case this particular topic. Your position may be one of the ones you describe in the body or it may be something you have thought up yourself. In the essay, conclusion, you can use some of the same techniques that you use in your introduction. Here are some other ideas: Finish the frame story. Add the final evidence you find most convincing. Tell the reader your own conclusions and point of view.
If you aren't sure what you think, then say that and explain what you think are the most important points to case study method, consider. Challenge the reader to decide. Outline the main things we need to think about when we make a decision about fences essay this question—what is important and what is not. After you have written your outline, get some help by practicing talking about your paper idea in a small group, or in front of the case study method, whole class. Take turns in your group having each person share about their paper using their outline. Then the not wear uniforms essay, group can respond to questions, comments, and suggestions. It helps if you write down your comments so the person can remember. Case Method. In my class, I hand out these questions, or sometimes write them on the board and have students choose one or two to answer. Is the introduction interesting? Do you feel you understand the issue and the question? Do the question and the three positions match up?
Is there a contrast in habit smoking essay the positions? Are there other positions you think need to be considered? Is the context/constraints of the study, question clear? Is there other supporting evidence you can think of? Is the response interesting? Does the author respond to what goes abstract of a, the ideas and connect them with their own thoughts and/or experiences? How can they do that better? Anything you think is missing or needs to be explained or expanded? Having someone else read your essay and give you some feedback is case method a great way to improve your writing. In my class, students work in groups to peer edit and I usually try to have at least two people read every essay. If your class does not do that, you can arrange it on your own by having a friend or even your parents look over your essay.
Here is the peer editing worksheet I use in my class. I start by having each writer look at their own paper, and fences essay, then have at least two peer editors answer the case study, questions. Underline: your question, the three positions, your position Wavy underline: author tags and citations. II. Write (at top of draft or on a separate sheet of paper): What is habit best about your paper. Questions you have for case study method, the peer editor. French Editor. What you want them to help you with. I. Read the paper and make marks on the draft about:
grammar and spelling errors what you think is good where they need more support where they need better transitions where they need references, citations or author tags (or any problems with ones they have) where they need more explanation or description. II. On a separate sheet of paper write: Intro : was the case, issue both defined and described? Anything that needs to be added? Was the opening interesting? How could it be improved? Body : How well does the paper examine the rhetorical situation? (exigence [reason for this debate], audience [who is interested in essays this issue], and constraints [situations and case study, attitudes which affect the debate]) Is there any part missing? How can it be improved? Does the paper effectively summarize three different positions and explain what they are?
Who believes them? Why do they believe it? Does the paper give enough evidence for microeconomic term, each position? Conclusion: Does the study method, author respond to the issue and give an interesting perspective? Does the smoking, author need to add anything? Most of the time, students are asked to write argument papers that present a particular point of case method, view and attempt to persuade the audience. Sometimes that makes this writing assignment seem confusing. Here is the difference between this assignment and an argument paper: Argument Essays focus on proving one point of view : An argument or position essay seeks to come to a conclusion and convince the essays psychology, audience which side of the issue is correct. The emphasis in an argument paper is on the side the author wants to prove is best or right, so while the paper may talk about other views, most of the paper is spent proving one point of view. Exploratory essays look at several points of view in method a neutral way.
Rather than trying to of a research paper, solve the problem, this sort of paper explores the case method, different perspectives of the what research, problem and seeks to case study, understand the fences essay, cultural and social context of the issue. It is the sort of paper you would write before writing a solution paper. Method. An exploratory paper is common in businesses when they are attempting to find a solution to habit smoking, a problem and need to get all of the possible perspectives and information available. Exploratory papers help you look at different audiences to help find common ground. This paper also explores the different audiences or groups of people who are concerned about this issue, giving their different viewpoints on the cause, effects, and solutions proposed. In order to do this paper, you may want to narrow the issue you are thinking about so that you can cover the idea more effectively. Exploratory papers should examine at least three points of view : Sometimes there are two sides of an case study issue which are most often expressed and microeconomic, which polarize a debate.
In an exploratory paper, you are asked to method, look beyond the obvious answers in order to find other points of view which can sometimes help in solving the problem. For example, in looking at the issue of what goes of a, illegal immigration, you can examine the conservative and liberal political views, but you can also look at the viewpoint of the illegal immigrants themselves, the viewpoint of the government that the illegal immigrants come from, and the viewpoints of the people who live on both sides of the border where illegal immigrants cross. You might also consider the viewpoint of the border patrol employees. The conclusion of an exploratory paper can give your opinion: You will explore at least three sides of the issue, giving fair treatment to each side. However, in the conclusion of the paper, you will indicate your own position and why you are persuaded in that direction. Whether it is labeled an case exploratory essay or not, you will find this sort of paper in many business and college research papers. The basic point of this paper is to let you examine all the different viewpoints on term, an issue. Here are some examples of exploratory questions: What caused the Civil War in the U.S.? What will happen in the Middle East in the next 10 years after the Arab Spring? How should the U.S. handle illegal immigration?
What should we do with embryos left over from in-vitro fertilization? In a business, an employee might be asked to write an exploratory report about: How do people perceive our product based on different types of advertising? How do people use our product most often? What are the study method, top competing products and what advantages does each have over our product? What are the fences essay, different possible cell phone or Internet service contracts available to case study, us and what are the advantages/disadvantages of each one?
By looking at three or more viewpoints, you can get a better understanding of the different audiences for an issue and better understand how a solution or compromise might be developed. Which Exploratory Essay question is most interesting to you? How to Write a Reading Response Essay with Sample Papers. by Virginia Kearney 26. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper.
by Laura Writes 40. How to Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 21. 100 Easy Causal Analysis Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 10. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays.
by Virginia Kearney 37. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40. Virginia Kearney 10 months ago from United States. Hi Sharon! Welcome back to the classroom. I'm so glad this has helped you. I have over on personality 50 articles on writing here on HubPages that I've written for my own students.
These should be helpful for most college writing classes although you always need to make sure they fit with your particular instructor's assignments. Hope you do very well this semester! This is extremely helpful for me as a student. I've been out of school for quite some time. Case Study. Unfortunately, not all instructors are the same. Thank you for what goes of a paper, sharing your knowledge with us. This is case so helpful, thank you! Susan Baxter 4 years ago from Georgia. This would be useful for my teenagers to essay, use during their essay at school. Thank you.
Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Aubria--thanks for your comment. I do understand that sometimes we need students to be tested for their own ability to write without help. I do that too. However, I know that not all of my students have actually had good instruction on method, the different aspects of various types of essays.
Often the what goes in the abstract of a research paper, instructions in textbooks aren't as clear as they could be. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Thanks so much kerlynb! I've been frustated with many of the books I teach out of because they don't explain how to organize these papers. I certainly was never taught anything about how to put the case, paper together. So after a few years of college teaching, I started analyzing the psychology, essays in my textbooks and also the study, best student essays and microeconomic term paper, came up with my series of method, How to write papers. Microeconomic. I've been amazed how many views they get each day. I'm so glad if I can help students!
kerlynb 5 years ago from Philippines, Southeast Asia, Earth ^_^ Just where were you when I was in HS? This is case method so useful! I mean, many of us writers would need to come up with an exploratory piece every now and then. Have to vote this one up and useful :) Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. Microeconomic Term. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. Case Method. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on habit, this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.
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